Designing	  for	  the	  Innova0on	  Genera0on Lessons	  from	  the	  Planning	  and	  Design	  of	  Crea4ve	  Learning	  a...
AGENDA                INTRODUCTIONWHO, WHAT, WHY OF INNOVATION?       TRENDS + SPACES: WORK   TRENDS + SPACES: LEARNING   ...
WHO, WHAT, WHY OF INNOVATION?                          3
my education…yours?
Content   Skills
Data miners, interpreters, actors.Discipline spanners.Emotional experts.Global citizens.Box breakers.Creative thinkerswho ...
What is Innovation?Merriam WebsterMain Entry: in•no•va•tionPronunciation: "i-n&-vA-sh&nFunction: noun1 : the introduction ...
What is Innovation?Curtis Carlson & William Wilmot(authors: Innovation: The FiveDisciplines for Creating What CustomersWan...
What is Innovation?John Kao(author: Innovation Nation)“Capability at someorganizational level thatallows the achievement o...
12
14
Survey of 1,500 CEO’s:“identify creativity as the numberone leadership competency ofthe successful enterprise of thefuture...
“84% of respondents said theircompany considers innovation animportant or extremely importantlever in its ability to reap ...
Boston Consulting Group w/ Business Week50 most innovative companies               Taiwan                                 ...
Innovation for Development Report 2010-2011Innovation Capacity Index (ranking 2009-2010)   Innovation Capacity Index (rank...
“Building capacity to create andinnovate in our students iscentral to guaranteeing thenation’s competitiveness.”Reinvestin...
Of 65 countries taking PISA 2009 the U.S. ranked:      17th in Reading      23rd in Science      31st in Math             ...
“...put a man on the moon andreturn him safely by the end of thedecade”John F. Kennedy
"This is our generations Sputnikmoment...we need to out-innovate,out-educate and out-build the restof the world."Barack Ob...
“When you step into an intersectionof fields, disciplines, or cultures, youcan combine existing concepts in toa large numb...
 “Disciplinary science is dead . . .most major advancements involvemultiple disciplines”Alan Leshner, CEOAmerican Associat...
INDIVIDUAL                NETWORK              MARKET                                                    1                ...
Quadrant 1   Quadrant 4Archimedes                     Drawing	  en4tled	  "Café	  Manoury”,	  Paris
INDIVIDUAL                                              NETWORKMARKET                                                   1 ...
DESIGN                     DESIGN       ENGINEERENGINEER                      MAKE         SELLMAKE           “Innovation ...
Evolution to creativity                                              From A Whole New Mind, Daniel Pinktechnology, globali...
INNOVATION               CULTURE         OBJECT      PROCESSSPACE BOTH IS A REFLECTION OF INNOVATION        AND A FACILITA...
WHO, WHAT, WHY + SPACES: WORK       TRENDS OF INNOVATION?                          32
Trends in Workplace   Integration     Recruitment &      Technology       Sustainability          Brand                   ...
TRENDS IN THE WORKPLACEIntegration                          Trend 1: Integration of business suppor                       ...
TRENDS IN THE WORKPLACE    Technology                               Trend 3:                               Investment in T...
TRENDS IN THE WORKPLACEBrand Integration
TRENDS IN THE WORKPLACECollaboration & Socialization                                        Trend 6: Investment in        ...
Impromptu Meetings:Effective communication is categorized in three ways:   1. for coordination   2. for information sharin...
Collaborative work:Communication reached its lowest point after the first 75 to 90  feet; it drops off dramatically after ...
WHO, WHAT, WHY OF INNOVATION?                SPACES: WORK                          40
WHO IS IDEO?Founded in 1991, IDEO* is an innovation and design firm that uses ahuman-centered, design-based approach to he...
PRODUCT	  DESIGN                         PRODUCT	  INNOVATION	  	  	  	  INTERACTIVE	  	  	       	  	  	  	  SERVICE	  DE...
43
SITE CRITERIACRITERIA EMERGED DURINGSEARCH•   Engage Chicago Design Community    Expansive definition design    community•...
TRANSPORTATION AND WALK TIMES                                © 	   2 0 1 1 	   P E R K I N S + W I L L / I D E O
CRITERIA REFINEDAdded “Must Haves”:   – Private rooftop   – Cooking with gas   – Support bike culture   – Advance sustaina...
626 W. Jackson Blvd.                       © 	   2 0 1 1 	   P E R K I N S + W I L L / I D E O
PART 2: CAPTURING                 THE IDEO CULTURE  STORYTELLING IS AN IMPORTANT ASPECT OF THE IDEO METHOD.   IDEO SPACES ...
KEY VALUESStudio CultureBalance of Public and Private SpaceOpenness, TransparencyEffective Project SpacesAvoid 1% Thinking...
© 	   2 0 1 1 	   P E R K I N S + W I L L / I D E O
ACTIVITIES FRAMEWORK                                                   focused              writing                       ...
DESIGN DRIVERS           ENGINEERING    =   SHOP                DESIGN    =   PROJECT SPACE             RESEARCH     =   F...
TRADEOFFS…             © 	   2 0 1 1 	   P E R K I N S + W I L L / I D E O
PART 3: DESIGNING               FOR THE IDEO CULTURE  THE NEW SPACE SHOULD ENCOURAGE THE LIFE OF THE STUDIO TO  FLOURISH. ...
build on the ideas of otherscollective intelligence studio culture                  stimulate the interstitial            ...
PROJECT ROOMS                                              open  “back porch”                                             ...
IDEO     DESIGN PROCESS               focused7th Floor                8th Floor                                     freeth...
© 	   2 0 1 1 	   P E R K I N S + W I L L / I D E O
PART 4: BUILDING          FOR THE IDEO CULTUREWE WANT UNINTENTED IDEAS AND ACCIDENTS            TO TAKE PLACE.            ...
© 	   2 0 1 1 	   P E R K I N S + W I L L / I D E O
© 	   2 0 1 1 	   P E R K I N S + W I L L / I D E O
© 	   2 0 1 1 	   P E R K I N S + W I L L / I D E O
© 	   2 0 1 1 	   P E R K I N S + W I L L / I D E O
© 	   2 0 1 1 	   P E R K I N S + W I L L / I D E O
© 	   2 0 1 1 	   P E R K I N S + W I L L / I D E O
© 	   2 0 1 1 	   P E R K I N S + W I L L / I D E O
PART 5: CELEBRATING              THE IDEO CULTURE       IT SHOULD NOT BE TOO PRESCRIPTIVE,ALLOWS STUDIO LIFE TO BREATHE, G...
© 	   2 0 1 1 	   P E R K I N S + W I L L / I D E O
© 	   2 0 1 1 	   P E R K I N S + W I L L / I D E O
© 	   2 0 1 1 	   P E R K I N S + W I L L / I D E O
© 	   2 0 1 1 	   P E R K I N S + W I L L / I D E O
© 	   2 0 1 1 	   P E R K I N S + W I L L / I D E O
© 	   2 0 1 1 	   P E R K I N S + W I L L / I D E O
© 	   2 0 1 1 	   P E R K I N S + W I L L / I D E O
TRENDS + SPACES: LEARNING
INNOVATION               CULTURE         OBJECT      PROCESSSPACE BOTH IS A REFLECTION OF INNOVATION        AND A FACILITA...
BLUE VALLEY SCHOOLSCENTER FOR ADVANCED PROFESSIONAL STUDIES2011Design CitationNational School BoardsAssociation2011Gold Aw...
PROCESS                                                           2009/2010:                                              ...
PROCESS   Johnson Community College Survey
Bioscience Brochure
PROCESSBioscience   Business             Engineering   Human Services
Visual Listening
“   Every decision we made had toanswer the question...Does this look  like a high school? Would you see      this in a hi...
Building Diagram                      STRAND               Flexible Teaching Spaces                Learning               ...
BVCAPS | Program•   State of the Art    Strands                   STEM•   Interstitial Innovation    Areas for collaborati...
CULTURE
OBJECT
CAPS Student Produced Video – What is Innovation
105
chance favors               “              the connected mind.”Source:	  Johnson,	  Steven.	  Ted	  Talk.
CEFPI Midwest: Steve Turckes/Joe Connell
CEFPI Midwest: Steve Turckes/Joe Connell
CEFPI Midwest: Steve Turckes/Joe Connell
CEFPI Midwest: Steve Turckes/Joe Connell
CEFPI Midwest: Steve Turckes/Joe Connell
CEFPI Midwest: Steve Turckes/Joe Connell
CEFPI Midwest: Steve Turckes/Joe Connell
CEFPI Midwest: Steve Turckes/Joe Connell
CEFPI Midwest: Steve Turckes/Joe Connell
CEFPI Midwest: Steve Turckes/Joe Connell
CEFPI Midwest: Steve Turckes/Joe Connell
CEFPI Midwest: Steve Turckes/Joe Connell
CEFPI Midwest: Steve Turckes/Joe Connell
CEFPI Midwest: Steve Turckes/Joe Connell
CEFPI Midwest: Steve Turckes/Joe Connell
CEFPI Midwest: Steve Turckes/Joe Connell
CEFPI Midwest: Steve Turckes/Joe Connell
CEFPI Midwest: Steve Turckes/Joe Connell
CEFPI Midwest: Steve Turckes/Joe Connell
CEFPI Midwest: Steve Turckes/Joe Connell
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

CEFPI Midwest: Steve Turckes/Joe Connell

1,011

Published on

Published in: Business, Technology
0 Comments
3 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,011
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
3
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

CEFPI Midwest: Steve Turckes/Joe Connell

  1. 1. Designing  for  the  Innova0on  Genera0on Lessons  from  the  Planning  and  Design  of  Crea4ve  Learning  and  Work  EnvironmentsSteven  Turckes,  AIA,  REFP,  LEED  AP Joseph  Connell,  AISC,  LEED  APPrincipal PrincipalPerkins+Will Perkins+Will
  2. 2. AGENDA INTRODUCTIONWHO, WHAT, WHY OF INNOVATION? TRENDS + SPACES: WORK TRENDS + SPACES: LEARNING FACILITY IMPLICATIONS LOOKING FORWARD WITH YOU
  3. 3. WHO, WHAT, WHY OF INNOVATION? 3
  4. 4. my education…yours?
  5. 5. Content Skills
  6. 6. Data miners, interpreters, actors.Discipline spanners.Emotional experts.Global citizens.Box breakers.Creative thinkerswho accelerate innovation.
  7. 7. What is Innovation?Merriam WebsterMain Entry: in•no•va•tionPronunciation: "i-n&-vA-sh&nFunction: noun1 : the introduction ofsomething new OBJECT2 : a new idea, method ordevice
  8. 8. What is Innovation?Curtis Carlson & William Wilmot(authors: Innovation: The FiveDisciplines for Creating What CustomersWant)“Is the process of creatingand delivering new customer PROCESSvalue in the marketplace”
  9. 9. What is Innovation?John Kao(author: Innovation Nation)“Capability at someorganizational level thatallows the achievement of CULTUREsome desired future state”
  10. 10. 12
  11. 11. 14
  12. 12. Survey of 1,500 CEO’s:“identify creativity as the numberone leadership competency ofthe successful enterprise of thefuture”Source: IBM, Global CEO Study, 2010.
  13. 13. “84% of respondents said theircompany considers innovation animportant or extremely importantlever in its ability to reap the benefitsof an economic recovery.”7th annual global survey of senior executives on their innovation practicesBoston Consulting Group w/ Business Week
  14. 14. Boston Consulting Group w/ Business Week50 most innovative companies Taiwan Top Five Switzerland 1.  Apple Spain 2.  Google Italy 3.  Microsoft Finland 4.  IBM Canada 5.  Toyota Brazil India South  Korea But...6 of 7 new Germany companies on United  Kingdom China the list hail from #  companies outside the U.S. Japan United  States (think BIC) 0 8 15 23 30
  15. 15. Innovation for Development Report 2010-2011Innovation Capacity Index (ranking 2009-2010) Innovation Capacity Index (ranking 2010-2011)
  16. 16. “Building capacity to create andinnovate in our students iscentral to guaranteeing thenation’s competitiveness.”Reinvesting in Arts Education: Winning America’s Future Through Creative SchoolsPresident’s Committee on the Arts and the Humanities (PCAH), 2011
  17. 17. Of 65 countries taking PISA 2009 the U.S. ranked: 17th in Reading 23rd in Science 31st in Math Source: IBM, Global CEO Study, 2010.
  18. 18. “...put a man on the moon andreturn him safely by the end of thedecade”John F. Kennedy
  19. 19. "This is our generations Sputnikmoment...we need to out-innovate,out-educate and out-build the restof the world."Barack Obama 23
  20. 20. “When you step into an intersectionof fields, disciplines, or cultures, youcan combine existing concepts in toa large number of extraordinary newones”
  21. 21.  “Disciplinary science is dead . . .most major advancements involvemultiple disciplines”Alan Leshner, CEOAmerican Association for theAdvancement of Science
  22. 22. INDIVIDUAL NETWORK MARKET 1 2 MARKET/INDIVIDUAL MARKET/NETWORK NON-­‐MARKET/INDIVIDUAL NON-­‐MARKET/NETWORK NON-­‐ MARKET 3 4Source: Johnson, Steven. Where Good Ideas Come From: TheNatural History of Innovation. New York: Riverhead Books, 2010.
  23. 23. Quadrant 1 Quadrant 4Archimedes Drawing  en4tled  "Café  Manoury”,  Paris
  24. 24. INDIVIDUAL NETWORKMARKET 1 2 MARKET/INDIVIDUAL MARKET/NETWORK NON-­‐MARKET/INDIVIDUAL NON-­‐MARKET/NETWORK NON-­‐ MARKET 3 4Source:  Johnson,  Steven.  Where  Good  Ideas  Come  From:  The  Natural  History  of  Innova;on.  New  York:  Riverhead  Books,  2010.
  25. 25. DESIGN DESIGN ENGINEERENGINEER MAKE SELLMAKE “Innovation has nothing to do with how many R&D dollars you have... Its not about money. Its about the people you have, howSELL youre led, and how much you get it.” Steve Jobs
  26. 26. Evolution to creativity From A Whole New Mind, Daniel Pinktechnology, globalizationIncreasing affluence, Conceptual Age creators and empathizers Information Age knowledge worker Industrial Age factory worker Agriculture Age farmer 18th Century 19th Century 20th Century 21st Century Abundance, Asia, Automation
  27. 27. INNOVATION CULTURE OBJECT PROCESSSPACE BOTH IS A REFLECTION OF INNOVATION AND A FACILITATOR OF IT.
  28. 28. WHO, WHAT, WHY + SPACES: WORK TRENDS OF INNOVATION? 32
  29. 29. Trends in Workplace Integration Recruitment & Technology Sustainability Brand Retention Collaboration & Hospitality Work/Life Balance Employee Spatial Efficiencies & Socialization Stakeholding Economies
  30. 30. TRENDS IN THE WORKPLACEIntegration Trend 1: Integration of business suppor partners with core business: Real Estate Operations, Information Technology Services & HR Integration provides opportunities for performance improvements and cost saves
  31. 31. TRENDS IN THE WORKPLACE Technology Trend 3: Investment in Technology that supports collaboration. Social media and networks add value. How do you integrate it?Perkins+Will New York Office
  32. 32. TRENDS IN THE WORKPLACEBrand Integration
  33. 33. TRENDS IN THE WORKPLACECollaboration & Socialization Trend 6: Investment in Collaboration & Socialization Social networks Social networks benefit billability benefit on-boarding
  34. 34. Impromptu Meetings:Effective communication is categorized in three ways: 1. for coordination 2. for information sharing 3. for inspiration “For inspiration it is usually spontaneous and occurs between people drawn from different disciplines. What encourages this? Being close and being visible.” (T. Allen, 2004)
  35. 35. Collaborative work:Communication reached its lowest point after the first 75 to 90 feet; it drops off dramatically after about 90 feet. (T. Allen, MIT Sloan, 1970, 1992, 2004)Researchers and engineers from different departments located on the same floor were six times more likely to work together on projects than researchers who were on different floors, or in different buildings. (T. Allen; F. Becker, Quinn, Rappaport & Sims, Cornell IWSP, 1994)Develop a “field of action.” (G-N. Fischer, 1997)
  36. 36. WHO, WHAT, WHY OF INNOVATION? SPACES: WORK 40
  37. 37. WHO IS IDEO?Founded in 1991, IDEO* is an innovation and design firm that uses ahuman-centered, design-based approach to help organizations in thebusiness, government, education, and social sectors innovate and growin three ways: IDENTIFY new ways to serve and support people by uncovering their latent needs, behaviors, and desires. VISUALIZE new directions for companies and brands and design the offerings - products, services, spaces, media, and software - that bring innovation strategy to life. ENABLE organizations to change their cultures and build the capabilities required to sustain innovation. *  Pronounced  "eye-­‐dee-­‐oh"
  38. 38. PRODUCT  DESIGN PRODUCT  INNOVATION        INTERACTIVE              SERVICE  DESIGN      
  39. 39. 43
  40. 40. SITE CRITERIACRITERIA EMERGED DURINGSEARCH• Engage Chicago Design Community Expansive definition design community• Proximity to public transportation• Accommodate Prototype Shop• What building has IDEO-ness: – Inspirational? – Opinionated? – Landmark/Icon (precious)? – Contrarian (non-precious)? ©   2 0 1 1   P E R K I N S + W I L L / I D E O
  41. 41. TRANSPORTATION AND WALK TIMES ©   2 0 1 1   P E R K I N S + W I L L / I D E O
  42. 42. CRITERIA REFINEDAdded “Must Haves”: – Private rooftop – Cooking with gas – Support bike culture – Advance sustainability objectives ©   2 0 1 1   P E R K I N S + W I L L / I D E O
  43. 43. 626 W. Jackson Blvd. ©   2 0 1 1   P E R K I N S + W I L L / I D E O
  44. 44. PART 2: CAPTURING THE IDEO CULTURE STORYTELLING IS AN IMPORTANT ASPECT OF THE IDEO METHOD. IDEO SPACES ARE OFTEN USED AS A STORYTELLING TOOL FOR OUR CLIENTS TO UNDERSTAND OUR CREATIVITY-DRIVEN CULTURE: OPENNESS, FREE-THINKING FUN, INCIDENTAL MESSINESS,ARE ALL PART OF THE STORY. WE WANT TO CURATE THIS STORY WELL. ©   2 0 1 1   P E R K I N S + W I L L / I D E O
  45. 45. KEY VALUESStudio CultureBalance of Public and Private SpaceOpenness, TransparencyEffective Project SpacesAvoid 1% Thinking / Suburban MentalityEncourage the Spontaneous / Stimulate the InterstitialSimplify the OperationalDistinctively Chicago, Extension of IDEORobust Programming and ServicesA Place We Can Take Pride In ©   2 0 1 1   P E R K I N S + W I L L / I D E O
  46. 46. ©   2 0 1 1   P E R K I N S + W I L L / I D E O
  47. 47. ACTIVITIES FRAMEWORK focused writing opportunities meeting technical design-desk work resource meeting prototyping all studio monthly lunch analytical thinking critique private public solitude collaborative research lunches brainstorm design-desk work Monday morning meetings sketching free thinking playful ©   2 0 1 1   P E R K I N S + W I L L / I D E O
  48. 48. DESIGN DRIVERS ENGINEERING = SHOP DESIGN = PROJECT SPACE RESEARCH = FIELD WORK KIT STRATEGY = WHITE BOARD / FOAMCORECOLLECTIVE INTELLIGENCE = OPEN STUDIO ©   2 0 1 1   P E R K I N S + W I L L / I D E O
  49. 49. TRADEOFFS… ©   2 0 1 1   P E R K I N S + W I L L / I D E O
  50. 50. PART 3: DESIGNING FOR THE IDEO CULTURE THE NEW SPACE SHOULD ENCOURAGE THE LIFE OF THE STUDIO TO FLOURISH. THE SPACE DESIGN ITSELF SHOULD NOT BE SEEN AS APRECIOUS ARTIFACT, OVERLY DESIGNED, TOO GIMMICKY, TOO STYLISH, AND HYPERCONGRUENT TO THE CURRENT PROGRAMMING PLAN. ©   2 0 1 1   P E R K I N S + W I L L / I D E O
  51. 51. build on the ideas of otherscollective intelligence studio culture stimulate the interstitial simplify incubator distinctively Chicago innovation social IDEO familyopenness transparency a setting for creative life – human centered design ©   2 0 1 1   P E R K I N S + W I L L / I D E O
  52. 52. PROJECT ROOMS open “back porch” collaborative circulation FLEXIBLE ADAPTABLE focus, acoustic privacy, confidentiality large, collaborative team client presentation ©   2 0 1 1   P E R K I N S + W I L L / I D E O
  53. 53. IDEO DESIGN PROCESS focused7th Floor 8th Floor freethinking ©   2 0 1 1   P E R K I N S + W I L L / I D E O
  54. 54. ©   2 0 1 1   P E R K I N S + W I L L / I D E O
  55. 55. PART 4: BUILDING FOR THE IDEO CULTUREWE WANT UNINTENTED IDEAS AND ACCIDENTS TO TAKE PLACE. ©   2 0 1 1   P E R K I N S + W I L L / I D E O
  56. 56. ©   2 0 1 1   P E R K I N S + W I L L / I D E O
  57. 57. ©   2 0 1 1   P E R K I N S + W I L L / I D E O
  58. 58. ©   2 0 1 1   P E R K I N S + W I L L / I D E O
  59. 59. ©   2 0 1 1   P E R K I N S + W I L L / I D E O
  60. 60. ©   2 0 1 1   P E R K I N S + W I L L / I D E O
  61. 61. ©   2 0 1 1   P E R K I N S + W I L L / I D E O
  62. 62. ©   2 0 1 1   P E R K I N S + W I L L / I D E O
  63. 63. PART 5: CELEBRATING THE IDEO CULTURE IT SHOULD NOT BE TOO PRESCRIPTIVE,ALLOWS STUDIO LIFE TO BREATHE, GROW, AND EVOLVE. ©   2 0 1 1   P E R K I N S + W I L L / I D E O
  64. 64. ©   2 0 1 1   P E R K I N S + W I L L / I D E O
  65. 65. ©   2 0 1 1   P E R K I N S + W I L L / I D E O
  66. 66. ©   2 0 1 1   P E R K I N S + W I L L / I D E O
  67. 67. ©   2 0 1 1   P E R K I N S + W I L L / I D E O
  68. 68. ©   2 0 1 1   P E R K I N S + W I L L / I D E O
  69. 69. ©   2 0 1 1   P E R K I N S + W I L L / I D E O
  70. 70. ©   2 0 1 1   P E R K I N S + W I L L / I D E O
  71. 71. TRENDS + SPACES: LEARNING
  72. 72. INNOVATION CULTURE OBJECT PROCESSSPACE BOTH IS A REFLECTION OF INNOVATION AND A FACILITATOR OF IT.
  73. 73. BLUE VALLEY SCHOOLSCENTER FOR ADVANCED PROFESSIONAL STUDIES2011Design CitationNational School BoardsAssociation2011Gold Award for Living, Working,and Learning EnvironmentsCenter for AdvancedProfessional Studies
  74. 74. PROCESS 2009/2010: CONSTRUCTION 2007: Pre-engineering in all Feasibility Study High Schools while designing balance of Presented the idea of a CAPS strands “Center Based Program” Full immersion into (CBP) business classrooms 20112006: Full 2008:Charge to implementation Search for Exec.Superintendent + Director starts (DonnaResearch Evolution and Deeds starts April 1) sharing “provide unique Programmingstudent learning NSBA Citation workshops commenceopportunities thatcurrently do not exist in Edison Awardthe school district”
  75. 75. PROCESS Johnson Community College Survey
  76. 76. Bioscience Brochure
  77. 77. PROCESSBioscience Business Engineering Human Services
  78. 78. Visual Listening
  79. 79. “ Every decision we made had toanswer the question...Does this look like a high school? Would you see this in a high school? If so, then we made a different decision.  ”– Donna Deeds, Executive Director
  80. 80. Building Diagram STRAND Flexible Teaching Spaces Learning Facilitators Innovation Area Atrium/Core/Café Innovation Area Learning Flexible Teaching SpacesFacilitators STRAND
  81. 81. BVCAPS | Program• State of the Art Strands STEM• Interstitial Innovation Areas for collaboration and exhibition• Ubiquitous Professional Learning Community• A Visual Identity• Sustainability that teaches
  82. 82. CULTURE
  83. 83. OBJECT
  84. 84. CAPS Student Produced Video – What is Innovation
  85. 85. 105
  86. 86. chance favors “ the connected mind.”Source:  Johnson,  Steven.  Ted  Talk.

×