Reduced toxics use in communities & environmental health
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Reduced toxics use in communities & environmental health Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Reduced Toxics Use in Communities & Environmental Health P. K. Melethil Zero Waste Alliance – Technical Services Healthy Places, Healthy People Project, awarded to the Josiah Hill Clinic, Portland, Oregon. Funded by an Environmental Protection Agency CARE II Grant.
  • 2. Project Sponsors: Josiah Hill Clinic, Environmental Protection Agency Communities in Action for a Renewed Environment (CARE) PROJECT: Healthy Places, Healthy People GOALS Reduce health risks due to exposure to environmental pollutants, specifically chemicals found in and around homes, by utilizing a community-based collaborative approach. P. K. Melethil ZWA Technical Services
  • 3. Project Sponsors: Josiah Hill Clinic, Environmental Protection Agency OBJECTIVES 1) Reduce toxins found in and around home environments. 2) Educate landlords and property owners about less toxic alternatives for property maintenance. 3) Reduce toxins within N/NE Portland by promoting green alternatives for goods and services. NOTE JHC is also working with residents/tenants along similar lines. P. K. Melethil ZWA Technical Services
  • 4. Project Sponsors: Josiah Hill Clinic, Environmental Protection Agency APPROACH Identify environmentally friendly and less toxic products that affordable housing property managers and owners may use to reduce tenant exposure from toxins and chemical hazards associated with 1. cleaning supplies 2. carpet cleaning 3. pest and rodent control supplies 4. fertilizers and pesticides 5. paints P. K. Melethil ZWA Technical Services
  • 5. Project Sponsors: Josiah Hill Clinic, Environmental Protection Agency ZWA Focus: Objective 2 Educate landlords and property management companies within North/Northeast Portland about less toxic alternatives for property maintenance. NOTE Cost-effectiveness of green options should include externalized costs (i.e., damage to health, commons) that are often neglected. P. K. Melethil ZWA Technical Services
  • 6. Project Sponsors: Josiah Hill Clinic, Environmental Protection Agency Risk = Toxicity x Exposure (x Health Status) : Chronic vs Acute Consider concentrations i.e., levels, amounts & duration Chronic: often low level, but long term exposures i.e., weeks, months, years Acute: high concentrations, often due to an unexpected events e.g. spills, accidents P. K. Melethil ZWA Technical Services
  • 7. Project Sponsors: Josiah Hill Clinic, Environmental Protection Agency Risk= Toxicity x Exposure (x Health Status) Issues to consider Indoor vs Outdoor concentrations indoor concentrations (VOCs) are often higher (LBNL, 2003) Affected Populations: janitors, contractors-workers, residents, pets Variability in Populations: Sensitive groups children, pregnant women, elderly respiratory system (Lung)I ssues- COPD, asthma organ transplant, auto-immune disorders, etc. NOTES Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) definition of “readily biodegradable”, adopted by City of Santa Monica (EPP) P. K. Melethil ZWA Technical Services
  • 8. Project Sponsors: Josiah Hill Clinic, Environmental Protection Agency Indoor Air Quality- VOCs of concern ◊Acrolein (PEL: 0.1 ppm) 106 VOCs reported in existing and new residences and in office buildings ◊Formaldehyde 40 Hazardous or Toxic compounds Aldehydes ◊Acetaldehyde ◊Acetic Acid ◊Benzene ◊ Toluene ◊ Naphthalene ◊Tetrachloroethene P. K. Melethil Volatile Organic Compounds in Indoor Air: A Review of Concentrations Measured in North America Since 1990. ALFRED T. HODGSON, HAL LEVIN LBNL-51715 (April 21, 2003) Aromatics NOTE: Portland area Radon (gas) can be an issue. Chlorinated solvents ZWA Technical Services
  • 9. Project Sponsors: Josiah Hill Clinic, Environmental Protection Agency Precautionary Principle (Principle 15, Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, 1992) "In order to protect the environment, the precautionary approach shall be widely applied by States according to their capabilities. Where there are threats of serious or irreversible damage, lack of full scientific certainty shall not be used as a reason for postponing cost-effective measures to prevent environmental degradation." Why? Many chemical substances in use have not been fully studied with regard to health & environmental impacts. P. K. Melethil ZWA Technical Services
  • 10. Project Sponsors: Josiah Hill Clinic, Environmental Protection Agency Precautionary Principle (contd.) (Principle 15, Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, 1992) Why? Many chemical substances in use have not been fully studied with regard to health & environmental impacts.  Chemicals can “move around” after application  Pesticides/chemicals change after being metabolized by insects or after being exposed to the environment  Unintended environmental & ecological impacts are possible  Persistent and Bioaccumulative Toxins (PBTs)  Endocrine disruptors: effective at low (ppb) levels, like hormones, limited data available  Disposal Costs (usually increase over time) P. K. Melethil ZWA Technical Services
  • 11. Project Sponsors: Josiah Hill Clinic, Environmental Protection Agency Hazardous Materials Identification System HMIS Ratings The National Paint & Coatings Association, Inc. (NPCA) developed the Hazardous Materials Identification System (HMIS®) to aid employers in the implementation of an effective Hazard Communication Program. Now known as the American Coatings Association. 0: Insignificant 1: Slight 2: Moderate 3: High 4: Extreme http://www.paint.org/ OSHA Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) Subpart Z, Toxic and Hazardous Substances, 29 CFR 1910.1200 Employer Guidelines •MSDS info- accurate (current), available •PPE required for use Local Resources: OR-OSHA, Consultation Services http://www.orosha.org/consultation.html P. K. Melethil 3 Parameters listed on product labels and MSDS ◊Health ◊Physical Hazard (Reactivity) ◊Flammability ZWA Technical Services
  • 12. Project Sponsors: Josiah Hill Clinic, Environmental Protection Agency Cleaning Supplies (examples) H 1 SPIC & SPAN Disinfecting Cleaner R 0 F 2 Disinfecting Hard Surface Cleaner 1-4% 0.1-1% 3 0 3 Disinfecting Hard Surface Cleaner 12-25% 1-5% 1 0 0 Liquid Surface Sanitizing Cleaner Ethyl alcohol 2-aminoethanol SPIC & SPAN Disinfecting Cleaner Concentrate Ethyl alcohol 2-aminoethanol COMET-Liquid Disinfecting Bathroom Cleaner Concentrate NOTE: Citric acid (3-7%) listed in 2007, not in 2004 *Cleaning agents (ethanol, butoxypropanol), quaternary, water, colorant and perfume. P. K. Melethil ZWA Technical Services
  • 13. Project Sponsors: Josiah Hill Clinic, Environmental Protection Agency Cleaning Supplies fficacy ost uman (Workers, Residents) exposure ingestion, inhalation, dermal oxicity nvironmental impacts ersistence (Indoor air, Landfills) Training and Procedures for workers (residents) to minimize exposures P. K. Melethil ZWA Technical Services
  • 14. Project Sponsors: Josiah Hill Clinic, Environmental Protection Agency http://www.ewg.org/files/2009/10/school-cleaners/general-purpose.png Product Certifications Green Seal EcoLogo People who work in domestic or industrial cleaning are at higher risk of developing asthma than professional employees in Europe and the United States. Increased risk of asthma has also been associated with some specific job tasks, such as cleaning windows and washing dishes. Cleaning Chemicals and Their Impact on Indoor Environments and Health www.greenguard.org P. K. Melethil ZWA Technical Services
  • 15. Project Sponsors: Josiah Hill Clinic, Environmental Protection Agency Green Cleaning by the Numbers http://www.dep.state.fl.us/green/gc_facts.htm 3,000: the number in tons of paper towels sent to landfills each day. 100: the number of dollars your family could save by replacing paper towels with microfiber cloths or towels. 215,780: the number of exposure cases called into poison centers in 2007 involving household cleaning substances; 118,068 of those calls involved exposure to children age five and under. 100: the number of times higher that indoor air pollution levels can be above outdoor air pollution levels, according to U.S. EPA estimates. 17,000: the number of petrochemicals available for home use, of which only 30 percent have been tested for exposure to human health and the environment. 63: the number of synthetic chemical products found in the average American home, translating to roughly 10 gallons of harmful chemicals. 275: the number of active ingredients in antimicrobials that the EPA classifies as pesticides because they are designed to kill microbes. P. K. Melethil ZWA Technical Services
  • 16. Project Sponsors: Josiah Hill Clinic, Environmental Protection Agency Green Cleaning Products- Criteria (EWG) do not contain ingredients that cause asthma reduce unnecessary use of “antibacterial” agents safer for workers better for the environment do not contain chemicals of concern common in traditional cleaning products: Carcinogens, mutagens, and reproductive toxins Heavy metals- e.g., Pb, Cr(VI), Se 2-Butoxyethanol Phthalates Alkylphenol ethoxylates (APEs) >> alkylphenols, potent hormone-disrupting chemicals EWG : Environmental Working Group P. K. Melethil ZWA Technical Services
  • 17. Project Sponsors: Josiah Hill Clinic, Environmental Protection Agency Environmentally Preferable Purchasing (EPP) http://www.epa.gov/opptintr/epp/index.htm Minimizes exposure to concentrates No ozone depleting substances Recyclable packaging, Reduced packaging Recycled-content in packaging Reduced bio-concentration factor Reduced flammability Reduced or no added dyes, except when added for safety purposes Reduced or no added fragrances Reduced or no skin irritants Reduced or no volatile organic compounds (VOCs) Green Seal Standards GENERAL-PURPOSE, BATHROOM, GLASS, AND CARPET CLEANERS USED FOR HOUSEHOLD PURPOSES (GS-8 Rev.2, 2007) INDUSTRIAL & INSTITUTIONAL CLEANERS (GS-37 Rev.5, 2009) Eco Logo http://www.ecologo.org/en/certifiedgreenproducts/ P. K. Melethil ZWA Technical Services
  • 18. Project Sponsors: Josiah Hill Clinic, Environmental Protection Agency Carpet cleaning (examples) H R F Urine Pre-Treat Plus Proprietary Mix, pH:3.0 T-RUST CS12 2 0 0 Rust Remover 5% 5% 1 0 3 Paint, Ink & Grease Remover Ammonium Hydrogen Fluoride Dipropylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether P.I.G. CS09 Diethylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether Isopropyl Acetate Ethylene Glycol Isopropylamine Alkyl benzenesulfomnate Bio Break CC18 2 Sodium Tripolyphosphate Sodium Carbonate Surfactants (mixed) Sodium Metasilicate D-limonene Diethylene glycol monoethyl ether P. K. Melethil 30-60% 10-30% 10-30% 3-7% 0 0 Powdered Enzyme Prespray 50-60% 14-20% 5-15% 3-7% >3% >3% ZWA Technical Services
  • 19. Project Sponsors: Josiah Hill Clinic, Environmental Protection Agency Carpet cleaning (examples) Microban Disinfectant Spray Plus 2-Propanol dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride Liqua Gel Commercial Sanitizer-Deodorizer 5-10% EWG reports on potential hazards Spot Cleaner 90-95% 1 0 2 1 0 0 Deodorizer 2 0 0 Concentrated carpet detergent D-Limonene Kill Odor Alcohol Ethoxylate Forumula 90 (Powdered, w Biosolv; pH:10-11) Alcohol Ethoxylate Disodium Trioxosilicate Trisodium Nitriloacetate P. K. Melethil Corrosive Carcinogenic, >0.1% ZWA Technical Services
  • 20. Project Sponsors: Josiah Hill Clinic, Environmental Protection Agency Carpet cleaning (concerns, fixes) chemical hazards Children (pets) at risk playing on carpet, eating items off the floor Respiratory hazards Discharges of cleaning wastes to the environment VOCs (e.g., 2-butoxyethanol- hemolytic, in Kill Odor 2009) Phosphates (eutrophication: <0.5%, Green Seal GS-37) Certified Products EcoLogo, Green Seal, Carpet and Rug Institute (CRI) CRI: http://www.carpet-rug.org/ Equipment- performance characteristics (high pickup, vacuum) Technician/Operator training P. K. Melethil ZWA Technical Services
  • 21. Project Sponsors: Josiah Hill Clinic, Environmental Protection Agency Pest and Rodent control (examples) H 1 R 1 F 1 ORTHENE Crack & Crevice® Pressurized Residual Formula 1 1% Acephate 1 1 3 Pressurized pesticide Mother Earth D Pest Control Dust 1 1 0 Diatomaceous Earth, Pest Control Orthene-Acephate (O,S-Dimethyl–acetylphosphoramidothioate) Phantom-chlorfenapyr Organophosphate pesticide 94.5-99.1%, possible carcinogen Insecticide- Bed Bugs 21.45% 7.5% 70.97% Chlorfenapyr Propylene Glycol Other/Inert Prescription Treatment® brand Phantom 0.5 % Chlorfenapyr 1 0 1 Pressurized Insecticide, NFPA codes Cedar Oil 1 0 2 Insect Control 10-20% 30-60% 30-60% 15-40% Cedar Oil Decamethyltetrasiloxane Octamethyltrisioxane Dodecamethylpentasiloxane P. K. Melethil ZWA Technical Services
  • 22. Project Sponsors: Josiah Hill Clinic, Environmental Protection Agency Pest and Rodent control Housing Interventions and Health: A Review of the Evidence (National Center for Healthy Housing, 2009) *** Role of Excess Moisture - favored environment for Bedbugs Cockroaches Ants Dust Mites Mold 2° Health Impacts asthma from fecal pellets, mold spores Orthene- Acephate cholinesterase inhibitor, possible human carcinogen P. K. Melethil ZWA Technical Services
  • 23. Project Sponsors: Josiah Hill Clinic, Environmental Protection Agency EXAMPLE H R F Phantom 1 0 1 Insecticide- Bed Bugs Chlorfenapyr : 21.45% Acute toxicity Green Algae (76h): 132 ppb Rainbow Trout (96 hours, LC50): 7 PPB Aquatic Invert- Daphnia magna (48h, EC50): 6 ppb Duck/mallard: 8.6 ppm •Acutely very toxic to terrestrial organisms •Not readily biodegradable by OECD criteria Uses for pesticides change quickly Reason for Issuance: New Chemical Registration Date Issued: January, 2001 Insecticide Branch , Registration Division (7505C) Office of Pesticide Programs http://www.epa.gov/opprd001/factsheets/chlorfenapyr.pdf (EPA, 2001) Pesticide Registration Comment by EPA, 2001 “Since there are no residential uses of chlorfenapyr, no chronic residential exposure is anticipated.” P. K. Melethil ZWA Technical Services
  • 24. Project Sponsors: Josiah Hill Clinic, Environmental Protection Agency EXAMPLE Maxforce roach gel Fipronil : 0.5% H R F 1 0 1 Termidor 2 0 1 Insecticide – Ants, termites Fipronil : 9.1% NOTES •highly toxic to honeybees (contact) •killed 38.8-94.5% of beneficial predators such as Orius spp. (flower bug) and Geocoris spp. (big-eyed bug) Pesticides change after they are applied and they move around in the environment Fipronil-sulfone, the primary biological metabolite of fipronil, is reported to be twenty times more active at mammalian chloride channels than at insect chloride channels. Fipronil-desulfinyl, the primary environmental metabolite (photoproduct) of fipronil, is 9-10 times more active at the mammalian chloride channel than the parent compound. http://npic.orst.edu/factsheets/fiptech.pdf Fipronil is used to control ants, beetles, cockroaches, fleas, ticks, termites, mole crickets, thrips, rootworms, weevils, and other insects. Fipronil is used in granular turf products, seed treatments, topical pet care products, gel baits, liquid termiticides, and in agriculture. P. K. Melethil ZWA Technical Services
  • 25. Project Sponsors: Josiah Hill Clinic, Environmental Protection Agency Fertilizers and Pesticides (Inorganics, Green Spaces) H 1 21-4-21 Regal Green R 0 F 1 Fertilizer Potassium Sulfate Monoammonium Phosphate Urea Iron Sucrate Potassium Chloride Ammonium Sulfate Calpril Calcium carbonate, CaCO3 Lime Sulfur, Calcium Polysulfide, 29%; Inert, 71% 2 QuickLime Sulfur P. K. Melethil 0 0 fungicide, pesticide 12.90% 23.70% ZWA Technical Services
  • 26. Project Sponsors: Josiah Hill Clinic, Environmental Protection Agency Fertilizers and Pesticides (Organics, Green Spaces) Surflan A.S. (Oryzalin) 2 3,5-Dinitro-N4,-N4-dipropylsulfanilamide Propylene glycol Glycerine 0 0 herbicide 40.4% Total Inerts @ 59.6% Casoron 4G 2 0 3 herbicide 4% Roundup Ultra 1 Glyphosate, N-(phosphonomethyl)Glycine, isopropylamine salt 0 0 Herbicide, Weed Killing Compound, Monsanto pH 4.99, 50% 2,6-dicholorobenzonitrile P. K. Melethil ZWA Technical Services
  • 27. Project Sponsors: Josiah Hill Clinic, Environmental Protection Agency Fertilizers and Pesticides: Concerns & Options (Green Spaces) Potential Impacts Runoffs- Surface Water Impacts Unintended Exposures (residents, wildlife) Define needs Water, Fertilizers, Pesticides(?) Organic supplements/amendments Uses of Beneficial insects ladybugs <> aphids Integrated Pest Management Centers http://www.ipmcenters.org/index.cfm Western IPM Center http://www.wrpmc.ucdavis.edu/ P. K. Melethil Coordinator: Dr. Paul C. Jepson Professor & Director IPPC, Dept of Entomology , OSU Phone: (541) 737-9082 FAX: (541) 737-3643 Email: jepsonp@bcc.orst.edu ZWA Technical Services
  • 28. Project Sponsors: Josiah Hill Clinic, Environmental Protection Agency Herbicides Casoron- 2,6-dicholorobenzonitrile highly toxic- inhalation hazards (0.25 ppm, rat) runoff- toxic to aquatic organisms ( <10 ppm) Roundup (Glyphosate) N-(phosphonomethyl)Glycine, isopropylamine salt runoff- toxic to aquatic organisms ( ~10 ppm) Question Do we really need herbicides/pesticides for small green spaces? Non-toxic options may be available at relatively low cost. P. K. Melethil ZWA Technical Services
  • 29. Project Sponsors: Josiah Hill Clinic, Environmental Protection Agency Paints No clear standards EPA- “Low” VOC (<250 g/L) Low VOC products ( <50 g/L) “Zero” VOC paints ( <5 g/L) Natural/Non-Toxic Paints Recycled paints Metro Paints •Architectural- Outdoor paints •Indoor paints Total VOCs VOCs- Latex paints (1999) ~ 3% (wt) Ethylene glycol Texanol Butoxyethoxyethanol (BEE) Propylene glycol Diethylene glycol Effect of painted surface Steel: drying complete in a few days Gypsum: <50% VOCs released in a year Miller Low VOC paint Kilz Primer P. K. Melethil Indoor Air 9:10-17 (1999) ZWA Technical Services
  • 30. Project Sponsors: Josiah Hill Clinic, Environmental Protection Agency Seashell (cream) Sweet Corn (yellow) Misty (light gray) Sand Dune (beige) Desert (khaki) Storm Cloud (dark gray) Fawn (light brown) Spring (light green) Summer Sky (light blue) Espresso (dark brown) Forest (dark green) Crater Lake (dark blue) Carnation (pink) Barn red (dark red) Mountain Snow (white) P. K. Melethil ZWA Technical Services
  • 31. Project Sponsors: Josiah Hill Clinic, Environmental Protection Agency Green Seal & Master Painters Institute certified Metro premium paint 5 Gal Seashell (cream) $44 Mountain Snow (white) Desert (khaki) Fawn (light brown) Summer Sky (light blue) Barn Red (dark red) 1 Gal $10 Nonprofit organization and government agency discount 5 Gal Crater Lake (dark blue) $39 Sweet Corn (yellow) Sand Dune (beige) Spring (light green) Storm Cloud (dark gray) Espresso (dark brown) Misty (light gray) Forest (dark green Carnation (pink) $34 1 Gal $9 $8 A $5 discount off of the price of a 5-gallon pail (any color or variety) is available to qualifying organizations. P. K. Melethil ZWA Technical Services
  • 32. Project Sponsors: Josiah Hill Clinic, Environmental Protection Agency SUCCESS in green thinking involves ◊ Support from upper management ◊ Implementation of a pilot project ◊ Commitment to the project by key employees/supervisors ◊ Education of staff in face-to-face meetings ◊ Understanding of health benefits by all ◊ Simplified purchasing and reduced storage requirements ◊ Maintenance of the vision of a cleaner environment ◊ Continuous learning- opportunities to improve Buy Local- support Portland businesses see JHC report (Objective 3, Brianna Sherry) listing local suppliers of green products in N/NE Portland. P. K. Melethil ZWA Technical Services
  • 33. Project Sponsors: Josiah Hill Clinic, Environmental Protection Agency Thank you for participating in this project. Please provide feedback. How can we help? Follow-up and Ongoing Support - focused on specific information of interest NOTE: Healthy Places, Healthy People project formally ends on August 10, 2010. FYI Indoor Air Quality Guide: Best Practices for Design, Construction, and Commissioning (ASHRAE, 2009) P. K. Melethil ZWA Technical Services