Treatment1RUNNING HEAD: Treatment          Treatment of the Juvenile Sexual Abuse Victim Turned Sex Offender              ...
Treatment2                                                                          ContentsAbstract ........................
Treatment3                                       AbstractSex offenses committed by juveniles are a serious problem. Juveni...
Treatment4                                            Introduction       Sex offenses committed by juveniles are a serious...
Treatment5wereexcluded. Each article located through the PsycNet, PsycArticles, and ProQuest PsychologyJournals databases ...
Treatment6limited by socioeconomic class, race, ethnicity, religious or cultural affiliation. Moreover, mostsex offenders ...
Treatment7can result in a host of potentially destructive disorders including depression, suicide, addictions,post-traumat...
Treatment8and personal drug abuse, 5) difficulty maintaining close interpersonal relations, 6) isolation frompeers, 7) beh...
Treatment9the effects are not long lasting as with MST. In the Borduin studies, 71.4% of the IT grouprecidivated within fo...
Treatment10that some sexual deviants failed to secure bonds with parents or guardians during childhoodbecause of abuse and...
Treatment11       Intrusive thoughts are not limited to youths with PTSD symptomology. “There iswidespread acknowledgment ...
Treatment12“attachment to the family is the single most important determinant of whether a youth will adjustto conventiona...
Treatment13skills and more motivation (Big Brothers Big Sisters of America, May 7, 2009; Delaney &Milne, 2002). Mentoring ...
Treatment14large-scale study to determine how mentoring effects the lives of juvenile sex offenders in termsof preventing ...
Treatment15                                          ReferencesAlaggia, R. & Millington, G. (2008). Male child sexual abus...
Treatment16       adolescent sexual offenders. International Journal of Offender Therapy and       Comparative Criminology...
Treatment17Center for Sex Offender Management (CSOM).(2008, Dec).Twenty Strategies for       Advancing Sex Offender Manage...
Treatment18Knight, R. & Sims-Knight, J. (2004).Testing an Etiological Model for Male Juvenile       Sexual Offending Again...
Treatment19National Council on Crime and Delinquency. (1990). Mentoring Youth: A Status Report       on Mentor Programs fo...
Treatment20Shaw, J., Campo-Bowen, A., Applegate, B., Perez, D., Antoine, L., Hart, E., Lahley, B., Testa,       R., &Devan...
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Treatment of the Juvenile Sexual Abuse Victim Turned Sex Offender

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Treatment of the Juvenile Sexual Abuse Victim Turned Sex Offender

  1. 1. Treatment1RUNNING HEAD: Treatment Treatment of the Juvenile Sexual Abuse Victim Turned Sex Offender Melanie Cabrera, M.A.
  2. 2. Treatment2 ContentsAbstract ......................................................................................................................................................... 3Introduction ................................................................................................................................................... 4 Data collection methodology .................................................................................................................... 4 Significance of research ............................................................................................................................ 5Offender Characteristics ............................................................................................................................... 5Multisystemic Treatment Model ................................................................................................................... 7Specific Therapeutic Interventions ............................................................................................................... 9 Cognitive behavioral therapy .................................................................................................................... 9 Intrusive thought therapy ........................................................................................................................ 10 Family involvement ................................................................................................................................ 11 Mentoring................................................................................................................................................ 12Recommendations for future research ........................................................................................................ 13Conclusion .................................................................................................................................................. 14References ................................................................................................................................................... 15
  3. 3. Treatment3 AbstractSex offenses committed by juveniles are a serious problem. Juveniles accountedfor almost 13% of all arrests for forcible rape in 2005 (Department of Justice,2006). Moreover, one in two adult sex offenders began maladaptive and abusivesexual behaviors as juveniles (Righthand& Welch, 2001). Put another way,juveniles account for up to 20 – 30 % of all rapes and 30 - 60% of all childmolestations committed each year (Chung, O‟Leary & Hand, 2006; JordanInstitute for Families, 2002; Knight & Sims-Knight, 2004). Studies indicatejuvenile sex offenders are often survivors of physical, emotional and sexualabuse, with over 50% disclosing the abuse during treatment (Calley& Gerber,2008; Patel, Lambic, & Glover, 2008). Thus, they exhibit characteristics similarto other abuse victims. An effective juvenile treatment and recidivism preventionprogram is critical not only in preventing further juvenile sexual offending butalso in preventing future adult sexual offending. Unfortunately, many juvenilesex offender treatment programs have been developed based on knowledge ofadult sex offenders and fails to take into account the unique developmental needsof youth despite evidence that specialized treatment works (Chung, O‟Leary &Hand, 2006; Knight & Sims-Knight, 2004; Righthand& Welch, 2001; Worling&Curwen, 2000). An effective program must take into account the special needs ofjuvenile sex offenders and strengthen the youth mentally, emotionally, andsocially. The following paper discusses characteristics of the victim turned sexoffender,current treatment modalities, and recommendations for future research.
  4. 4. Treatment4 Introduction Sex offenses committed by juveniles are a serious problem. Juveniles accounted foralmost 13% of all arrests for forcible rape in 2005 (Department of Justice, 2006). Moreover, onein two adult sex offenders began maladaptive and abusive sexual behaviors as juveniles(Righthand& Welch, 2001). Put another way, juveniles account for up to 20 – 30 % of all rapesand 30 - 60% of all child molestations committed each year (Chung, O‟Leary & Hand, 2006;Jordan Institute for Families, 2002; Knight & Sims-Knight, 2004). Moreover, one in two adultsex offenders began maladaptive and abusive sexual behaviors as juveniles (Righthand& Welch,2001). Although recidivism rates for juveniles are much lower than their adult counterparts, therates are still far too high at 7% to 13% for those who attend some form of treatment. The rate ofrecidivism for nonsexual offenses is much higher at 25% to 50% (Jordan Institute for Families,2002). Recidivism generally occurs within the first six months following treatment.Data collection methodology For the purpose of comprising this report, the author relied on a document researchmethod, analyzing existing research studies and scholarly articles found through the PsycNet,PsycArticles, and ProQuest Psychology Journals database. “As with all research, theinvestigator must be aware of potential errors or biases in the documents she is using as datasources” (Fitzgerald & Cox, 2002, p.127). The reader is urged to be cognizant that most studiesand articles chosen were originally designed for purposes other than that of this report. As aresult, the author is limited by the original researcher‟s selectivity in choosing their sources. To identify the articles and studies to be used, the author focused on the keywords“juvenile sex offender” and “sexual abuse.” Other keywords included “multisystemictreatment,”“intervention” and “family therapy” Further, any articles written prior to 1990
  5. 5. Treatment5wereexcluded. Each article located through the PsycNet, PsycArticles, and ProQuest PsychologyJournals databases was analyzed for relevancy. Upon further analysis, only those articlesspecifically addressing male juvenile offenders were used. Studies not yet replicated wereexcluded to minimize false inference. Given the dearth of information specifically for malejuvenile sex offender MST treatment, inferences have been made based on available juvenileoffender research.Significance of research The author has chosen to discuss the unique characteristics of the victim turned sexoffender, current treatment modalities, and recommendations for future research. If we look atinstitutionalizedsex offenders, a significant 39% of juvenile sex offenders (Ryan, Miyoshi,Metzner, Krugman& Fryer, 1996) and 76% of serial rapists (McCormack, Rokous, Hazelwood,& Burgess, 1992) are victims of Male Child Sexual Abuse (MCSA). This population requires atreatment modality that addresses both the sexual abuse suffered by the now offender and theoffending behavior.To improve and treatment methods, it is imperative the psychological effectsof the acts on victims are understood. Moreover, adult survivors of child sexual abuse areoverrepresented in correctional facilities and institutions on charges involving sexual offenses.Therefore, to understand the offender and stop the cycle, we must also understand the victim andthe impact child sexual abuse has had on the offender.At present, however, most literaturepertaining to treatment of juvenile sex offenders fail to look at the offender from a victimperspective. Offender Characteristics Most juvenile sex offenders are male; only one in ten offenders are female (JordanInstitute for Families, 2002). Contrary to public perception, juvenile sex offenders are not
  6. 6. Treatment6limited by socioeconomic class, race, ethnicity, religious or cultural affiliation. Moreover, mostsex offenders commit their first sexual offense prior to the age of 15, with many before the ageof 12 (Jordan Institute for Families, 2002). Studies indicate juvenile sex offenders are often survivors of physical, emotional andsexual abuse, with over 50% disclosing the abuse during treatment (Calley& Gerber, 2008; Patel,Lambic, & Glover, 2008). Shaw, Campo-Bowen, Applegate, Perez, Antoine, Hart, Lahley,Testa, andDevaney(1993) report findings that as many as 65% of juvenile sex offenders havehistories of sexual victimization. However, Rich (2003) has noted that being a victim of sexualviolence does not typically lead to future offending, nor is it common. Nonetheless, victims ofprior sexual abuse are overrepresented in the juvenile sex offender population. The juvenile victim-turned-offender exhibits characteristics similar to other abusevictims. According to Alaggia and Millington (2008), distinct themes commonly emerge duringchildhood and adolescence as a result of the male child victims‟ experiences. Many use forms ofdenial to block out the sexual abuse, resulting in repressed memories that may emerge later inlife. They suffer from confusion surrounding their role and responsibility in the abuse,particularly if their body reacted during the acts. Many describe feelings of specialness, a senseof being wanted. As the child ages, however, anger and rage replace the feelings of specialnessand belonging. Self-punitive thinking patterns, stemming from the disruption and distortion of normalsexual development transcends into intimacy and behavior problems throughout the lifespan.“By far the most important element in the profile of an adolescent sex offender is that ofcognitive distortion,” stemming, in part, from the internalization of their abuser‟s belief system(Lakey, 1994, p.757). Failing to acknowledge and correctly treat the victim within the offender
  7. 7. Treatment7can result in a host of potentially destructive disorders including depression, suicide, addictions,post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), stress disorder, anxiety disorders, antisocial personalitydisorder, dissociation, sexual identity disorder, or repeated sexual offending behavior (Alaggia&Millington, 2008; Boeschen, Sales, & Koss, 1998; Brown, Brack, & Mullis, 2008; Lovett, 2007).Fear, anger, and the feeling of helplessness may have been a factor, causing the adolescentvictim to look for ways to regain a sense of control. One victim, who had turned to sexuallyabusing others to mitigate the feeling of helplessness that pervaded his life, describes what ledhim to offend: “The joy of seeing other people hurt, maybe not hurt…It‟s hard to describe. Feeling that I was in control of dominating somebody. I had control over them, and they were below me” (Lisak, 1994, 534). Many adolescents and young adults turn to substance abuse to cope with the shame, self-blame, confusion, and anger they feel. Once study reported that sexually abused boys are morelikely than non-abused boys to report alcohol use by the age of 10, marijuana by the age of 12,and multidrug use through adulthood (Holmes & Slap, 1998).Given the complex factors uniqueto the victim turned offender, treatment programs must be tailored to address the whole person. Multisystemic Treatment Model As Borduin, Cone, Mann, Henggeler, Fucci, Blaske, and Williams (1995) clearlydemonstrate, multisystemic treatment (MST) aids in long-term prevention of criminality andviolence. Multisystemic treatment is action focused and addresses the juvenile‟s interpersonaland systemic factors. Typically, MST is a “time-limited intervention that lasts three to fivemonths” (Stambaugh, Mustillo, Burns, Stephens, Baxter, Edwards, &DeKraai, 2007, p. 144).Through individualized and flexibly tailored treatment, MST addresses known risk factorsprevalent amongst the juvenile sex offender population including 1) high rates of intrafamilialviolence and neglect, 2) intrafamilial conflict, 3) intrafamilial disorganization, 4) intrafamilial
  8. 8. Treatment8and personal drug abuse, 5) difficulty maintaining close interpersonal relations, 6) isolation frompeers, 7) behavioral difficulties, and 8) academic difficulties in school (Borduin, Henggeler,Blaske, & Stein, 1990; Knight & Sims-Knight, 2004; Worling& Curwen, 2000). In both studiesconducted by the Borduin work groups, the researchers attempted to “ameliorate deficits in theadolescents cognitive processes (denial, empathy, distortions), family relations (family cohesion,parental supervision), peer relations (developing age-appropriate peer relations with girls andboys), and school performance” with significant success as compared to adolescents providedwith individual therapy (IT) alone (Borduin et al, 1990, p.109; Borduin et al, 1995). In the firststudy, the MST group had recidivism rates of 12.5% for sexual offenses and 25% for nonsexualoffenses, far below the rates for the IT group at 75% and 50% respectively (Borduin et al, 1990).Moreover, the effects were long lasting. Despite the short time limit, MST appears to be more successful than longer-termtherapies. In a recent study conducted by Stambaugh et al (2007), researchers examined theeffects of MST-only, wraparound services only and MST + wraparound treatment. Wraparoundservice is typically a long-term process for planning and coordinating services within thecommunity, focusing on the family dynamic (Stambaugh et al, 2007). The model attempts toaddress problems in an “ecologically comprehensive” manner (Stambaugh et al, 2007, p. 144).The researchers found that MST groups demonstrative more positive outcomes than any othergroup. In fact, the findings indicate that those who participated in wraparound services stillexperiences a high level of mental health need at the 18-month follow up mark. Individual therapy (IT) generally follows a blended psychodynamic and behavioralmodel. Although there is marked success in using such therapy with adult offenders, it clearlydoes not address the unique factors involved in the development of juvenile offenders. Further,
  9. 9. Treatment9the effects are not long lasting as with MST. In the Borduin studies, 71.4% of the IT grouprecidivated within four years as opposed to only 22.1% of the MST group (Borduin, 1995).Moreover, most of the MST recidivists had committed less serious crimes. Specific Therapeutic Interventions MST appears to be the most promising model under which to treat the juvenile sexoffender as it may be specifically tailored to meet the youth‟s needs while providing youth withthe necessary skills to desist from offending behavior. Various treatment components, such asthose further discussed below, may be added to the treatment plan depending on the needs of theindividual.Cognitive behavioral therapy Currently, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is one of the most used methods of sexoffender treatment as it “addresses offenders‟ thoughts (cognitions) and behaviors” and works todevelop healthier thinking patterns and ways of coping with stressors or emotions (Matson,2002, p. 115; CSOM, 2006, p.3). CBT may be used as a component of the MST model.Numerous studies have found CBT to be an effective component of sex offender treatmentprograms (Chung, O‟Leary & Hand, 2006; CSOM, 2006; Matson, 2002). As Burton (2000,p.38) points out, “children who are known to have sexually inappropriate behaviors before age 6have been found to have more sexual victimization, are more likely to see their inappropriatebehaviors as „normal‟ and have more victims”. Moreover, many sexually aggressive youth areseverely traumatized, necessitating trauma resolution techniques (Burton, 2000). For the survivor of sexual abuse now engaged in sexual offenses, cognitive behavioraltherapy is a viable option. In 1989, W.L. Marshall published his ideas regarding the underlyingintimacy problems and loneliness prevalent amongst sex offenders (Mann, 2004). He explained
  10. 10. Treatment10that some sexual deviants failed to secure bonds with parents or guardians during childhoodbecause of abuse and were thus unable to learn the skills and trust essential in formingmeaningful intimate relationships (Mann, 2004). Such a theory provides an explanation as towhy most sex offenders have “little experience of adult intimate relationships or they haveengaged in relationships that are superficial or volatile” and explains why sex offenders viewsexual activity as an “overly important aspect of intimacy” (Mann, 2004, p.142). It is logical toconclude that victims who sexually offend may exhibit such cognitive/behavioral distortionsregarding the importance of sexual relations – even against another person‟s will – due, in part,to their own victimization. Distortions in cognitive information processing combined withbehavioral flaws due to the lack of parental bonding allow the offender to justify his actions.CBT is essential in such cases as it will aid the offender in recognizing the distortions concerningthe substitution of sexual activity for affection and provide coping strategies to effectively dealwith loneliness and frustration (Mann, 2004). One problem with cognitive behavioral therapy,like most psychological interventions, is that substantial progress takes time to develop.Intrusive thought therapy Treatmentcomponents may resemble the modalities used in the treatment of PTSD. Forthe youth offender who has learned to block images of his traumatic past, the victim should betaught deep relaxation techniques, which allows the victim to use mental imagery to “turn off”the intrusive images or thoughts when they become overwhelming (James, 2008). While intherapy, the offender is also encouraged to explore the deeper meanings of the images orthoughts as the only way to begin the healing process is to confront and conquer the fears behindthe images and come to terms with the reality of the traumatic event. Cognitive behavioraltherapy is also beneficial in restructuring an internal sense of self (Putman, 2009).
  11. 11. Treatment11 Intrusive thoughts are not limited to youths with PTSD symptomology. “There iswidespread acknowledgment that deviant sexual fantasies are associated with deviant sexualbehavior” (Aylwin, Reddon, & Burke, 2005, p. 231). Such deviant fantasies often occurspontaneously during times of negative mood or interpersonal conflict (Aylwin et al, 2005).Masturbation during or immediately following the deviant sexual fantasy reinforces the fantasy,thus increasing the occurrence. As the youth soon learns, masturbation relieves the tensionassociated with the deviant fantasy. However, this type of operant conditioning brings negativeconsequences in that the deviant fantasies may no longer appear deviant to the youth. Instead,they are processed as “feel good” fantasies. Thus, aversive conditioning is needed to transformthe fantasy back into a negative light. In a recent study by Aylwin et al (2005), participants weretaught covert sensitization techniques. As the deviant fantasies began, participants wereinstructed to insert unpleasant thoughts, such an image of insects crawling on his or the victim‟sbody. The researchers found that not only were normal fantasies increased by month four butdeviant fantasies decreased as well. Moreover, the techniques gave the youth a better sense ofcontrol. “This last point helps in correcting a distorted belief many offenders have regardingtheir own deviant thoughts being outside of their own control” (Aylwin et al, 2005, p. 234).Family involvement Incorporating family and community involvement is crucial to the success of a juvenilesex offender treatment program. Family instability, disorganization, and dysfunction areprevalent amongst juvenile sexual offenders (Righthand& Welch, 2001). The father-childrelationship is of particular importance in male offenders (Bronte-Tinkew et al, 2006). Further,according to some researchers, many juvenile offenders were introverted and rejected by theirpeers from an early age (Bartol&Bartol, 2008). According to the interactional theory,
  12. 12. Treatment12“attachment to the family is the single most important determinant of whether a youth will adjustto conventional society and be shielded from delinquency” (Siegel, 2004, 297). Youth withstrong family relationships are more likely to develop conventional beliefs and view school as apositive experience. School failure and negative attitudes toward school are risk factors fordelinquency (Bartol&Bartol, 2008). How the youth relates to family or caregivers correlates with their abilities to relate topeers. In testing his social bond theory, Travis Hirschi found that “youths who were stronglyattached to their parents were less likely to commit criminal acts” (Siegel, 2004, p.230).If youthremain unattached to parents or caregivers, they are more apt to form attachments with otherdeviant peers, who will further reinforce anti-social behavior. Such weak bonds, which lead toassociation with deviant peers and delinquency, further weakens bonds and makes it difficult toreestablish conventional values. Strengthening the bonds to family and community providesyouth with the support system needed to resist further offenses.Mentoring By establishing a mentoring program youth using volunteers from within the community,at-risk youths will be given the opportunity to form a bond with a positive role model and aid inacademic success, thus acting as a shield to prevent delinquency, sex offenses included. Keepingin mind that MST is a short-term clinical intervention, mentoring provides a bridge towardsreinforcement of skills and positive long-term outcomes.Youths who achieve academic successare generally less likely to offend. It is well established that mentoring strengthens youthsocially and emotionally (Big Brothers Big Sisters of America, 2009). Moreover, “long-termmentoring matches that are monitored and supported yield stronger results” such as reducedoffending, increased community involvement, improved self-esteem, improved communication
  13. 13. Treatment13skills and more motivation (Big Brothers Big Sisters of America, May 7, 2009; Delaney &Milne, 2002). Mentoring is effective for both youths at risk and youths currently involved in thecriminal justice system. In a study of over 500 juvenile offenders participating in mentoringprograms, 80% completed their probationary term without recidivating (National Council onCrime and Delinquency, 1990). A study of delinquent youth involved with a Coloradomentoring program showed a 65-75% decrease in recidivism (Becker, 1994). Juvenile offendersin a Michigan mentoring program also showed reduced rates of recidivism (Becker, 1994). Recommendations for future research Despite the recent focus on juvenile offenders, particularly on risk factors fordelinquency and recidivism, empirically tested treatment and prevention measures for juvenilesex offenders is sparse. Preventative programs tend to involve school-based curriculum aimed atyoung people in high school and college despite growing evidence that many offenders commitacts before age 15 and children as young as three or four may exhibit sexually aggressivebehavior (Chung, O‟Leary & Hand, 2006). Further, not many studies focus on multisystemictreatment of this population and how various components work together to create an effectivetreatment module. Thus, researchers are forced to infer how a particular component may work inconjunction with other methods. It is clear that juveniles require a whole-person approach butmore research is needed to determine overall effectiveness. Mentoring certainly fills a void in many juvenile‟s lives, particularly those who do nothave strong familial support systems. Unfortunately, research indicating the effectiveness foroffenders is sparse. Moreover, research specifically pertaining to the effectiveness for juvenilesex offenders is virtually non-existent. Therefore, it would be wise to devise a properly designed
  14. 14. Treatment14large-scale study to determine how mentoring effects the lives of juvenile sex offenders in termsof preventing recidivism. Conclusion An effective juvenile treatment and recidivism prevention program is critical not only inpreventing further juvenile sexual offending but also in preventing future adult sexual offending.Unfortunately, many juvenile sex offender treatment programs have been developed based onknowledge of adult sex offenders and fails to take into account the unique developmental needsof youth despite evidence that specialized treatment works (Chung, et al, 2006; Knight & Sims-Knight, 2004; Righthand& Welch, 2001; Worling& Curwen, 2000). An effective program musttake into account the special needs of juvenile sex offenders and strengthen the youth mentally,emotionally, and socially. Numerous studies have shown that “delinquency is linked directly orindirectly with key characteristics of youths and the family, peer, school and neighborhoodsystems in which youths are embedded”, juvenile sex offenders included (Borduin et al, 1995,p.570). Multisystemic treatment appears to offer the most promise in that it provides flexibilityto address the youth‟s own victimization as well as the offending behaviors. Ultimately, anytreatment program must be specifically tailored to address the victim within the offender.
  15. 15. Treatment15 ReferencesAlaggia, R. & Millington, G. (2008). Male child sexual abuse: A phenomenology of betrayal. Clinical Social Work Journal.36(3), 265-275. Retrieved November 3, 2009 from PsycNet database.Aywin, A., Reddon, J., & Burke, A. (2005). Sexual fantasies of adolescent male sex offenders in residential treatment: A descriptive study. Archives of Sexual Behavior.34(2), 231-239. Retrieved November 18, 2009 from PsycNet.Bartol, C. &Bartol, A. (2008). Criminal Behavior: A Psychosocial Approach. (8thed). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.Becker, J. (1994). Mentoring High Risk Kids.Retrieved November 11, 2009 from PsycNet.Big Brothers Big Sisters of America.(2009). Our Impact. Retrieved November 11, 2009 from http://www.bbbs.org/site/c.diJKKYPLJvH/b.1632631/k.3195/Our_Impact.htmBig Brothers Big Sisters of America. (May 7, 2009). Children supported by parents, guardians or caring adult more likely to be hopeful about school and life. News Story Headlines. Retrieved November 11, 2009 from http://www.bbbs.org/site/apps/nlnet/content2.aspx?c=diJKKYPLJvH&b=1728011&conte nt_id={C7E169D2-5E32-48E9-933C-00509BC398A6}&notoc=1Boeschen, L, Sales, B., Koss, M. (1998).Rape trauma experts in the courtroom. Psychology, Public Policy and Law, 4(1-2), 414-432. Retrieved November 7, 2009 from PsycNet database.Borduin, C., Henggeler, S, Blaske, D, & Stein, R. (1990). Multisystemic treatment of
  16. 16. Treatment16 adolescent sexual offenders. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology.3(1), 105-113. Retrieved November 4, 2009 from http://mstpsb.com/Documents/IJOTCC%20JSO%20Trial%201990.pdfBorduin, C., Cone, L., Mann, B., Henggeler, S., Fucci, B., Blaske, D. & Williams, R. (1995). Multisystemic treatment of serious juvenile offenders: Long-term prevention of criminality and violence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology.63(4), 569-578. Retrieved November 4, 2009 from PsycNet.Bronte-Tinkew, J., Moore, K., &Carrano, J. (2006). The father-child relationship, parenting styles, and adolescent risk behaviors in intact families. Journal of Family Issues. Retrieved November 5, 2009 from http://jfi.sagepub.comBrown, S., Brack, G., & Mullis, F. (Aug. 2008). Traumatic symptoms in sexually abused children: Implications for school counselors. Professional School Counseling.11(6), 368-379. November 7, 2009 from ProQuest Psychology Journals.Burton, D. (2000). Were adolescent sexual offenders children with sexual behavior problems? Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment. 12(1), 37-48. Retrieved November 5, 2009 fromPsycNet.Burton, D. (2003). Male adolescents: Sexual victimization and subsequent sexual abuse. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal.20(4), 277-296. Retrieved November 5, 2009 from PsycNet.Calley, N. & Gerber, S. (2008). Empathy-promoting counseling strategies for juvenile sex offenders: A developmental approach. Journal of Addictions and Offender Counseling.28(2), 68-85. Retrieved November 6, 2009 from ProQuest Psychology Journals.
  17. 17. Treatment17Center for Sex Offender Management (CSOM).(2008, Dec).Twenty Strategies for Advancing Sex Offender Management in your Jurisdiction. Silver Spring, MD: CSOMCenter for Sex Offender Management (CSOM). (2006, Nov) Understanding Treatment for Adults and Juveniles Who Have Committed Sex Offenses. Silver Spring, MD: CSOMChung, D., O‟Leary, P.J., & Hand, T. (2006). Sexual violence offenders: Prevention and intervention approaches. Australian Centre of the Study of Sexual Abuse.Retrieved November 5, 2009 from PsycNet.Delaney, M. & Milne, C. (2002). Mentoring for Young Offenders: Results from an Evaluation of a Pilot Program.Retrieved November 11, 2009 from http://www.aic.gov.au/conferences/crimpre/delaney.pdfDepartment of Justice.(2006). Table 32.Crime in the United States 2005. Retrieved November 4, 2009 from http://www.fbi.gov/ucr/05cius/data/table_32.htmlFitzgerald, J. & Cox, S.(2002). Research Methods and Statistics in Criminal Justice. (3rded). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth ThomsonHolmes, W & Slap, G. (1998). Sexual abuse of boys: Definition, prevalence, correlates, sequelae and management. Journal of the American Medical Association.280(21), 1855- 1862. Retrieved November 5, 2009 from http://www.jimhopper.com/pdfs/Holmes_&_Slap_1998.pdfJames, Richard. (2008). Crisis Intervention Strategies. (6thed). Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole.Jordan Institute for Families. (2002). Understanding juvenile sex offenders. Children’s Services Practice Notes. 7(2). Retrieved November 5, 2009 from www.practicenotes.org/vol7_no2/understand_jso.htm
  18. 18. Treatment18Knight, R. & Sims-Knight, J. (2004).Testing an Etiological Model for Male Juvenile Sexual Offending Against Females. Retrieved November 5, 2009 from www.psy.umass.edu/psy506/readings/Knight_Sims-Knight_2004.pdfLakey, J. (1994).The profile and treatment of male adolescent sex offenders.Adolescence. 29(116), 755-761. Retrieved November 7, 2009 from Research Library Core database.Lisak, David. (1994). The psychological impact of sexual abuse: Content analysis of interviews with male survivors. Journal of Traumatic Stress.7(4), 525-546. Retrieved November 5, 2009 from http://www.jimhopper.com/pdfs/Lisak_ (1994)_Male_Survivor_Interviews.pdfLovett, Beverly. (2007). Sexual abuse in the preschool years: Blending ideas from Object Relations Theory, Ego Psychology, and Biology. Child Adolescence Social Work Journal.24, 579-589. Retrieved November 6, 2009 from ProQuest Psychology Journals.Mann, Ruth. (2004). Innovations in sex offender treatment.Journal of Sexual Aggression, 6(2), 141-152. Retrieved November 7, 2009 from ProQuest Criminal Justice DatabaseMatson, Scott. (2002). Sex Offender Treatment: A Critical Management Tool. Corrections Today. October 2002. 114-117. Retrieved November 5, 2009 from PsycNet.McCormack, A., Rokous, I., Hazelwood, R., &Burgess, A. (1992). An exploration of incest in the childhood development of serial rapists. Journal of Family Violence.7(3), 219-228, Retrieved November 10, 2009from PsycNet.Melton, G., Petrila, J., Poythress, N., &Slobogin, C. (2007).Psychological Evaluations for the Courts: A Handbook for Mental Health Professionals and Lawyers. New York, NY: Guilford Press
  19. 19. Treatment19National Council on Crime and Delinquency. (1990). Mentoring Youth: A Status Report on Mentor Programs for Juvenile Delinquents. San Francisco, CA:Patel, S., Lambic, G., & Glover, M. (2008). Motivational counseling: Implications for counseling male juvenile sex offenders. Journal of Addictions and Offender Counseling.28(2), 86-100. Retrieved November 6, 2009 from ProQuest Psychology JournalsPutman, Stacie. (2009). The monsters in my head: Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and the child survivor of sexual abuse. Journal of Counseling and Development.87(1), 80 – 89. Retrieved September 14, 2009 from PsycNet database.Read, N. (2006). NDTAC Issue Brief: Mentoring Youth Who Are Delinquent or High Risk.Retrieved November 11, 2009 from www.neglected-delinquent.orgRich, P. (2003). Understanding, Assessing, and Rehabilitating Juvenile Sexual Offenders. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley & Sons, Inc.Righthand, S. & Welch, C. (2001). Juveniles Who Have Sexually Offended: A Review of the Professional Literature. Washington, DC: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.Ryan, G., Miyoshi, T.J., Metzner, J.L., Krugman, R.D., & Fryer, G.E. (1996). Trends in a national sample of sexually abusive youths. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.35, 17-25. Retrieved November 10, 2009 from PsycNet.Salter, Anna. (1995). Transforming Trauma: A Guide to Understanding and Treating Adult Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage PublishingSiegel, Larry J. (2004). Criminology: Theories, Patterns, and Typologies. (8thed.) Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth
  20. 20. Treatment20Shaw, J., Campo-Bowen, A., Applegate, B., Perez, D., Antoine, L., Hart, E., Lahley, B., Testa, R., &Devaney, A. (1993). Young boys who commit serious sexual offenses: Demographics, psychometrics, and phenomenology. Bulletin of the Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.21, 399-408. Retrieved November 13, 2009 from PsycNet.Stambaugh, L., Mustillo, S., Burns, B., Stephens, R., Baxter, B., Edwards, D., &DeKraai, M. (2007). Outcomes from wraparound and multisystemic therapy in a center for mental health services system-of-care demonstration site.Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders.15(3), 143 – 155. Retrieved December 3, 2009 from PsycNet.Worling, J. & Curwen, T. (2000). Adolescent sexual offender recidivism: Success of specialized treatment and implications for risk prediction. Child Abuse and Neglect.24(7), 965-982. Retrieved November 5, 2009 from PsycNet.

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