Sec1.fa2 disorders of the respiratory system

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Sec1.fa2 disorders of the respiratory system

  1. 1. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
  2. 2. THE PROCESS OF BREATHING
  3. 3. ASPHYXIA Definition: • A condition of severely deficient supply of oxygen to the body that arises from being unable to breathe normally. Leads to: • Unconsciousness • Respiratory Arrest • Cardiac Arrest
  4. 4. SPECIFIC CAUSES OF ASPHYXIA • Choking • Drowning • Hanging • Strangling • Throttling • Asthma • Hyperventilation • Swelling of throat tissues • Chest injuries
  5. 5. SIGNS & SYMPTOMS OF ASPHYXIA Signs: • Air hunger • Cyanosis Symptoms: • Dyspnea (also known as breathlessness)
  6. 6. TREATMENT FOR ASPHYXIA • Remove cause • Give air
  7. 7. CHOKING (CONSCIOUS CASUALTY) Signs & Symptoms: Mild obstruction • Casualty able to speak, cough and breathe. Complete obstruction • Casualty unable to speak, cough or breathe and may become unconscious.
  8. 8. TREATMENT FOR CHOKING (HEIMLICH MANOEUVRE) • Ask the casualty: “Are you choking?” • If the casualty is breathing, encourage him or her to continue coughing. • Remove any obvious obstruction from the mouth. • If casualty cannot breathe, start Heimlich Manoeuvre or Chest Thrust immediately.
  9. 9. • Stand behind the casualty and put your arms around the upper part of his or her abdomen. • Ask the casualty to bend forward slightly. • Clench your fist and place it (thumb inwards) between the navel and bottom of the breastbone. TREATMENT FOR CHOKING (HEIMLICH MANOEUVRE)
  10. 10. • Grasp your fist with your other hand. • Pull sharply inwards and upwards until the obstruction is cleared or the casualty becomes unconscious. • After the obstruction is cleared, advise the casualty to see a doctor. TREATMENT FOR CHOKING (HEIMLICH MANOEUVRE)
  11. 11. TREATMENT FOR CHOKING (CHEST THRUST) This manoeuvre is applied for obese or pregnant casualty. • Stand behind the casualty and place your fist (thumb inwards) at 2 fingers breath above the notch of the sternum. • Grasp the fist with the other hand and perform backward thrusts. • Continue until the obstruction is cleared or the casualty becomes unconscious.
  12. 12. DROWNING • Death of drowning normally occurs when air cannot get into the lungs.
  13. 13. TREATMENT FOR DROWNING • Carry casualty away from the water. • Lay him on his back. • Perform ABC Check. • Prepare to resuscitate or perform CPR if necessary. • Put casualty in recovery position. • Call 995 for an ambulance. • Remove wet clothing and protect casualty from cold.
  14. 14. HANGING, STRANGLING & THROTTLING Recognition: • A constricting article and marks around the neck. • Rapid, distressed breathing. • Impaired Consciousness. • Grey-blue skin. • Congestion of the face (prominent veins, tiny red spots on the face or on the white area of the eyes).
  15. 15. TREATMENT FOR HANGING, STRANGLING & THROTTLING • Quickly remove any constriction. • Check for ABC. • Prepare to resuscitate or perform CPR if necessary. • If breathing is present, put casualty in recovery position. • Call 995 for an ambulance.
  16. 16. INHALATION OF FUMES Remove casualty from danger before examination. • Call 995 for an ambulance and related authority. • Protect yourself first before entering the scene. • Remove casualty from danger and into fresh air.
  17. 17. TREATMENT FOR INHALATION OF FUMES • If casualty is unconscious, open airway, check breathing and pulse. • Prepare to resuscitate or perform CPR if necessary.
  18. 18. BREATHING DIFFICULTIES - HYPERVENTILATION Excessive breathing increases oxygen intake and causes chemical changes that produce the symptoms of the condition. Causes: • Excitement • Hysteria • Other emotions
  19. 19. BREATHING DIFFICULTIES - HYPERVENTILATION Recognition: • Normal skin colour. • Unnaturally fast, deep breathing. • Attention seeking behaviour. • Dizziness and Faintness • Cramps in hands and feet.
  20. 20. BREATHING DIFFICULTIES - HYPERVENTILATION Treatment: • Firm reassurance. • Encourage casualty to take slow, regular breaths. • Instruct casualty to breathe in and out of a paper bag until symptoms disappear.
  21. 21. BREATHING DIFFICULTIES - ASTHMA Breathing problem resulting from sudden or progressive narrowing of the airway. Causes: • Exercise • Allergies e.g. pollen • Cold air • Some drinks • Preservatives • Anxiety / Emotional Stress • Dust • Food additives • Stress • Smoke
  22. 22. BREATHING DIFFICULTIES - ASTHMA Recognition: • Casualty may be sitting up. • Moderate to severe breathing difficulty. • Sometimes wheezing. • Sometimes coughing. • Possibly paleness, sweating, cyanosis of lips, ear lobes and fingertips. • May be quiet. • Possibly unconscious.
  23. 23. BREATHING DIFFICULTIES - ASTHMA Treatment: • Help casualty into a comfortable sitting position. • Do not make the casualty lie down. • Reassure casualty. • Help in administering any medications that have been prescribed for the casualty.
  24. 24. BREATHING DIFFICULTIES - ASTHMA Treatment: • Ensure adequate fresh air. • Ask casualty to breathe slowly and deeply. • Seek medical aid. • If casualty is unconscious, seek medical aid immediately. • If casualty stops breathing or becomes unconscious, open airway, check breathing and pulse, and be ready to resuscitate if necessary. • Dial 995 for an ambulance.

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