Theories of Management Style


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Theories of Management Style

  1. 1. Theories Hailed asTheories Hailed as Management StyleManagement Style
  2. 2. Theories of Management 1. Taylorism ( Scientific Management) 2. Fayolism ( Process Approach) 3. The Hawthrone Effect 4. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs 5. Complex Man
  3. 3. Taylorism | Scientific Management *one of the earliest management styles * propounded and developed by Frederic Winslow Taylor in 1900
  4. 4. Taylorism | Scientific Management *the concept of Scientific Management is also known as “Taylorism” *this method believed in the concept of “One Best Way”, to perform a certain task.
  5. 5. Taylorism | Scientific Management In general, Taylorism believed in the following principles: 1.Decision-making should be under the purview of the management. 2. Developing a standard method to perform each job.
  6. 6. Taylorism | Scientific Management 3.Selecting workers with appropriate abilities for each job to create an environment of excellence and complete understanding of the task. 4. Workers to be trained on the standard methods were those previously developed and fine- tunes.
  7. 7. Taylorism | Scientific Management 5.Provide a complete support to employees so that they can plan their work and eliminate interruptions. 6. In case of increased output by a certain employees, he/she be rewarded with a wage incentive, or bonus.
  8. 8. Fayolism | Process Approach *second of the early business management styles. *the process approach was propounded by Henri Fayol in the 1920s
  9. 9. Fayolism | Process Approach *popularly known as “Fayolism”. Fayolism is a modification of Taylorism. *However, the modifications made this management style very different from Taylorism as it was broader in perspective
  10. 10. Fayolism | Process Approach Fayolism follows 14 principles of administration: 1.Division of work 2.Authority 3.Discipline 4.Unity of command 5.Unity of direction 6.Subordination of Individual Interest to the Common Interest
  11. 11. Fayolism | Process Approach 7.Remuneration of personnel 8.Centralization 9.Scarlar chain 10.Order 11.Equity 12.Stability of personnel tenure 13.Initiative 14.Esprit de corps (Union is strength)
  12. 12. The Hawthrone Effect *developed in the 1930s and 1940s, the Hawthrone experiments by Elton Mayo, were the basis of this management style
  13. 13. The Hawthrone Effect *this management style believed in the concept of: “A happy worker is a good management style. *The management style believed in the concept of: “A happy worker is a good worker”. *majority of the concentration was focused on providing employees with required amenities
  14. 14. * such as adequate light, healthy diet and conducive environment were provided to the employees to ensure optimum output. *This concept was developed on the basis of two beliefs: 1.People are not the rational and economic being assumed by classical theorists. 2.Social interaction is important and people work well if they feel valued.
  15. 15. The Hawthrone Effect The Hawthrone experiments were divided in 3 parts.   1. a set of changes were made to the general work environment and timings. 2. conducting interviews with each of the employees 3. checking if incentives had any impact on the productivity of employees
  16. 16. The Hawthrone Effect The Hawthrone experiments highlighted the fact that human beings were the main resources for many organizations and had to be kept happy to ensure high productivity.
  17. 17. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs *Maslow's hierarchy of needs is  a theory in psychology proposed  by Abraham Maslow in his 1943  paper "A Theory of Human  Motivation"
  18. 18. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs * Maslow’s theory on the  ‘Hierarchy of Needs’ had many  implications for management  style. * According to Maslow, every  individual’s need is divided  into a certain hierarchy.
  19. 19. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Maslow’s hierarchy of needs  is followed to quite an  extent today by many  organizations.  It is used as a guide for  employee satisfaction and  general need-allocation in  life.
  20. 20. Complex Man *this management style is  critique on all the previous  management style.  *it is a belief in Safety  Culture  *Pounded by EH Schein in 1960s
  21. 21. Complex Man Safety culture was developed because: 1.No single management style  could succeed in improving  the performance of all  workers. 2.The motives of individuals  were extremely complex and  liable to change over time. 3.A high level of satisfaction  did not necessarily lead to  increased productivity.
  22. 22. *As per safety culture, the following factors were pertinent to the safety interest of any organizations:   1.Prioritization of safety over  production. 2.Maintaining a high profile for  safety in meetings. 3.Personal attendance of managers  at safety meetings and  walkabouts. 4.Job description that included  safety contrast.
  23. 23. 5.Communication about safety issues,  including persuasive channels of  formal and informal communication  and regular communication between  management, supervisors and the  workforce. 6.Involvement of employees for  delegation of responsibility to  maintain safety in the  organization. This style is used to a moderate  extent with certain organizations- specific modifications.
  24. 24. Management by Objectives *this is one of the recent management styles, and in today’s diverse market, it is very useful. * It was popularized by Peter Drucker in 1954.
  25. 25. Management by Objectives The objective of Management by Objectives (MBO) is, “To create empowered employees who have clarity of the roles and responsibilities expected from them, understand their objective to be achieved and this help in the achievement of organizational as well as personal goals”.
  26. 26. Management by Objectives It has the following advantages: 1.Motivation: Participative environment that includes employees in goal setting, which motivates them to come to work.
  27. 27. Management by Objectives 2. Better Communication and Coordination: This method has made general communication and coordination much easier and smoother. Regular review, feedback, and an open-door policy help in creating an amicable environment in the organization.
  28. 28. Management by Objectives 3.Clarity of Goals: With MBO, the objective are “SMART”: S – Specific M – Measurable A – Achievable R – Relevant T – Time bound
  29. 29. Despite its advantages, MBO has a few limitations. 1.It concentrates on goals more than outcome. More so, it fails to state the context in which the goals are set. 2.Appraisals are based on “What an employee should be”, not on, “What an employee should do”, and few other organization- specific limitations. However, principles of the management style are kept in mind for general management benefit.
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