• Casualty may appear to be confused,
weak and dizzy and may eventually
deteriorate into unconsciousness.
• Pale cold and clammy skin
• Fast, weak pulse
• Fast Shallow breathing
• Dizziness and weakness
• Mental rest
Types of shock
• Hypovolemic /established shock – too
much loss of blood
• Anaphylactic shock- foreign substance
injected into bloodstream (venom)
• Neurogenic shock – damage to the
nervous system that sends impulses to
• Septic shock – bacterial infection causes a
potentially lethal drop in blood pressure
• Internal bleeding can happen in any part of
• Stomach, liver and spleen and intestines
are particularly vulnerable because they
are rich in blood supply.
• Signs and symptoms of shock
• Bleeding from body orifices
• Treat for shock
• Keep the casualty warm
• Treat any external bleeding or bleeding
• Seek for help
• Can be caused by anything.
• Most common triggers are:
• Insect stings and bites
• Difficulty breathing
• Pale skin and blue lips
• Blotches on skin
• Rapid pulse
• Breathing and heartbeat stopping
• Call an ambulance immediately
• Help to administer adrenaline injection if
casualty is a known sufferer.
• If becomes unconscious, place in recovery
• Prepare for CPR if necessary.
• An angina attack is a frightening, severe,
crushing chest pain that acts as a warning
to the casualty to calm down or rest
• Evidence of recent exertion
• Gripping chest pain
• Pain spreading to the jaw or down the left
• Shortness of breath
• Pale skin with possible blue tinges
• Rapid, weak pulse
• Sit the casualty down and reassure her
• GTN (glycerol trinitrate)
• Call the ambulance
• Signs and symptoms generally the same
• May suffer a heart attack from an attack of
• Move the casualty into a semi-sitting
• Reassure the casualty
• Help casualty to administer aspirin (let the
casualty consume it himself)
• Call for ambulance as soon as possible.
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