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Paraphrasing skills

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  • Students identify quotes, paraphrases and technical language by highlighting. Refer to the worksheet.
  • Guided practice
  • http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/619/03/
  • http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/619/03/
  • http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/619/03/
  • Transcript

    • 1. PARAPHRASING versus PLAGIARISM Research Skills Step 4: Using Information
    • 2. What do I know about paraphrasing?• Do I know what it is?• Do I know how to do it?• How have I paraphrased? So, how do I feel about my ability to paraphrase?
    • 3. What strategies should I use to pull out and keep track of pieces of information?Keep well organized succinct notes written in own words
    • 4. What is the difference between …. SUMMARIZING PARAPHRASING Summarizing involves Paraphrasing involvesputting the main idea(s) into putting a passage from sourceyour own words, including only material into your own words.the main point(s). Once again, A paraphrase must also beit is necessary to attribute attributed to the originalsummarized ideas to the source.original source. Paraphrased material is Summaries are usually shorter than thesignificantly shorter than the original passage, taking aoriginal and take a broad somewhat broader segment ofoverview of the source the source and condensing itmaterial. slightly. summarize = make notes paraphrase = synthesis
    • 5. What is the difference between … QUOTATION PLAGIARISM Quotations must be Plagiarism is using someoneidentical to the original, using else’s ideas and writings anda narrow segment of the presenting them as your own.source. They must match thesource document word for Plagiarism = Theft/Lyingword and must be attributedto the original author.
    • 6. So, why do we use quotations, paraphrases and summaries?• Provide support for claims or add truth to your writing• Give examples of several points of view on a subject• Call attention to a position that you wish to agree or disagree with• Highlight a particularly striking phrase, sentence, or passage by quoting the original [HOOK]• Expand the breadth or depth of your writing [providing concrete detail]
    • 7. Advanced writers …often combine summaries, paraphrases, and quotations. As part of a summary of an article, a chapter, or a book,a writer might include paraphrases of various key pointsblended with quotations of striking or suggestive phrases. Often, a short quotation works well when integratedinto a sentence. Longer quotations can stand alone. Remember thatquoting should be done only sparingly; you must have agood reason to include a direct quotation. Let’s look at an example.
    • 8. In his famous and influential workthe Interpretation of Dreams, Sigmund Freudargues that dreams are the "royal road tothe unconscious" (page #), expressing incoded imagery the dreamers unfulfilledwishes through a process known as the"dream-work" (page #). According to Freud,actual but unacceptable desires arecensored internally and subjected to codingthrough layers of condensation anddisplacement before emerging in a kind ofrebus puzzle in the dream itself (page #).
    • 9. How do I make notes?• Read the entire text, noting the key points and main ideas.• Summarize in your own words what the single main idea of the text is.• Paraphrase important supporting points that come up in the text.• Consider any words, phrases, or brief passages that you believe should be quoted directly.
    • 10. How do I paraphrase (Noodletools)? 6Steps to Effective Paraphrasing
    • 11. TIME FOR A BRAINPOP MOVIEhttp://www.brainpop.com/english/writing/paraphrasing/preview.weml
    • 12. How do I paraphrase (Noodletools)? 6Steps to Effective Paraphrasing
    • 13. 1. Reread the original passage until you understand its fullmeaning. Do not paste the whole article into Noodletools.2. Set the original aside, and write your paraphrase on a notecard.3. Jot down a few words below your paraphrase to remindyou later how you envision using this material. At the top ofthe note card, write a key word or phrase to indicate thesubject of your paraphrase.4. Check your version with the original to make sure that yourversion accurately expresses all the essential information in anew form.5. Use quotation marks to identify any unique term orphraseology you have borrowed exactly from the source.6. Record the source (including the page) on your note cardso that you can credit it easily if you decide to incorporate the
    • 14. Let’s read this original text. Students frequently overuse directquotation in taking notes, and as a result theyoveruse quotations in the final [research] paper.Probably only about 10% of your finalmanuscript should appear as directly quotedmatter. Therefore, you should strive to limit theamount of exact transcribing of source materialswhile taking notes. Lester, James D. WritingResearch Papers. 2nd ed. (1976): 46-47.
    • 15. Let’s summarize this original text. Students frequently overuse directquotation in taking notes, and as a result theyoveruse quotations in the final [research] paper.Probably only about 10% of your finalmanuscript should appear as directly quotedmatter. Therefore, you should strive to limit theamount of exact transcribing of source materialswhile taking notes. Lester, James D. WritingResearch Papers. 2nd ed. (1976): 46-47.
    • 16. SUMMARY Find the main idea and key points. Students should take just a few notes indirect quotation from sources to help minimizethe amount of quoted material in a researchpaper (Lester 46-47).
    • 17. Let’s paraphrase this original text. Students frequently overuse directquotation in taking notes, and as a result theyoveruse quotations in the final [research] paper.Probably only about 10% of your finalmanuscript should appear as directly quotedmatter. Therefore, you should strive to limit theamount of exact transcribing of source materialswhile taking notes. Lester, James D. WritingResearch Papers. 2nd ed. (1976): 46-47.
    • 18. PARAPHRASE Find the supporting details and put them in yourown words. Identify technical language which cannot beparaphrased. In research papers students often quoteexcessively, failing to keep quoted material down toa desirable level. Since the problem usuallyoriginates during note taking, it is essential tominimize the material recorded verbatim (Lester46-47).
    • 19. If we had plagiarized, this is what it would look like. Students often use too many directquotations when they take notes, resulting intoo many of them in the final research paper. Infact, probably only about 10% of the final copyshould consist of directly quoted material. So itis important to limit the amount of sourcematerial copied while taking notes.
    • 20. Work with your partner• Directions: Write a paraphrase of the first passage in your worksheet.• Find the main idea and supporting details.• When you paraphrase, try not to look back at the original passage.
    • 21. SHARE
    • 22. READ ALOUD
    • 23. Let’s check how you did According to Jacques Cousteau, the activityof people in Antarctica is jeopardizing a delicatenatural mechanism that controls the earthsclimate. He fears that human activity couldinterfere with the balance between the sun, thesource of the earths heat, and the importantsource of cold from Antarctic waters that flownorth and cool the oceans and atmosphere("Captain Cousteau" 17).
    • 24. Work with your partner• Directions: Write a paraphrase of the second passage in your worksheet.• Find the main idea and supporting details.• When you paraphrase, try not to look back at the original passage.
    • 25. SHARE
    • 26. READ ALOUD
    • 27. How did you do? The use of a helmet is the key to reducingbicycling fatalities, which are due to headinjuries 75% of the time. By cushioning the headupon impact, a helmet can reduce accidentalinjury by as much as 85%, saving the lives ofhundreds of victims annually, half of whom areschool children ("Bike Helmets" 348).
    • 28. Time to work independentlyDirections: Write aparaphrase of thethird passage on yourworksheet.Find the main ideaand supportingdetails.When you paraphrase,try not to look back atthe original passage.
    • 29. SHARE
    • 30. READ ALOUD
    • 31. Tough stuff, isn’t it. How much higher skyscrapers of the futurewill rise than the present world marvel, theSears Tower, is unknown. However, the design ofone twice as tall is already on the boards, and anarchitect, Robert Sobel, thinks we currently havesufficient know-how to build a skyscraper withover 500 stories (Bachman 15).
    • 32. Let’s Reflect on our Learning• What did I know about paraphrasing before this lesson?• How did I feel about paraphrasing before this lesson?• Now, how do I feel about my ability to paraphrase?• Why do I feel this way?