The impact of ilisu dam on duhok water intake on tigris river


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The impact of ilisu dam on duhok water intake on tigris river

  1. 1. Kurdistan Region Government – Iraq Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research University of Duhok, Faculty of Engineering and Applied science /School of Planning The impact of Ilisu Dam on Duhok Water Intake on Tigris river By: Ramadhan Hamza Supervisor: Ass. Prof. Dr. Maha Al Ghaban 2013
  2. 2. The River Tigris The River Tigris, which is the second-largest river in western Asia, originates near Lake Hazar (elevation 1150 m) in eastern Turkey. The Tigris is fed by several tributaries in Turkey. It forms the Turkish–Syrian boundary for 32 km, and crosses into Iraq. Within Iraq, the Tigris has several tributaries which contribute significantly to the water potential of the river. The combined Euphrates and Tigris rivers are named Shatt-al-Arab, forming a river almost a kilometer wide and 190 km long. Iran is a co-riparian of the Tigris– Euphrates system by virtue of her contribution to the River Tigris via the lesser Zab, Diyala and Karun rivers.
  3. 3. Tigris river in year 2012
  4. 4. What is Water Security?  1. Ensured accessibility to the resource in time and space.  2. Ability to utilize the resource to achieve economic development.  3. Ability to sustainably manage the water resources to ensure the right quantity and quality.
  5. 5. What is Water Security? Con’td  4. Ensure that competing demands are balanced (Irrigation, water supply and sanitation, hydropower, environmental requirement etc).  5. Ensure that water sharing agreement with full participation of all stakeholders is in place.  6. Ensure that the environment is protected and pollution is prevented.
  6. 6. Ilisu Dam •The proposed Ilisu Dam on the Tigris River in Southeastern Turkey is one of the world’s most controversial hydropower projects. If built, it will displace up to 70,000 people, drown the 10,000 year-old city of Hasankeyf, and destroy valuable biodiversity. Iraq’s government has also expressed concerns that Turkey will use the Ilisu Dam to control the flow of the Tigris to the detriment of the downstream countries. •Because of the serious problems and strong opposition European funders pulled out of the Ilisu Project in 2002 and again in 2009. In July 2009, European export credit agencies for the first time withdrew from a project which they had already approved over social and environmental concerns. •The Turkish government announced that it planned to continue the construction of the Ilisu Dam after Western funders pulled out, and the affected people continue their resistance. International Rivers supports the campaign against the project, and in particular monitors China’s involvement.
  7. 7. Storage Volumes  • Turkish Storages – 92BCM on Euphrates – 17BCM on Tigris (planned)  • Syrian Storages – 14.5BCM on Euphrates – 1.5BCM from Tigris (Previous agreements.)
  8. 8. Overview Questions?  Why is water so important, how much freshwater is available to us, and how much of it are we using?  What causes freshwater shortages, and what can be done about this problem?  What are the advantages and disadvantages of withdrawing construction of Ilisu dam?
  9. 9. How Water Security in Iraq is being impacted?  •Intensive construction of dams.  •Wars, particularly Iraq-Iran war and the occupation of Kuwait.  •Draining of the marshes.  •Pollution and degradation of water quality.  •Fast urbanization.  •High rate of water use (twice the population growth rate).
  10. 10. How Water Security in Iraq is being impacted?...Cont’d  •Lack of long term water sharing agreement between riparian countries, Iraq, Syria, Turkey & Iran.  •Unsustainable approach in managing water resources in the upper reaches of Euphrates and Tigris rivers basins.
  11. 11. What is this topic about?  Water Conflicts is the second of the ‘resources’ topics  It examines the range of conflicts associated with the supply and demand patterns of the fundamental resource of water.  Water supplies and quality vary globally, and actual and potential conflicts arise from the gap between growing demands and diminishing supplies.
  12. 12. The risks of water insecurity  What are the potential implications of an increasingly ‘water insecure’ world? Water supply problems Increasing water shortages may be more important than energy shortagesbecause there is no alternative! Water transfers Of this precious resource by either diverting the actual river, or using canals . Long carried out at a small scale but increasingly over larger distances, and even transboundary Water conflicts Where demand exceeds supply and no effective management operates, then there will be conflicts between the various players involved Water geopolitics The conflicts between nation states, despite the international agreement called the Helsinki Rules designed to create more equitable use of water extending across boundaries
  13. 13. Human influences on water supply and scarcity  Humans affect the hydrological cycle at many points of flows and storage:         Blue water flow is the visible part of the hydrological system: surface flows and then recharging aquifers Green water flow is water intercepted, stores and released by vegetation by evaporation and transpiration Grey water is polluted water Supply can be from: Surface sources groundwater sources In the UK 2/3 of supply is from surface and 1/3 from groundwater, with regional variations. Freshwater is effectively a finite resource since only about 1% of freshwater is easily available for human use. The water footprint indicates how much is required by consumers- and in an increasingly globalised world, the footprint of someone in a country like the UK will not be just local as so many products using water will have been produced elsewhere!
  14. 14. Water conflicts Population growth Consumer demand Industrial growth Agricultural demand DEMANDS ? Rising SUPPLY? Diminishing DIFFERENT USERS? Conflicting demands •International conflicts i.e. basin crosses national boundaries •Internal conflicts ie within a country •Conservation versus exploitation Reductions because of: •Users abstracting/polluting upstream •Deteriorating quality •Impact of climate change PRESSURE POINT- ie need for management. This is shown spatially as a ‘hotspot’ of conflict, see map on next slide. Pressure and hence tension and conflict may be over surface flow and/or groundwater supplies Dams and diversions and loss of wetlands are particularly contested.
  15. 15. Present and potential water conflict hotspots   As water supply decreases, tensions will increase as different players try to access common water supplies Many conflicts are transboundary in nature, either between states or countries River basins currently in dispute Tigris-Euphrates Iraq + Syria concerns that Turkey’s GAP project will divert their water Colorado: disputes between the 7 US states and Mexico it flows through. The river is so overused, that it no longer reaches the sea!. 90% abstracted before reaches Mexico River basins at risk in the future Large International drainage basins Ob Lake Chad Mekong Ganges Okavango La Plata Zambezi Orange Insert Figure 2.11 page 47 Note: although there have been rising tensions globally, many areas demonstrate effective management to diffuse the situation and create more equitable and sustainable demand-supply balance, such as the Mekong River Committee,& the Nile River Initiative Nile hotly disputed between Ethiopia and Sudan ,who control its headwaters, and Egypt . The Aral Sea, an inland drainage basin, once the world’s 4th largest inland lake has shrunk sine the 1950s after the 2 rivers feeding it: the Amu Dayra and Syr Darya were diverted for irrigation. By 2007 the sea was 10% of original volume and split into 2 lakes. The ex soviet states are in conflict: Uzbekistan , Turkmenistan and Kazakstan.
  16. 16. Water transfers- a quick fix? Source area Examples of existing schemes International Lesotho to South Africa: Lesotho Highlands Water Project Turkey to Israel by tanker National: Snowy Mountains-Australia Melamchi Nepal Tagus-Mercia Spain Receiving area Proposed schemes International Turkey to Israel undersea pipelines Austrian Alps to Spain + Greece by pipeline National: South-North transfer- China Ebro -Spain Ob to the Aral Sea NAWAPA Alaska to California
  17. 17. Water conflicts and the future What are the possible conflicts and solutions to increasing demands for water? This section looks at 4 themes, and the table below summarises three scenarios for the future 1. 2. 3. 4. Trends in water demand globally and locally Water players Responses to need to increasing water supply and the issues these strategies raise The role of technology in water supply Business as usual The cost of water will increase Water consumption will increase resulting in declining stores Food transfers will mitigate shortage of water in areas where agriculture declines Water Crisis Demand will outstrip supply The proportion of the world’s population without access to clean water will increase Food insecurity and migration will increase Conflicts of water supplies (intra and inter state) become more likely Sustainable Water Agricultural and household water prices will double in the developed world and triple in the developing world Global water consumption will fall, although the gap between per capita use will close Green water flows will increase Improvements in water harvesting and farming techniques allow food yields to increase whilst water consumption declines From: 2002 International Food Policy and Research Institute future models
  18. 18. Water Players and decision makers    Different players have conflicting views on water insecurity One player may have quite complex views; most Governments will have departments wanting conservation as opposed to development You need to identify the ‘stakeholders’ in any particular case study, and then the role of the ‘gatekeepers’ who wield power. The next slide shows a classification of players Political: water is a human need •International organisations e.g. UN •Government •Regional & local councils •Lobbyists & pressure groups Social: water is a human right •Individuals •Residents •Consumers land owners, health officials, NGOs like Water Aid Economic •International: World Bank & IMF •TNCs and developers •Businesses and users Photograph of Aral Sea with grounded tanker Environmental •Conservationists •Scientists & planners
  19. 19. Responses: Management strategies    Water conflicts can be managed in a range of different ways There is a spectrum of different management strategies Some are sustainable as they balance ecological and human needs Strategies rely on technology? What is Sustainability? Millennium Ecosystem Assessment definition: A characteristic or state whereby the needs of the present and local population can be met without compromising the ability of future generations or populations in other locations to meet their needs. Present policies Driven by short term economic + political concerns Often do not include science and effective technology Obstacles to sustainable management •Climate change uncertainty and effects •Natural variability of water •Pressures caused by human activities and rapid growth of transition economies towards a consumerist society •Increased water demands •Gross inefficiencies in use •Poor existing quality of supply across huge areas of world •Funding •Access to appropriate technology Future policies? Longer term? Need more research, information and monitoring especially on aquifers in developing countries More partnerships? More community involvement? More accountable?
  20. 20. Hard and soft management How to meet the challenge of the need for more water? Traditional ‘hard’ engineering  Dams; currently 845000 of which 5000 classed as megadams. The aim is to increase natural storage capacity by artificial reservoirs. Rivers most at risk at present: Yangtze, Amazon, Danube and many in the Himalayas  Channels, seen in most arid/semi arid countries whatever their economic status, eg Jonglei Canal on Nile  Pipelines eg Australia and California Aqueduct and snowy Mountains scheme Australia  Desalination plants eg in Middle East  Recharging schemes for depleted aquifers Newer hard technologies •Tankers to transport water eg turkey to israel •Osmosis membranes filtering salt from brackish water eg Israel (the Ashkelon plant produces 15% of domestic demand). Also in California, Spain and China •Fertigation: fertilser and water drip feeding of crops, as in Israel Softer more environmentally and ethically responsible approaches     Water conservation eg targeted drip irrigation on plants in Ethiopia, includes water harvesting Water restoration eg Northern Aral Sea, and on smaller scale river Colne in UK Integrated drainage basin management , especially if bottom up and community involved. The 4 Rs: ie an attitudinal fix: Reduce, Respect, Reuse, Renew..... Specific Technologies seen as appropriate /intermediate with less negative externalities •Water harvesting of grey water eg Belize •Micro dams serving villages eg Nepal •Water meters to reduce use eg UK •Composting latrines – seen in National Trust properties in UK to Mumbai slums!
  21. 21. Water Conflicts overview Water Resources • •   • • • • Water like energy is a fundamental need but not evenly distributed Factors influencing geography of supply: Physical-surface, groundwater, desalinisation Human: demand, management, mismanagement Increasing demand not matched by supply= WATER GAP Implications for human well being- which is why it beingis named in the MDGs Demand from various users Water resources are often transboundary Water Futures Water stress and scarcity are projected to increase because: •Climate change will make some areas more arid and rainfall more unreliable •Glacial water sources will reduce due to climate change •Unsustainable use of some supplies will decrease their quality and quantity •Demand will rise due to population and economic growth •Water wars will lead to winners and losers in water supply Water Conflict • • • • • Potential conflicts=high both local & international conflicts=high Resource use often exceeds recharge capacity leading to long term degradation Future is in doubt because of unsustainable use+ climate change Vulnerable populations most at risk Management strategies to ensure supply require cooperation of many different players = changes in way water is valued & used Therefore, there are alternative futures – It all depends on the decisions the players make.... and climate change, population trends, energy security, superpower politics, bridging the development gap etc…
  22. 22. Synopticity-Water-Energy Energy and Water: Solving Both Crises Together:  Water and energy are the two most fundamental ingredients of modern civilization  We consume massive quantities of water to generate energy, and we consume massive quantities of energy to deliver clean water  Peak Oil is topical. Peak Water or ‘Blue Gold’ is less thought about. There are tensions between the two:  water restrictions are hampering solutions for generating more energy energy problems, particularly rising prices, are curtailing efforts to supply more clean water. An issue in energy rich states ,which are semi arid/arid: to sell cheap oil or keep to power desalinisation plants  Water is needed to generate energy. Energy is needed to deliver water. Both resources are limiting the other—and both may be running short. Is there a way out? 
  23. 23. Core Case Study: Water Conflicts in the Middle East - A Preview of the Future  Many countries in the Middle East, which has one of the world’s highest population growth rates, face water shortages.
  24. 24. Water Conflicts in the Middle East: A Preview of the Future  Most water in this dry region comes from the Nile, Jordan or Tigris rivers.  Countries are in disagreement as to who has water rights.  Currently, there are no cooperative agreements for use of 158 of the world’s 263 water basins that are shared by two or more countries.
  25. 25. WATER’S IMPORTANCE, AVAILABILITY, AND RENEWAL  Water keeps us alive, moderates climate, sculpts the land, removes and dilutes wastes and pollutants, and moves continually through the hydrologic cycle.  Only about 0.02% of the earth’s water supply is available to us as liquid freshwater.
  26. 26. WATER’S IMPORTANCE, AVAILABILITY, AND RENEWAL  Comparison of population sizes and shares of the world’s freshwater among the continents. Figure 14-2
  27. 27. WATER’S IMPORTANCE, AVAILABILITY, AND RENEWAL  Some precipitation infiltrates the ground and is stored in soil and rock (groundwater).  Water that does not sink into the ground or evaporate into the air runs off (surface runoff) into bodies of water.  The land from which the surface water drains into a body of water is called its watershed or drainage basin.
  28. 28. WATER’S IMPORTANCE, AVAILABILITY, AND RENEWAL  We currently use more than half of the world’s reliable runoff of surface water and could be using 70-90% by 2025.  About 70% of the water we withdraw from rivers, lakes, and aquifers is not returned to these sources.  Irrigation is the biggest user of water (70%), followed by industries (20%) and cities and residences (10%).
  29. 29. Stress on the World’s River Basins  Comparison of the amount of water available with the amount used by humans.
  30. 30. Who Should Own and Manage Freshwater Resources  There is controversy over whether water supplies should be owned and managed by governments or by private corporations.  European-based water companies aim to control 70% of the U.S. water supply by buying up water companies and entering into agreements with cities to manage water supplies.
  31. 31. TOO LITTLE FRESHWATER  Cities are outbidding farmers for water supplies from rivers and aquifers.  Countries are importing grain as a way to reduce their water use.  More crops are being used to produce biofuels.  Our water options are:  Get more water from aquifers and rivers, desalinate ocean water, waste less water.
  32. 32. USING DAMS AND RESERVOIRS TO SUPPLY MORE WATER  Large dams and reservoirs can produce cheap electricity, reduce downstream flooding, and provide year-round water for irrigating cropland, but they also displace people and disrupt aquatic systems and cause dispute between riparian countries.
  33. 33. Case Study: The Mosul Dam Basin – an Overlapped Resource  Lake Powell, is the largest reservoir in the Iraq.  It hosts one of the hydroelectric plants and the Duhok water Intake,
  34. 34. The Technology Spectrum Are intermediate solutions in water and complex possible? Large, interconnected complex solutions Small, distributed simple solutions
  35. 35. Production of water in Duhok city from Khrabdeem intake on Tigris river Average production of water 2010 =129522.9 m3/d Average production of water 2011 =176264 m3/d Average production of water 2012 =191993 m3/d
  36. 36. Population The Past and future demand water for Duhok City 494400 Population 494400 297308 297308 134000 134000
  37. 37. Khrab Deem WTP
  38. 38. Distribution Station
  39. 39. Recommendations  Apply strict national water management strategy based on IWRM principles.  • Negotiate long term water sharing agreements.  • Adopt basin-wide & regional approaches to mitigate and adapt to climate changes.
  40. 40. CONCLUSIONS     1. The Ilisu Dam is a major component of an integrated water development scheme planned in the1970’s for the upper Tigris watershed. The goal of this scheme is to provide economic development within the region through the generation of electricity and large scale irrigated agriculture. 2. The construction and operation of the Ilisu Dam by itself, will significantly affect the hydrology of the Tigris River. It will alter the seasonal flow pattern by capturing all except large flood flows in the spring and releasing them in the fall and it will create large daily flow fluctuations whose influence would be felt more than 65 km downstream at the Iraq and Syrian border. 3. The minimum flow level downstream. However, it does recommend an operational policy be adopted to release a minimum monthly average flow of 60 m3/s at the downstream border during operation of the dam 5. The operation of the Ilisu Dam in combination with diversions from the future downstream Cizre project would probably significantly reduce summer flows in Syria and Iraq below historic levels.
  41. 41. Continued……… 6. Future depletions of the Tigris river flows for planned irrigated agriculture both upstream and downstream of Ilisu would further reduce these flows.  7. Capturing of coarse sediment in the reservoir will tend to induce scouring of the river channel downstream, lowering the river level and possibly lowering the adjacent water table as well.  8. High levels of nutrients from sewage and agricultural runoff will cause eutrophication and anoxic conditions for downstream countries Iraq and Syria with anoxic conditions that generate significantly higher levels of greenhouse gas methane emissions than occur from the existing landscape and will probably mobilize heavy metals to downstream .   9. It does not appear that the proponents of the Ilisu dam have completed the kind of technical studies reasonably expected to evaluate environmental impacts for a major project of this type that should include hydraulic modelling, reservoir water quality modelling, river and reservoir sedimentation modelling, and dam . break analysis