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Sec1.fa2 disorders of the respiratory system

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Sec1.fa2 disorders of the respiratory system Presentation Transcript

  • 1. DISORDERS OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
  • 2. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
  • 3. THE PROCESS OF BREATHING
  • 4. ASPHYXIA
    • Definition:
    • A condition of severely deficient supply of oxygen to the body that arises from being unable to breathe normally.
    • Leads to:
    • Unconsciousness
    • Respiratory Arrest
    • Cardiac Arrest
  • 5. SPECIFIC CAUSES OF ASPHYXIA
    • Choking
    • Drowning
    • Hanging
    • Strangling
    • Throttling
    • Asthma
    • Hyperventilation
    • Swelling of throat tissues
    • Chest injuries
  • 6. SIGNS & SYMPTOMS OF ASPHYXIA
    • Signs:
    • Air hunger
    • Cyanosis
    • Symptoms:
    • Dyspnea (also known as breathlessness)
  • 7. TREATMENT FOR ASPHYXIA
    • Remove cause
    • Give air
  • 8. CHOKING (CONSCIOUS CASUALTY) Signs & Symptoms:
    • Mild obstruction
    • Casualty able to speak, cough and breathe.
    • Complete obstruction
    • Casualty unable to speak, cough or breathe and may become unconscious.
  • 9. TREATMENT FOR CHOKING (HEIMLICH MANOEUVRE)
    • Ask the casualty: “Are you choking?”
    • If the casualty is breathing, encourage him or her to continue coughing.
    • Remove any obvious obstruction from the mouth.
    • If casualty cannot breathe, start Heimlich Manoeuvre or Chest Thrust immediately.
  • 10.
    • Stand behind the casualty and put your arms around the upper part of his or her abdomen.
    • Ask the casualty to bend forward slightly.
    • Clench your fist and place it (thumb inwards) between the navel and bottom of the breastbone.
    TREATMENT FOR CHOKING (HEIMLICH MANOEUVRE)
  • 11.
    • Grasp your fist with your other hand.
    • Pull sharply inwards and upwards until the obstruction is cleared or the casualty becomes unconscious.
    • After the obstruction is cleared, advise the casualty to see a doctor.
    TREATMENT FOR CHOKING (HEIMLICH MANOEUVRE)
  • 12. TREATMENT FOR CHOKING (CHEST THRUST) This manoeuvre is applied for obese or pregnant casualty.
    • Stand behind the casualty and place your fist (thumb inwards) at 2 fingers breath above the notch of the sternum.
    • Grasp the fist with the other hand and perform backward thrusts.
    • Continue until the obstruction is cleared or the casualty becomes unconscious.
  • 13. DROWNING
    • Death of drowning normally occurs when air cannot get into the lungs.
  • 14. TREATMENT FOR DROWNING
    • Carry casualty away from the water.
    • Lay him on his back.
    • Perform ABC Check.
    • Prepare to resuscitate or perform CPR if necessary.
    • Put casualty in recovery position.
    • Call 995 for an ambulance.
    • Remove wet clothing and protect casualty from cold.
  • 15. HANGING, STRANGLING & THROTTLING Recognition:
    • A constricting article and marks around the neck.
    • Rapid, distressed breathing.
    • Impaired Consciousness.
    • Grey-blue skin.
    • Congestion of the face (prominent veins, tiny red spots on the face or on the white area of the eyes).
  • 16. TREATMENT FOR HANGING, STRANGLING & THROTTLING
    • Quickly remove any constriction.
    • Check for ABC.
    • Prepare to resuscitate or perform CPR if necessary.
    • If breathing is present, put casualty in recovery position.
    • Call 995 for an ambulance.
  • 17. INHALATION OF FUMES Remove casualty from danger before examination.
    • Call 995 for an ambulance and related authority.
    • Protect yourself first before entering the scene.
    • Remove casualty from danger and into fresh air.
  • 18. TREATMENT FOR INHALATION OF FUMES
    • If casualty is unconscious, open airway, check breathing and pulse.
    • Prepare to resuscitate or perform CPR if necessary.
  • 19. BREATHING DIFFICULTIES - HYPERVENTILATION Excessive breathing increases oxygen intake and causes chemical changes that produce the symptoms of the condition.
    • Causes:
    • Excitement
    • Hysteria
    • Other emotions
  • 20. BREATHING DIFFICULTIES - HYPERVENTILATION Recognition:
    • Normal skin colour.
    • Unnaturally fast, deep breathing.
    • Attention seeking behaviour.
    • Dizziness and Faintness
    • Cramps in hands and feet.
  • 21. BREATHING DIFFICULTIES - HYPERVENTILATION Treatment:
    • Firm reassurance.
    • Encourage casualty to take slow, regular breaths.
    • Instruct casualty to breathe in and out of a paper bag until symptoms disappear.
  • 22. BREATHING DIFFICULTIES - ASTHMA Breathing problem resulting from sudden or progressive narrowing of the airway.
    • Causes:
    • Exercise
    • Allergies e.g. pollen
    • Cold air
    • Some drinks
    • Preservatives
    • Anxiety / Emotional Stress
    • Dust
    • Food additives
    • Stress
    • Smoke
  • 23. BREATHING DIFFICULTIES - ASTHMA Recognition:
    • Casualty may be sitting up.
    • Moderate to severe breathing difficulty.
    • Sometimes wheezing.
    • Sometimes coughing.
    • Possibly paleness, sweating, cyanosis of lips, ear lobes and fingertips.
    • May be quiet.
    • Possibly unconscious.
  • 24. BREATHING DIFFICULTIES - ASTHMA Treatment:
    • Help casualty into a comfortable sitting position.
    • Do not make the casualty lie down.
    • Reassure casualty.
    • Help in administering any medications that have been prescribed for the casualty.
  • 25. BREATHING DIFFICULTIES - ASTHMA Treatment:
    • Ensure adequate fresh air.
    • Ask casualty to breathe slowly and deeply.
    • Seek medical aid.
    • If casualty is unconscious, seek medical aid immediately.
    • If casualty stops breathing or becomes unconscious, open airway, check breathing and pulse, and be ready to resuscitate if necessary.
    • Dial 995 for an ambulance.
  • 26. THANK YOU!