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 What is First Aid
 Aims of First Aid
 First Aider
INTRODUCTION
WHAT IS FIRST AID
 Immediate assistance or treatment given
to the injured or ill, before the arrival of an
ambulance, doc...
AIMS OF FIRST AID
 Preserve life.
 Prevent the condition from becoming
worse.
 Promote recovery.
A FIRST AIDER IS…
 Highly trained.
 Examined and regularly re-examined.
 Up-to-date in knowledge and skills.
FIRST AIDER’S RESPONSIBILITIES
 To asses a situation quickly & safely,
and summon appropriate help.
 To protect casualti...
FIRST AIDER’S RESPONSIBILITIES
 To give each casualty early and
appropriate treatment, treating the
most serious conditio...
FIRST AIDER’S RESPONSIBILITIES
 To report your observations to those
taking over care of the casualty, and
to give furthe...
GIVING CARE WITH CONFIDENCE
First Aider can create confidence and
assurance by:
 Being in control, both yourself and the ...
BUILDING UP TRUST
Talk to the casualty throughout your
examination & treatment.
 Explain what you are going to do.
 Try ...
PROTECTING YOURSELF AGAINST
INFECTION
 Always carry protective gloves.
 Cover your own sores or skin wounds with
a water...
PROTECTING YOURSELF AGAINST
INFECTION
 Take care not to prick yourself with any sharp
objects found on or near the casual...
ACTION AT AN EMERGENCY
Effective first aid usually begins before any
direct contact with the casualty.
Remember:
 Control...
FIRST AID PRIORITIES
Assess the situation
 Observe what has happened quickly and calmly.
 Look for dangers to yourself a...
FIRST AID PRIORITIES
Get help
 Call for ambulance immediately after primary
assessment.
Making the call
 Dial 995.
 Give your name and contact number.
 Location of incident.
 The type and gravity of inciden...
THE FIRST AIDER SHOULD…
Preserve life
 Pay strict attention to safety.
 Follow Airway, Breathing, Circulation of
resusci...
THE FIRST AIDER SHOULD…
Limit the effects of the condition
 Make diagnosis after a thorough examination.
 Give priority ...
INITIAL ASSESSMENT
 Quickly perform a brief examination of the
casualty.
 Perform checks before making diagnosis.
 Prep...
INITIAL ASSESSMENT
 Check for consciousness.
 Open airway.
 Check for breathing.
 Check for circulation.
 Check for b...
MAKING A DIAGNOSIS
 The diagnosis is made on the basis of the
history and clues to any medical condition
and signs & symp...
HISTORY
 The full story of how the incident
happened, how the injury was sustained, or
how the illness began and continue...
HISTORY
 When did the casualty last had something
to eat or drink?
 Does the casualty have any illness or is on
any medi...
HISTORY
 The casualty’s age and state of health.
 Establish who the casualty is and where he
or she lives.
 Make a note...
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
 Signs are details of a casualty’s condition
that you can see, feel, hear or smell.
 Symptoms are sen...
LOOKING FOR SIGNS
Apply your senses
 Look for bleeding.
 Discoloration.
 Deformity.
 Feel the strength and rhythm of t...
ASSESSING SYMPTOMS
Ask the casualty if he or she has any
abnormal sensations.
 Is there any pain?
 Where is the pain?
 ...
EXAMINING A CASUALTY
 Expose casualty if necessary.
 Check for any bleeding or signs of life
threatening injuries.
Sec1.fa1 -Principles & Practice of First Aid
Sec1.fa1 -Principles & Practice of First Aid
Sec1.fa1 -Principles & Practice of First Aid
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Transcript of "Sec1.fa1 -Principles & Practice of First Aid"

  1. 1.  What is First Aid  Aims of First Aid  First Aider INTRODUCTION
  2. 2. WHAT IS FIRST AID  Immediate assistance or treatment given to the injured or ill, before the arrival of an ambulance, doctor, or other appropriately qualified person.
  3. 3. AIMS OF FIRST AID  Preserve life.  Prevent the condition from becoming worse.  Promote recovery.
  4. 4. A FIRST AIDER IS…  Highly trained.  Examined and regularly re-examined.  Up-to-date in knowledge and skills.
  5. 5. FIRST AIDER’S RESPONSIBILITIES  To asses a situation quickly & safely, and summon appropriate help.  To protect casualties and others at the scene from possible danger.  To identify, as far as possible, the injury or nature of illness affecting a casualty.
  6. 6. FIRST AIDER’S RESPONSIBILITIES  To give each casualty early and appropriate treatment, treating the most serious conditions first.  To arrange for removal of casualty to hospital, or to his or her home.  To remain with a casualty until appropriate care is available.
  7. 7. FIRST AIDER’S RESPONSIBILITIES  To report your observations to those taking over care of the casualty, and to give further assistance if required.  To prevent cross-infection between yourself and the casualty as much as possible.
  8. 8. GIVING CARE WITH CONFIDENCE First Aider can create confidence and assurance by:  Being in control, both yourself and the situation.  Acting calmly and logically.  Being gentle, but firm with your hands and speaking to the casualty kindly but purposefully.
  9. 9. BUILDING UP TRUST Talk to the casualty throughout your examination & treatment.  Explain what you are going to do.  Try to answer questions honestly to allay fear as much as you can. If you do not know the answer, say so.  Continue to reassure the casualty even when your treatment is complete.  Continue to talk to the casualty and hold his or her hand. Never let the person feel alone.
  10. 10. PROTECTING YOURSELF AGAINST INFECTION  Always carry protective gloves.  Cover your own sores or skin wounds with a waterproof plaster.  Wear a plastic apron when dealing with large amount of the casualty’s body fluid.  Wear plastic glasses to protect your eyes against splashes.
  11. 11. PROTECTING YOURSELF AGAINST INFECTION  Take care not to prick yourself with any sharp objects found on or near the casualty.  If your eyes, nose, mouth or any wound is splashed by the casualty’s blood, wash thoroughly with soap and water and consult a doctor.  Use a mask or face shield for mouth-to-mouth ventilation.  Dispose of blood & waste safely after treating the casualty.
  12. 12. ACTION AT AN EMERGENCY Effective first aid usually begins before any direct contact with the casualty. Remember:  Control your feelings and take a moment to think.  Do not place yourself in danger.  Use your common sense.  Do not attempt too much alone.  Be aware of potential dangers such as gas/petrol.
  13. 13. FIRST AID PRIORITIES Assess the situation  Observe what has happened quickly and calmly.  Look for dangers to yourself and the casualty.  Never put yourself at risk. Make the area safe  Protect the casualty from danger.  Be aware of your limitations.
  14. 14. FIRST AID PRIORITIES Get help  Call for ambulance immediately after primary assessment.
  15. 15. Making the call  Dial 995.  Give your name and contact number.  Location of incident.  The type and gravity of incident.  The number, sex, and approximate ages of the casualties and anything you know about their condition.  Details of any hazards (Gas, chemical, weather) FIRST AID PRIORITIES
  16. 16. THE FIRST AIDER SHOULD… Preserve life  Pay strict attention to safety.  Follow Airway, Breathing, Circulation of resuscitation.  Control any major bleeding.
  17. 17. THE FIRST AIDER SHOULD… Limit the effects of the condition  Make diagnosis after a thorough examination.  Give priority to seriously injured casualties.  Treat multiple injuries in order of priority. Consider the possibility of ‘hidden’ secondary conditions. Promote recovery of the casualty  Relief any discomfort, pain or anxiety.  Arrange for appropriate medical attention.
  18. 18. INITIAL ASSESSMENT  Quickly perform a brief examination of the casualty.  Perform checks before making diagnosis.  Prepare to resuscitate the casualty.  Do not move casualty with suspected head or neck injuries unnecessarily.
  19. 19. INITIAL ASSESSMENT  Check for consciousness.  Open airway.  Check for breathing.  Check for circulation.  Check for bleeding.
  20. 20. MAKING A DIAGNOSIS  The diagnosis is made on the basis of the history and clues to any medical condition and signs & symptoms.
  21. 21. HISTORY  The full story of how the incident happened, how the injury was sustained, or how the illness began and continued, including any previous conditions.
  22. 22. HISTORY  When did the casualty last had something to eat or drink?  Does the casualty have any illness or is on any medication?  The amount of force involved and how was it applied to the body?  The environment – was the casualty in a hot & stuffy/cold room or exposed to wind or rain?
  23. 23. HISTORY  The casualty’s age and state of health.  Establish who the casualty is and where he or she lives.  Make a note of all information, including the time of injury and your examination.
  24. 24. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS  Signs are details of a casualty’s condition that you can see, feel, hear or smell.  Symptoms are sensations that the casualty experiences, and may be able to describe if she is conscious.
  25. 25. LOOKING FOR SIGNS Apply your senses  Look for bleeding.  Discoloration.  Deformity.  Feel the strength and rhythm of the pulse.  Listen to the breathing.  Look for any variation in the alignment of a bone.
  26. 26. ASSESSING SYMPTOMS Ask the casualty if he or she has any abnormal sensations.  Is there any pain?  Where is the pain?  What type of pain?  Any nausea, giddiness, heat, cold, weakness or thirst?  Any other symptoms?
  27. 27. EXAMINING A CASUALTY  Expose casualty if necessary.  Check for any bleeding or signs of life threatening injuries.
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