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Globalization and Migration

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  • 1. Globalization and Migration Does it affect identity? Filipino domestic workers in Hong Kong A case study
  • 2. Overview of presentation• Brief description of identity• Our argument• Our case study – What we did• Our findings – What we discovered• Conclusion
  • 3. Our Argument: GlobalizationDOES affect individuals identity Findings from our research both readings and interviews suggest that the elements of the Filipino housemaids identity which have changed are:
  • 4. Our Argument: Globalization DOES affect individuals identity•Their perceptions of themselves and otherpeoples perceptions of them•Their expectations of themselves in Homecountry and abroad•Their freedoms, opportunities & pressures•Their status as an overseas worker bothhere and on their return
  • 5. Perceptions of themselvesand other peoples perceptions of them Disadvantages of working in Hong Hong Discrimination Far from family All factors Quals irrellivant
  • 6. Perceptions of themselves andother peoples perceptions of themWhy do when they have high educational attainment do they work as a maids? By 1956, the Philippines had the second highest number of students per 100000 population in the world
  • 7. Discrimination and abuseSome Pilipino maids are abused by theiremployersAlso: Language Skin colour Nationality Job Culture
  • 8. Globalization of neoliberalism Free trade Make ends meet
  • 9. Domestic (Philippines)• government• Job opportunityAbroad (Hong Kong)• Wage• Working condition
  • 10. The expectation of Filipino in abroad Better pay Better working condition Better job prospects other
  • 11. Lack of job remittance flows opportunity become the second-largest sourceexport large amount of labor to work abroad
  • 12. Contributing much more to thefamily and their own life
  • 13. Domesticneoliberal Abroad changed the identity
  • 14. How many Filipinos in HK view themselves as heroes? yes no unsure
  • 15. Why do the Filipinos in HK view themselves as heroes?• the government describes overseas workers as “heroes of the nation.” to further encourage the outflow of contract workers• all Filipinos are encouraged to take pride in these “heroes.”
  • 16. Why do the Filipinos in HK view themselves as heroes? • “forced migrants” (maid trade) • lack of opportunity in the Philippines • + • government promotion of migration• (the government is dependent on remittance)
  • 17. Why do the Filipinos in HK view themselves as heroes?Other reasons:1.Contribute more to family, even under very dangerous conditions.2.Government depend onsafety imperative foreven a modicum of legitimacy.3.Positive effect on wages4.culture
  • 18. Affects on migrant Filipino cultural identityDid they feel that any elements of their culture had changed since being in Hong Kong? Please note: 10 of the 25 interviewees answered this openanswer question and there may be more than one answer of an interviewee
  • 19. Interview results liberated open minded improving life standard improving personality exposing to the society working harder
  • 20. What the answers indicate:Positives:• Democracy/Freedoms:• Increasing the senses of protecting their rights and abidance by law• Opportunities:• Improving life standard• Broaden their horizon• Exposing to the new community
  • 21. What the answers indicateNegatives:• Physical and Psychological pressure:• The inversion of the private-public border• Staying in the intimate space of another’s household for a long time, usually just rest on Sunday• Estrangement from family members
  • 22. Acculturation?• Few Filipino restaurants in HK, they eat more Chinese food• They speak and communicate fluently in English, usually just know a few Cantonese phrases• They identify themselves more on political identity (nationality) as Filipino
  • 23. Cultural level Conclusion National Individual Level CharacterMajority culture Psychological Social Level level Gender roles Family Identity Attitudes values changes stress employment Generational Social status affiliations
  • 24. ReferencesConstable, N (1997) Maid to order in Hong Kong: stories of Filipina workersTomlinson, J (2000) Globalization and cultural identity. In Held & McGrew Eds. The Global Transformations ReaderUnknown, Gender, Class and the transnational politics of solidarity