Intro scaffold for nuclear disarmament


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A scaffold to provide background to the issue of elimination of nuclear weapons

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Intro scaffold for nuclear disarmament

  1. 1. MUN Issue: The Elimination of Nuclear Weapons The possibility of a nuclear war is perhaps the scariest and deadliest idea humans could be faced with. With the number of nuclear weapons and their immense power, they could destroy the world. This is why it is very important for the international community to achieve total elimination of nuclear weapons. Total nuclear disarmament is not easy to achieve, however, small steps have been taken through various mechanisms: a. Regional efforts such as Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone Treaties b. Bilateral treaties such as START between the United States and Russia These efforts have been highly successful in disarming and preventing the proliferation of nuclear weapons worldwide. However, international and more comprehensive strategies are also extremely important. Since nuclear weapons are a huge threat to the international peace and security, it only makes sense that the solution must come from the involvement of every country in the world. Now I am death, destroyer of worlds
  2. 2. The Manhattan Project Background Information By 1939 both German and American physicists were working on practical applications for nuclear fission, specifically a bomb. After scientist Albert Einstein warned President Roosevelt that the Germans were in the process of building an atomic bomb, Roosevelt gave approval for the top secret Manhattan Project. Hundreds of male and female scientists and technicians were gathered together under the direction of J. Robert Oppenheimer, a theoretical physicist. Where did the scientists test their work (Manhattan Project)? Although much of the early work was conducted in New York City, the actual testing site was in New Mexico. On July 16, 1945, three years after the project started, the first test explosion of an atomic bomb took place in New Mexico’s Alamogordo Bombing Range. Its awesome force shook the desert floor, and its blinding light illuminated trees and mountains. A mushroom cloud of dust raised high into the sky. The five kilograms of plutonium in the bomb yielded an explosion equivalent to 18,500 tons of dynamite, more than enough to destroy an entire city. What happened as a result of the Manhattan Project? On August 6, 1945, the U.S. Army dropped the first atomic bomb over Hiroshima, Japan. Over 200,000 people were killed in the blast. After a second bomb was dropped on Nagasaki three days later, Japan surrendered. Although the true effects of the bomb would not be fully realized for many years, a new Atomic Age had begun. The scientists knew their work will result in the deaths of hundreds of thousands of civilians. Why did they not stop their work? The scientists who participated in the Manhattan Project knew that what they were working on could kill thousands of people in a single blast, yet they hoped that it would lead to worldwide peace.
  3. 3. Test your Knowledge after Reading a. Name 2 scientists who worked on the Manhattan Project. b. Which American president approved the creation of the Manhattan Project? c. In which year was the Manhattan Project started? d. Where did they test the first atomic bomb? e. When did they test the first atomic bomb? f. On which 2 Japaneses cities did the U.S. army drop atomic bombs and when? g. Which words tell us that the Manhattan Project was kept a secret from everyone?
  4. 4. Test your Comprehension after Reading a. Why was the Manhattan Project created? b. What happened after the U.S. dropped atomic bombs on Japanese cities? c. What is the Atomic Age?
  5. 5. After World War II and the atomic bombings in Japan The international community was worried Why? Many civilians were killed in the war. The atomic bomb is a very powerful weapon that could destroy entire cities. What did they want never to happen again? They did not want another world war. They did not want any country to ever attack another country with nuclear weapons. So, what did they do? The United Nations (UN) was created as an international effort - to monitor which countries are making nuclear weapons and to stop them -  to stop countries from buying and using nuclear weapons Were they successful? No.
  6. 6. Failure: The Cold War (see BrainPop movie)
  7. 7. Infer: What does this cartoon tell you about the arms race and how people felt about nuclear weapons?
  8. 8. Failure: The Arms Race In 1947 the United States, which at that time had the only nuclear weapons, proposed a plan to the United Nations whereby all nuclear weapons would be banned, and until an inspecting body had been set up, they could retain their arsenal. When the issue came up for voting, Russia exercised its veto power within the UN, as Joseph Stalin was aware how close his scientists were to creating a workable weapon. By 1949 the Russians had managed to create their first nuclear explosion; much sooner than the Americans had anticipated. The Americans’ reaction (because of shock and surprise) made Russia fear that the Americans might start a preventative war before Russia could build up any sort of arsenal, so they redoubled their productivity. Other countries such as the United Kingdom and France started developing nuclear capabilities as well until they eventually acquired actual nuclear bombs. China and Israel soon also developed nuclear weapons. India began testing nuclear weapons in 1974, which led to Pakistan (its neighbor) doing the same.
  9. 9. Failure: The Cuban Missile Crisis
  10. 10. What are possible solutions to the proliferation of nuclear weapons? a. Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty of 1970 b. Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty of ? c. Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zones d. Guidelines set out by a country’s government e. Bilateral negotiations
  11. 11. Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) In 1970 The Nuclear NonProliferation Treaty (NPT) came into force signed by the then three nuclear powers, and ratified by 40 other nations. Since that date many other states have accepted the treaty by accession, and now a total of 189 countries have agreed to abide by its rules. Date NPT first effective (including USSR, YU, CS of that time) 1st decade: ratified or acceded 1968–1977 2nd decade: ratified or acceded 1978–1987 3rd decade: ratified or acceded 1988–1998 (and Cuba 2002) Never signed (India, Israel, Pakistan, South Sudan) (This was published in 2010: Is the data correct - is it still 189 countries? Or has it changed?)
  12. 12. Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty contd. The basic structure of the NPT considers two different groups of countries with different sets of obligations. GROUP 1 - the nuclear-weapon states GROUP 2 - China, Russia, the UK, USA and France - non-nuclear-weapon states AGREEMENT commit themselves not to transfer nuclear weapons to non-nuclear-weapon states or help them develop nuclear weapons CONSIDER: The NPT recognizes the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and creates a system allowing for cooperation among countries to develop nuclear technology and makes sure that these technologies are not used to create weapons. This system, known as the safeguards system, calls upon the International Atomic Energy Agency to help monitor the nuclear programs of countries in order to make sure that they comply with international standards. AGREEMENT commit not to develop nuclear weapons under any circumstances CONSIDER: the NPT has not been very successful. Examples of this are India, Pakistan and North Korea (nonnuclear-weapon States) still developed nuclear programs and have successfully acquired nuclear weapons today. Two other countries that have not signed the treaty are Israel and South Sudan.
  13. 13. Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) *aims at forbidding countries from practicing nuclear weapon test explosions or any other nuclear explosions. * Unfortunately, the CTBT has not yet entered into force WHY NOT? There are several countries that MUST sign and ratify it before it can be considered binding. Without the cooperation of the countries that have not ratified the treaty, it will remain a useless document.
  14. 14. Nuclear-Weapon-Free-Zones (NWFZ) * created by regional treaties in which, in almost every case, groups of neighboring countries commit themselves to not develop or possess nuclear weapons in a given part of the world E.g. a. The 1967 treaty of Tlatelolco (region: Latin America and the Caribbean) b. The treaty of Rarotonga (region: the South Pacific) c. The treaty of Bangkok (region: Southeast Asia) d. The treaty of Pelindaba (region: Africa) e. The treaty of Semipalatinsk (region: Central Asia) f. Mongolia declared itself a Nuclear-Weapon-Free State in 1992 g. The Secretary-General of the United Nations, for example, has been advocating for the creation of a NWFZ in the Middle East. * three other treaties exist in which the entire international community has agreed to not develop or store nuclear weapons in certain places: the Sea-Bed and Ocean Floor, the uninhabited continent of Antarctica, and Outer Space. * Identifying potential NWFZs and negotiating their establishment could eventually lead to a world free of nuclear weapons.
  15. 15. Three non-nuclear principles A set of guidelines officially adopted by the Japanese government in 1971. The guidelines state that Japan shall - not possess (own) nuclear weapons - not manufacture (make) nuclear weapons - not permit nuclear weapons in Japanese territory
  16. 16. Bilateral negotiations ●  On April 8, 2010, the United States and Russia gave an example of this when they signed the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START) •  •  Both countries, who together account for more than half of the existing nuclear weapons worldwide, have committed to reducing their nuclear arsenals by half as well as creating new inspection and reporting mechanisms. This treaty provided the world with renewed hope that total nuclear disarmament could be a reality.
  17. 17. Recommendations from the Disarmament and International Security Committee • Urges all states that have not yet done so to sign and ratify the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty at the earliest opportunity, with a view to its early entry into force and universalization. • Calls upon nuclear-weapon states to undertake further efforts to reduce and ultimately eliminate all types of nuclear weapons, deployed and nondeployed, including through unilateral, bilateral, regional and multilateral measures. • Encourages the establishment of further nuclear-weapon-free zones, where appropriate, on the basis of arrangements freely arrived at among States of the region concerned. • Calls on all states not parties to the NPT to accede as non-nuclear weapon states to the Treaty promptly and without any conditions.
  18. 18. RESEARCH QUESTIONS FOR GENERAL ASSEMBLY MEETING COUNTRY RESEARCH 1. Is the proliferation of nuclear weapons a problem in your country/ neighboring countries/ continent? Make a YES/NO table. 2.Is your country contributing to the problem or resolving the problem? 2.1. Which one? + Explanation (how does it affect your country?) 2.2. What type of government does your country have? Does this contribute to the problem or does it help the country to address the problem? 2.3. What are the major religious groups in your country/region? Do these contribute to the problem, prevent the country from trying to resolve the problem or not affect the country’s efforts to resolve the problem at all? 2.4. How is this problem/has this problem of proliferation of nuclear weapons affected neighboring countries/continent/world? 3. Timeline 3.1. When did the issue of nuclear weapons and its proliferation begin globally? 3.2. When did your country become involved with the issue of nuclear weapons? 4. Stakeholders 4.1. Who and what are the stakeholders of this issue?
  19. 19. RESEARCH QUESTIONS FOR GENERAL ASSEMBLY MEETING Research Country’s Stance (for/against) 1. What is your country’s stance on the issue of elimination of nuclear weapons? 2. Why  is  your  country  concerned  about  this  issue?   3. What are the positions of the various stakeholders on this issue? Who supports your country’s stance? Who does not support your country’s stance? 4.What strategies/solutions have been attempted? a. What have worked? Why? b. What have not worked? Why? c. What could be improved? Why? d. What new need to be introduced? Why? 5.If this issue is not a problem in your country, then how can it be involved in its region/ globally? a. Why and why not? 7.What and how can your member state be involved in the prevention and occurrences of the issue? What  ‘big  ideas’  about  the  issue  will  the  country  support?   8.  How  does  your  country’s  stance  relate  to  the  Fundamental  Principles?  Which  fundamental   principle  could  be/is  violated  by  this  issue?    
  20. 20. RESEARCH QUESTIONS FOR GENERAL ASSEMBLY MEETING BUILDING DIPLOMACY/NEGOTIATING AGREEMENTS/THINKING CRITICALLY 1. Does  your  country  work  with  other  organizaDons  to  address  the  issue?  Make  a   list  of  the  organizaDons.     2.  With  whom  (other  member  states)  will  your  country  cooperate  on  resolving  the   issue?  Why?     3.  What  agreements  will  your  country  accede  to  in  support  of  other  countries?       4.  What  agreements  will  your  country  not  accede  to  in  support  of  allies?       5.  If  your  country  has  veto  power,  what  resoluDons  are  likely  to  be  vetoed  by  your   country?    
  21. 21. WHERE TO FIND INFORMATION A. MSMC online databases B. MSMC books & magazines (TIME) C. APPROVED WEBSITES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.