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  • 1. PROJECT REPORT ON“CONSUMER BUYING PATTERN TOWARDS VERKABEVERAGES”A Project report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree ofBACHELOR OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION(2011-2012)Submitted to:Submitted to:- Submitted by:Mr. Parvinder Singh Amritdeep SinghMBA (Sem. 3rd)1173361GGNIMT, CIVIL LINES,LUDHIANA.
  • 2. CERTIFICATEThis is to certify that Mr. Amritdeep Singh of our Institute has carried out a study on“CONSUMER BUYING PATTERN TOWARDS VERKA BEVERAGES”, undermy guidance.Prof. Parvinder SinghGGNIMTCivil Lines, LudhianaDate:Place: Ludhiana.
  • 3. PREFACEThe most motivating aspect associated with pursuing a course inmanagement or business studies is dynamism with it. Dynamism of adding newperspective to one‟s personality & vision by accumulating wider knowledge developinganalytical & conceptual skills, not only by traditional way of teaching & learning but byobserving the things at work.The assignment one gets in the form of projects, seminars, term papersgives a considerable exposure to students & provides them with an opportunity to see thepractical aspect of workings or corporate world. This assignment of ours is yet anotheropportunity for us to see the application part of what we study or learn.We would like to begin our research project on a thanking note to ouruniversity & institute for providing us with opportunity in the form of an assignment onthe topic “CONSUMER BUYING PATTERN TOWARDS VERKA BEVERAGES”.
  • 4. DECLARATIONI Parvinder Singh, hereby declare that I was assigned the project “Consumer BuyingPattern towards Verka Beverages” for the training of my MBA. I thankful to themanagement of Verka Milk Plant, Ludhiana giving me this golden opportunity.I give my assurance that all the information compiled in this report hasbeen collected by me and is true to the best of my knowledge. It shall be used solely foracademic purpose only. I have put all my best efforts to make this project a success.Place: _______________Date : Amritdeep Singh
  • 5. Reason for Selecting VerkaThe Ludhiana district co-operative milk union is Verka milk plant; it is prestigious milkplant of Punjab. It is famous all over the country and abroad for supplies of milk andmilk products.Verka provides great efforts to give a trainee a practical knowledge aboutdifferent subjects. They emphasis is on practical training rather than theatrical concept. Iam lucky to get a chance to complete my training as a trainee here. I got a project tostudy ratio and trend and trend analysis with co-operation. Their guidance andcooperation to trainee is worth appreciation. Other side good plant location, layoutindoor and outdoor environment is available.
  • 6. CONTENTSChapter 1: IntroductionSection-A1.1 Meaning of milk products1.2 Introduction of the study1.3 Introduction to consumer behaviour1.4 Theoretical foundation1.5 Consumer definition and rightsSection-BReview of LiteratureChapter 2: Company Profile2.1 Introduction2.2 Inception2.3 The Punjab State Cooperative Milk producers Federation Limited2.4 Marketing2.5 Quality Assurance ProgrammeChapter 3: Research MethodologyChapter 4: Data Analysis & InterpretationChapter 5: Summary & RecommendationsAppendixBibliography
  • 7. Verka
  • 8. INTRODUCTION
  • 9. Chapter-1Section-AIntroduction to projectThis project is about preference of the consumer towards FMCG(fast moving consumergoods) products i.e. Milk products in domestic market (in special market (in specialcontext of nestle,verka&amul milk products)The story of milk products began in the new world with the Mayans ,and also the wordmilk products comes from the Mayan word xocoatl ,and the word coca from the azieccacahuati,who drank a dark brew called cacahuaquchtl.later ,the Aztec consumedchacahoua and used the cocoa bean for currency. In I 523,they offered cocoa beans toCortez, who introduced milk products to the world ,where it swiftly because a favoritefood among the rich and noble of Europe.From the beginning, turning raw, bitter cocoa beans into what one century writer called“the only true food of the god” has been a fine art ,a delicate mixture of alchemy andscience .centuries ago it was discovered that fermenting and roasting the beans couldcreate an almost otherworldly flavor .in I 875,after years of trying ,a 31 -year-oldcandymaker in vevey Daniel peter figured out how to combine milk and cocoa power.1.l Meaning of milk products:1. A preparation of the seed of cocoa ,roasted.husked,and ground (without removingany of the fat),often sweetened and flavored, as with vanilla.2. A beverage or confection made from this.3. Dark brown.4. A divine substance inspiring passion in those who consume it.The discovery of cocoa was only a first step in the direction of milk step in thedirection of milk products. The Mayas were the first to cultivate the cocoa bean for thefruits it yielded. They used the beans as an ingredient in their favorite milk products drink„xocotlatl‟.
  • 10. Legend suggests that the first beans came out of paradise and lent wisdom andpower to the person that ate them. For obvious reasons, the use of cocoa was kept to aminimum by the emperors.Before the Spanish explorers discovered the New world ,milk products andother “exotic” food were totally unknown in Europe. Columbus was the first European tobecome acquainted with cocoa,but he wasn‟t exactly impressed.During one of his conquest in the new orid he met the Aztecs. For manygenerations,they drankan infusion of grilled seeds and spices.This mixture tasteddisgusting and it also contained cocoa beans.The Aztecs adopted the ideas of cocoaconsumption from the Mayas.However the conquistadors pizzaro and,in particuler,Cortes did showinterest in the bean.Fernando cortes reached the east coast of Mexico in 1519.as anhonored guest of Montezuma(Aztec emperor and inveterate milk products fanatic) he wasoffered xocotatl a small portion of aromatic milk products drink mixed vanilla,pepper andother herbs.For the mayas, cocoa beans were very important, not only were they apopular means of exchange, they also had a religious value. The Mayas sacrificed cocoabeans at the funerals of the upper class.1.2 Introduction of study:The research study was undertaken to know the buying behaviour ofconsumers. In this research the need of study is to know the taste, preferences ofconsumers while purchasing the particular brand of the milk products. What are the factorthat influences the customers to switch over the other brands.As the milk products market is full of competition, so this study about thebuying behaviours of consumer regarding milk products was studied to figure out thereasons for the same. l tried to find out basic problem that is the consumer reaction andbehaviour for the same. Also this study helped me to find out the ratio of the loyalcustomers and awareness level of the consumers for milk products.
  • 11. As management students this can be taken as the strong base for future asall what I studied in the project is now the need of the hour, as it is very well known factthat80% of the total profits of any company is contributed by only 20% customers so thestudy about the brand equity gives good tracking of those customers.The word milk products comes from the mayan word xocoatl, and the word„cocoa‟ from the Aztec cacahuatle.In Mexico,the beverage was called chocolath,fromlath(water)and choco.suppose,the spanish found the Mexican word her to pronounce andcalled it cocoa.1.2.1. From cocoa to Milk Products:Sorting, clearing ,frying, crushing, grinding is the only small part of stagesof production cycle transforming cocoa beans in milk products,which we eat.Milk products is really the unique product, tasty, highly nutritive(about 550kkal in 100gm of a product),capable to be stored by years without change of properties. Itcontains 5O-55%of carbohydrates,32-35% of fat,5-6& of fibers. And also tanninsubstances(4-5 %0,stim u lators-the bromine and caffeine(1-1.5%),microelementsNa,K,Mg,P,Fe and vitamins B1,&B2.1.3 Introduction of consumer BehaviourConsumer BehaviorHow many times throughout the day do people make product decisions? Ifyou stop to think about it, many product decisions are made every day, some withoutmuch thought. What should I wear? What should I eat? What am I going to do today?Many product decisions are answered routinely every day and they help move theeconomy of cities, countries and ultimately the world.Product decisions also shape life for the consumer. How can simpledecisions be so important? Why do marketers spend millions of dollars to uncover thereasons behind these decisions?
  • 12. To define consumer behavior: it is the study of consumers and theprocesses they use to choose, use (consume), and dispose of products and services. Amore in depth definition will also include how that process impacts the world. Consumerbehavior incorporates ideas from several sciences including psychology, biology,chemistry and economics.“All marketing decisions are based on assumptions and knowledge ofconsumer behavior,” (Hawkins and Mothersbaugh, 2007). Researching consumerbehavior is a complex process, but understanding consumer behavior is critical tomarketers-they can use it to:1. Provide value and customer satisfaction.2 Effectively target customers.3 Enhance the value of the company.4 Improve products and services.5 Create a competitive advantage6 Understand how customers view their products versus their competitors‟ products.7 Expand the knowledge base in the field of marketing,8 Apply marketing strategies toward a positive affect on society (encourage peopleto support charities, promote healthy habits, reduce drug use etc.)1.3.1 Service:Intangible products such as accounting, banking, cleaning, consultancy,education, insurance, expertise, medical treatment, or transportation.Sometimes services are difficult to identify because they are closelyassociated with a good; such as the combination of a diagnosis with the administration ofa medicine. No transfer of possession or ownership takes place when services are sold,and they (I) cannot be stored or transported, (2) are instantly perishable, and (3) comeinto existence at the time they are bought and consumed.
  • 13. 1.3.2 Brand:A brand is a “Name, term, design, symbol, or any other feature thatidentifies one seller‟s good or service as distinct from those of other sellers.” Brandingbegan as a way to tell one person‟s cattle from another by means of a hot iron stamp. Amodern example of a brand is Coca Cola which belongs to the Coca-Cola Company.1.3.3 Concepts:Proper branding can result in higher sales of not only one product, but onother products associated with that brand. For example, if a customer loves Pillsburybiscuits and trust the brand. he or she is more likely to try other products offered by thecompany such as chocolate chip cookies.Brand is the personality that identifies a product, service or company(name, term, sign, symbol, or design, or combination of them) and how it relates to keyconstituencies: customers, staff, partners, investors etc.Some people distinguish the psychological aspect, brand associations likethoughts, feelings, perceptions, images, experiences, beliefs, attitudes, and so on thatbecome linked to the brand, of a brand from the experiential aspect.The experiential aspect consists of the sum of all points of contact with thebrand and is known as the brand experience. The brand experience is a brand‟s actionperceived by a person. The psychological aspect, sometimes referred to as the brandimage, is a symbolic construct created within the minds of people, consisting of all theinformation and expectations associated with a product, service or the company(ies)providing them.People engaged in branding seek to develop or align the expectationsbehind the brand experience, creating the impression that a brand associated with aproduct or service has certain qualities or characteristics that make it special or unique. Abrand is therefore one of the most valuable elements in an advertising theme, as itdemonstrates what the brand owner is able to offer in the marketplace. The art of creatingand maintaining a brand is called brand management. Orientation of the whole
  • 14. organization towards its brand is called brand orientation. The brand orientation isdeveloped in responsiveness to market intelligence.Careful brand management seeks to make the product or services relevantto the target audience. Brands should be seen as more than the difference between theactual cost of a product and its selling price - they represent the sum of all valuablequalities of a product to the consumer.A brand which is widely known in the marketplace acquires brandrecognition. When brand recognition builds up to a point where a brand enjoys a criticalmass of positive sentiment in the marketplace, it is said to have achieved brand franchise.Brand recognition is most successful when people can state a brand without beingexplicitly exposed to the company‟s name, but rather through visual signifiers like logos,slogans, and colors. For example, Disney has been successful at branding with theirparticular script font (originally created for Walt Disney‟s „signature” logo), which itused in the logo for go.com.Consumers may look on branding as an aspect of products or services, as itoften serves to denote a certain attractive quality or characteristic (see also brandpromise). From the perspective of brand owners, branded products or services alsocommand higher prices. Where two products resemble each other, but one of the productshas no associated branding (such as a generic, store- branded product), people may oftenselect the more expensive branded product on the basis of the quality of the brand or thereputation of the brand owner.1.3.4 Local brand:A brand that is sold and marketed (distributed and promoted) in a relativelysmall and restricted geographical area. A local brand is a brand that can be found in onlyone country or region. it may be called a regional brand if the area encompasses morethan one metropolitan market. It may also be a brand that is developed for a specificnational market, however an interesting thing about local brand is that the local brandingis more often done by consumers than by the producers. Examples of local brands inSweden are Stomatol, Skâneme etc.
  • 15. 1.3.5 Brand name:The brand name is quite often used interchangeably with “brand”, althoughit is more correctly used to specifically denote written or spoken linguistic elements ofany product. In this context a “brand name” constitutes a type of trademark, if the brandname exclusively identifies the brand owner as the commercial source of products orservices. A brand owner may seek to protect proprietary rights in relation to a brand namethrough trademark registration and such trademarks are called “Registered Trademarks”.Advertising spokespersons have also become part of some brands, for example: Mr.Whipple of Charmin toilet tissue and Tony the Tiger of Kellogg‟s Frosted Flakes. Localbranding is usually done by the consumers rather than the producers.1.3.6 Types of brand names:Brand names come in many styles. A few include:Initialism: A name made of initials such as UPS or IBM
  • 16. Descriptive: Names that describe a product benefit or function like Whole Foods orAirbusAlliteration and rhyme: Names that are fun to say and stick in the mind like Reese‟sPieces or Dunkin‟ DonutsEvocative: Names that evoke a relevant vivid image like Amazon or CrestNeologisms: Completely made-up words like Wii or KodakForeign word: Adoption of a word from another language like Volvo or SamsungFounders‟ names: Using the names of real people, and founder‟s name like Hewlett-Packard, Dell or DisneyGeography: Many brands are named for regions and landmarks like Cisco and Fuji FilmPersonification: Many brands take their names from myth like Nike or from the minds ofad execs like Betty CrockerThe act of associating a product or service with a brand has become part ofpop culture. Most products have some kind of brand identity, from common table salt todesigner jeans. A brandnomer is a brand name that has colloquially become a genericterm for a product or service. such as Band-Aid or Kleenex, which are often used todescribe any brand of adhesive bandage or any brand of facial tissue respectively.1.3.7 Brand identity:The outward expression of a brand — including its name, trademark,communications, and visual appearance - is brand identity. Because the identity isassembled by the brand owner, it reflects how the owner wants the consumer to perceivethe brand — and by extension the branded company, organization, product or service.This is in contrast to the brand image, which is a customers mental picture of a brand.The brand owner will seek to bridge the gap between the brand image and the brandidentity.Effective brand names build a connection between the brand personality asit is perceived by the target audience and the actual product/service. The brand nameshould be conceptually on target with the product/service (what the company stands for).Furthermore, the brand name should be on target with the brand demographic. Typically,
  • 17. sustainable brand names are easy to remember, transcend trends and have positiveconnotations. Brand identity is fundamental to consumer recognition and symbolizes thebrand‟s differentiation from competitors.Brand identity is what the owner wants to communicate to its potentialconsumers. However, over time, a product‟s brand identity may acquire (evolve), gainingnew attributes from consumer perspective but not necessarily from the marketingcommunications an owner percolates to targeted consumers. Therefore, brandassociations become handy to check the consumer‟s perception of the brand.Brand identity needs to focus on authentic qualities — real characteristicsof the value and brand promise being provided and sustained by organizational and/orproduction characteristics.1.4 Theoretical foundation;1 Brand Awareness2 Positioning3 consumer Awareness4 sales promotionBrand awareness:Brand awareness refers to customers‟ ability to recall and recognize thebrand under different conditions and link to the brand name, logo, jingles and so on tocertain associations in memory. It consists of both brand recognition and brand recall. Ithelps the customers to understand to which product or service category the particularbrand belongs and what products and services are sold under the brand name. It alsoensures that customers know which of their needs are satisfied by the brand through itsproducts (Keller). Brand awareness is of critical importance since customers will notconsider your brand if they are not aware of it.There are various levels of brand awareness that require different levels andcombinations of brand recognition and recall. Top-of-Mind is the goal of most
  • 18. companies. Top-of-Mind Awareness occurs when your brand is what pops into aconsumers mind when asked to name brands in a product category. For example, whensomeone is asked to name a type of facial tissue, the common answer is “Kleenex,”which is a top-of-mind brand. Aided Awareness occurs when a consumer is shown orreads a list of brands, and expresses familiarity with your brand only after they hear orsee it as a type of memory aide. Strategic Awareness occurs when your brand is not onlytop-of-mind to consumers, but also has distinctive qualities that stick out to consumers asmaking it better than the other brands in your market. The distinctions that set yourproduct apart from the competition is also known as the Unique Selling Point or USP.Positioning:Brand positioning refers to “target consumer‟s” reason to buy your brand inpreference to others. It is ensures that all brand activity has a common aim; is guided,directed and delivered by the brand‟s benefits/reasons to buy; and it focusses at all pointsof contact with the consumer.Brand positioning must make sure that:Is it unique/distinctive vs. competitors?Is it significant and encouraging to the niche market?Is it appropriate to all major geographic markets and businesses?Is the proposition validated with unique, appropriate and original .products?Is it sustainable - can it be delivered constantly across all points of contact with theconsumer?Is it helpful for organization to achieve its financial goals?Is it able to support and boost up the organization?In order to create a distinctive place in the market, a niche market has to becarefully chosen and a differential advantage must be created in their mind. Brandpositioning is a medium through which an organization can portray it‟s customers what it
  • 19. wants to achieve for them and what it wants to mean to them. Brand positioning formscustomer‟s views and opinions.Brand Positioning can be defined as an activity of creating a brand offer insuch a manner that it occupies a distinctive place and value in the target customer‟s mind.For instance-Kotak Mahindra positions itself in the customer‟s mind as one entity-“Kotak “- which can provide customized and one-stop solution for all their financialservices needs. It has an unaided top of mind recall. It intends to stay with the propositionof “Think Investments, Think Kotak”. The positioning you choose for your brand will beinfluenced by the competitive stance you want to adopt.Brand Positioning involves identifying and determining points of similarityand difference to ascertain the right brand identity and to create a proper brand image.Brand Positioning is the key of marketing strategy. A strong brand positioning directsmarketing strategy by explaining the brand details, the uniqueness of brand and it‟ssimilarity with the competitive brands, as well as the reasons for buying and using thatspecific brand. Positioning is the base for developing and increasing the requiredknowledge and perceptions of the customers. It is the single feature that sets your serviceapart from your competitors. For instance- Kingfisher stands for youth and excitement. Itrepresents brand in full flight.There are various positioning errors, such as -Under positioning- This is a scenario in which the customer‟s have a blurred and unclearidea of the brand.Over positioning- This is a scenario in which the customers have too limited a awarenessof the brand.Confused positioning- This is a scenario in which the customers have a confused opinionof the brand.Double Positioning- This is a scenario in which customers do not accept the claims of abrand.
  • 20. Consumer awareness:The need for empowerment of consumers as a class cannot be over emphasized and isalready well recognized all over the world. The advancement of technology and advent ofsophisticated gadgets in the market and aggressive marketing strategies in the era ofglobalization have not only thrown open a wide choice, for the consumer but all the samealso rendered the consumer vulnerable to a plethora of problems concomitant to suchrapid changes. There is an urgent and increasing necessity to educate and motivate theconsumer to be wary of the quality of the products, and also the possible deficiencies inthe services of the growing sector of public utilities. In short, the consumer should beempowered with respect to his rights as a consumer. He should be equipped to be vigilantwith a discerning eye so as to be able to protect himself from any wrongful act on the partof the trader. In order to be able to position the consumer in such a state, there is everyneed not only to evolve legal remedies but also provide reliable and exhaustiveinformation, which he can access without much effort and expense. Recognizing theimportance of the problem, the Government of India and State Government have initiatedsteps to introduce dispute redressal mechanism by way of Consumer Protection Ac, but alot more has to be done in the area of creating awareness on the part of the consumer tofacilitate his seeking suitable remedy wherever there is a need. This becomes moreimportant in the rural areas, where there is wide spread illiteracy.He should undertake steps to create a facilitative mechanism with the followingobjectives:1. Promote General Awareness of the rights of the consumer by encouragingconsumer education and supplying information.2. Publish periodical and product specific booklets, pamphlets, cassettes, CDs, slides,documentary films and other devices of mass communication for promotingconsumer awareness in English and regional languages, highlighting the problemin specified areas like real estate, public utilities, non-banking financial agenciesetc.
  • 21. 3. Enlighten the business community on its ethical and legal obligations to maintainquality of the products or services and to be transparent in dealing with consumers.4. Encourage consumer activities to strengthen the existing institutional set up ofconsumer dispute redressal by acting as a facilitator between consumer and theinstitution.5. Study the available legal remedies, analyze and suggest new measures for theeffective and better consumer protection.6. Bring together the consumer, traders and policy makers to exchange informationof mutual interest for better coordination. Bring together the NGO‟s/Consumeractivities operating in different areas and equip them with suitable and requiredinformation and knowledge to enable them to act as nodal agents of change inrural areas.7. Organize and conduct seminars, workshops and group discussions and thusprovide a platform for threadbare discussion of the issues and evolve suitableremedial action. Conduct motivational campaigns for groups of potentialcustomers both in urban and rural areas.8. Coordinate programmes organized by Central and State Governments, State LegalAid Authorities, Academic Institutes, National and International ConsumerOrganizations.9. Periodic interaction with electronic & print media on success stories of consumers.10. Establish links with educational institutions like universities, colleges, highschools to emphasize the need for improving consumer education in thecurriculum. Consumer clubs which were started recently by the A.P. Consumeraffairs, Food & Civil Supplies Dept. would go a long way in achieving this.11. Interact with national level organizations like NISIET, NIRD, ASCI etc. to explorepossible collaboration and organize awareness programmes for their clientele andundertake research projects.12. Organize a database enabling the consumer retrieve the required information in aless expensive and quick way. Set up a website http://scdrc.ap.nic to publish
  • 22. information, news including judgments, articles, on product analysis and relatedmatters for the guidance of consumers to have informed choice of productservices, redressal agencies and mechanisms.(i) Perception: The process by which people translate sensory impressions into acoherent and unified view of the world around them. Though necessarily based onincomplete and unverified (or unreliable) information, perception is equated withreality for most practical purposes and guides human behavior in general.Sales Promotion:Sales promotion is any initiative undertaken by an organisation to promote an increase insales, usage or trial of a product or service (i.e. initiatives that are not covered by theother elements of the marketing communications or promotions mix). Sales promotionsare varied. Often they are original and creative, and hence a comprehensive list of allavailable techniques is virtually impossible (since original sales promotions are launcheddaily!). Here are some examples of popular sales promotions activities:(a) Buy-One-Get-One-Free (BOGOF) - which is an example of a self-liquidatingpromotion. For example if a loaf of bread is priced at $1, and cost 10 cents tomanufacture, if you sell two for $1, you are still in profit - especially if there is acorresponding increase in sales. This is known as a PREMIUM sales promotiontactic.(b) Customer Relationship Management (CRM) incentives such as bonus points ormoney off coupons. There are many examples of CRM, from banks tosupermarkets.(c) New media - Websites and mobile phones that support a sales promotion. Forexample, in the United Kingdom, Nestle printed individual codes on KIT-KATpackaging, whereby a consumer would enter the code into a dynamic website tosee if they had won a prize. Consumers could also text codes via their mobilephones to the same effect.
  • 23. 1.5 Consumer:An individual who buys products or services for personal use and not for manufacture orresale. A consumer is someone who can make the decision whether or not to purchase anitem at the store, and someone who can be influenced by marketing and advertisements.Any time someone goes to a store and purchases a toy, shirt, beverage, or anything else,they are making that decision as a consumer.Rights and responsibilities if consumer:Consumer protection movements have evolved and grown worldwide in the past fewdecades. This global drive to protect and uphold consumer interests is amply reflected inthe guidelines adopted by the UN General Assembly in 1985 (Resolution 3 9/248) for theprotection of consumer rights, and in the efforts of international organization such asConsumer International. Consumer protection movements reflect the social and culturalpatterns and attitudes of a given society in which they operate, as well as promote goodmarket practices and a sustainable consumption patterns. Consumer movements not onlyprotect consumer rights, but also aim to educate the consumers about theirresponsibilities and build a more equitable and fair society.CRCP shares the vision of Consumer International and endorses consumer guidelines andresponsibilities prescribed by it and by the UN General Assembly. CRCP perceives itsrole not only as defending the rights of the consumer but more importantly towardsachieving a clear social understanding about what it means to be consumer. It strives forthe emergence of an organized consumer movement through building a broad base ofinformed and responsible consumers. CRCP endeavors to support the consumers to comeout of the prevailing inertia and play a more active role in deciding their consumptionpatterns to effect long-term socio economic change and achieve sustainable development.A summary of Consumer International‟s (CI) philosophy of Consumer Rights andResponsibilities
  • 24. Consumer Rights:Basic NeedsThe right to basic goods and services, which guarantee survival. It includes adequatefood, clothing, shelter, health care, education and sanitation.SafetyThe right to be protected against products, production processes and services which arehazardous to health and life. It includes concern for consumer‟s long-term as well as theirimmediate requirements.InformationThe right to be given the facts needed to make an informed choice or decision. Consumermust be provided with adequate information enabling them to act wisely and responsibly.They must also be protected from misleading or inaccurate publicity material, whetherincluded in advertising, labeling, packaging or by other means.ChoiceThe right to choose products and services at competitive prices and, in the case ofmonopolies, to have an assurance of satisfactory quality and service at a fair price.RepresentationThe right to advocate consumers‟ interests with a view to their receiving full andsympathetic consideration in the formulation and execution of economic and otherpolicies. It includes the right of representation in governmental and other policy-makingbodies as well as in the development of products and services before they are produced orset up.RedressThe right to a fair settlement ofjust claims. It includes the right to receive compensationfor misrepresentation of shoddy goods or unsatisfactory services and the availability ofacceptable forms of legal aid or redress for small claims where necessary.Consumer EducationThe right to acquire the knowledge and skills to be an informed consumer throughoutlife. The right to consumer education incorporates the right to the knowledge and skills
  • 25. needed for taking action to influence factors, which affect consumer decisions.Healthy EnvironmentThe right to a physical environment that will enhance the quality of life includesprotection against environmental dangers over which the individual has no control Itacknowledge the need to protect and improve the environment for present and futuregenerations.Consumer Responsibilities:Critical AwarenessThe responsibility to be more alert and questioning about the price and quality of goodsand services we consume.ActionThe responsibility to assert ourselves by acting to ensure that we get a fair deal As longas we remain passive consumers we will continue to be exploited and manipulated.Social ConcernThe responsibility to consider the impacts of our consumption patterns and lifestyles onother citizens especially the poor disadvantaged or powerless consumers whether they bein the local national or international community.Environmental AwarenessThe responsibility to realize the environmental costs and consequences of ourconsumption patterns and lifestyles. We should recognize our individual and collectivesocial responsibility to conserve natural resources and to preserve earth for present andfuture generations.SolidarityThe responsibility to come together and organize consumers in order to enhance thestrength and influence required to promote and protect our interests.
  • 26. SECTION-BREVIEW OF LITERATUREMilk products Truffles are so goodPosted :aug 04,2010Milk products are one of the best inventions ever created in the course ofhuman existance. Milk products is such tasty and delicious treat and it can be purchasedfor your self or given as a gift. Milk products gifts are always an appreciated andappropriate gift. One of the best gifts anyone could receive is a hybrid of milk productsand the flower. instead of abouquet of flower that will die or a simple box of milkproducts you can always give someone a milk products rose as a gift. milk products rosesas a gift. milk products can be shaped into the form of a rose and covered in red milkproducts foil with a stem and a leaf attached. This flower is made to resemble a beautifulred rose on the put side that can be unwrapped and devoured, if the recipient in mindreally likes milk products with an intense passion and would prefer to have an entire boxof milk products rather than the few bites that are blooming inside of a red foil wrappedmilk products rose there is always the ever populer gift of rich and delicious milkproducts truffles to satisfy.Milk products truffles are made by chocolatiers in a lost every rich anddelectable flavor imaginable, milk products truffles are among one of the most popularand best gifts to be recieved because rich cocoa is so delicious and the chocolatiers thatmade truffles are knowledgeable about how to make them. Well crafted milk productstruffles are a wonderful treat to receive as a gift or to win in a basket at a raffle.When you need a Treat, Milk products gifts hit the spot posted :Aug 04,2010Just about everybody loves Milk products .From the iconic hershey kiss tothe top of the line godiva brand, milk products comes in various forms and shapes. Milkproducts truffles are a special treat that satisfies a refined taste.
  • 27. M&Mappear in candy dishes all over the world, one of the best thingsabout milk products is that it makes a great gift.Milk products gifts are available for all occasions. on valentine‟s day, it isalmost mandatory that you buy your sweatheart a heart-shaped box of the sweet treat.The one or maybe two pound boxes con tam an assortment of milk products with nuts,caramel, coconut, nougat, cremes and other filings. You can choose boxes with light,dark or a combination of the two types of milk products.Holidays are another time for boxed milk products. when you go over toyour aunt betty‟s house for thanks giving dinner, a nice box of milk products isappropriate .while milk products gifts are not expensive (unless you are buying someexotic, imported brand),they are always appreciated. when the box is opened ,you beteterbe quick, before all the “good ones” get snatched up.During easter, chocolates take several different forms. Large, hollow milkproducts bunnies with candy eyes line the shelves of drug stores. Walmart has a specialcandy display. There are milk products easter eggs with marshmallow filling. Milkproducts Peanut butter eggs and crunchy milk product eggs. Any respectable easterbasket should be filled withsome delicious milk products.Birthday‟s, cheering up an ill patient, or rewarding your child‟s excellentschool performance are all very appropriate for milk products gifts.The world of milkproductsposted:jun 01,2010Milk products are loved the world over. why do so many people love milk products?Probably because of the almost unlimited variety of flavours had textures that milkproducts has. Ever since milk products was first discovered over 3,000 year ago by theAztecs, people have enjoyed milk products. Of course, although people all time haveenjoyed milk products, it didn‟t start out as we know it today. it wasn‟t the sweet littlemilk products or bars that we like to think of. Instead ,it started in south America only asa bitter drink.
  • 28. Soon through, coco made its deduct into the rest of the world and into thehands of many eager bakers. milk products went from just a bitter drink, into all kinds offlavours. coco was made into sweet drinks, cakes, desserts and bars. The flavors rangedin everything form bitter dark to ultra sweet and decadent. one of thest indulgent is milkproducts truffles. Theses little milk products are filled with ganache ,a mixture of bothsemisweet milk products and cream.In 1765 Milk product was first introduced to the united state by n irishmannamed john hanan. both john and American candy maker James baker built the firstAmerican milk products mill in 1780.Then they started production milk products for thepublic. It wasn‟t long before their little milk products bussiness began to takeoff.Americans were in love!Now, well over 200 years later, the American public is still in love andobsessed with milk products .7 billion dollers a year alone is spent on milkproducts/much of that is spent on milk products. gifts, whether of course that gift is forsomeone other than yourself is entirely up to you!Let s hear it for the wedding milk products favoursposted:Mar3O,2009 .Belgian milk products is one of the best milk products in the world. butthen again it doesn‟t have to be Belgium milk products to create a mouth watering effectto those people who crave for sweets. wedding milk products are simply a quality choiceas a wedding favor.But then, milk products are not just a token given to someone special on aspecial event. Milk products wedding favors have become one of the greatest items acouple could use in their wedding as a favour if it is going to be your own wedding,perhaps you might as well consider this option.It‟s just to show that a wedding favour is not anymore particular to a homedecor but it cannow also be a usable or an edible thing. Intimacy and passion comes tomind when talking milk products.
  • 29. Perhaps it is the reason why they have been used as one of the options inthe line up of wedding favour. And to make wedding milk products favour more suitablefor a wedding, different modles have been created to shape the milk products into designsthat would suit any type of wedding of course there are other taste available as well inmint, dark, or whiteMilk products, and these can be appropriately matched with a particularshape of wedding milk products favours.Wedding milk products favors can fit a royal wedding theme, an outdoorwedding, or Disney-type topic wedding. A Milk products favors lollipop can take aboutany shape or designs that could fit a wedding celebration. Those heart-shaped milkproducts favours that have a design in the middle are the simplest design that you canhave.You can also use an oval, round, or rectangular forms since they are wideenough to make more patterns in the middle of the milk products. Some of the moreunique shaps in the wedding milk products design world would be wedding gown,tuxedo, bride and groom image, flowers such as rose and calla lily, birds such as swanand dove, castle, wedding bell, wedding cake, and even elegant fans.Furthermore, these chocolaty design can also be modified a bit and usethem as a wedding milk products cake topper or centerpiece.you can add some moreaccessories to your milk products favors.A colorful mimi sticks and a ribbon can turn your favor iooly into a moreamazing wedding favor. But then, you can also give those milk products wedding favorsa personal touch if you want to individualized Milk products favors are also more invitingbecause your guest will see that you have put some extra effort into creating them.Looking for the best wedding favor can be a lot of fun that you and yourpartner can be together. When you pick out to have milk products as your wedding favor,rest assured that you and your spouse will share that sweet moment; designing yourwedding motif together.
  • 30. To formulate the problem precisely and top in point the importance ofundertaking it, it is essential to carry out a brief review of the studies related directly orindirectly to the present investigation. Some of the studies conducted earlier are given inchronological order.Johnston(1981)proposed that time may be the most important variable inconsumer behaviour. On one side, the time dimension of consumer behaviour is viewedas just beginning to emerge as a major variable of study ,on the other side, however, timehas been implicitly and explicity incorporated into consumer behaviour theory andmarketing strategies for quite some time. Adoption of products by consumers was notcharacterized by analystic consumption behaviour but by risk aversion and preference forincremental changing in the consumption set.Gofton and Nees (1991) studied that the twin trends of heath andconvenience have resulted in changing food consumption patterens. their research amongconsumers confirmed that their is a wareness and concern about the relationship betweenhealth and diet the better educated are more food -conscious. changing lifestyles and thechanging role of women are shown to affect food habits.Bruhn (1992) reported concern about the impact of diet on health that hasled consumers to reduce the consumption of foods percieved as being high in fat. Taste,safety, and nutrition were most important in food selection. Nutritive factors consideredmost important were total fat content, cholesterol, fats both saturated and unsaturatedones by the consumers.Arthley (I 993) reported that the food manufacturers must ensure that thefood they produce should satisfy customers‟demands namely,i.e.the food should be safeto eat ,healthy and nutritious and it should be of high quality and value or money andincreasingly,it must havebuilt- in convenience.Zink(1997)studied that consumer demand for new food nad changes ineating habits and food safety risks are affecting the food processing industry. The
  • 31. population is becoming older on average; moreever, consumers ,want fresh andminimally processed food without synthetic chemical preservatives.Candel(2001) proposed that consumer research s consider convenienceorientation towards meal preparation to be a relevant construct for understandingconsumer behaviour towards foods. As examined in two different samples of mealpreparers. convenience orientation was found to be negatively related to cookingenjoyment, involvement with food products and variety seeking and to be positivelyrelated to role overload. his analysis also suggest that the lack of relation between themeal preparer‟s working status and convenience food consumption as found in manystudies, is due to convenience food not restaurants appear to satisfy the consumers needfor convenience more adequately.Costa et al (2001) introduced a new definition and classification system forhome meal replacements (HMR),based on convenience attributes as viewed byconsumers. The classifying criteria chosen were based on shelf-life and requiredpreparation. Results showed that the use of a narrow range of HMR is characteristic ofDutch food consumption. The classification system is expected to provide valuablesupport for consumer-oriented products and process development.Creed (2001 )studied that consumer demand for convenience has led to theprepared frozen meals according to age group, social class, gender and frequency ofeating out, and the potential for extending the use of prepared meals to those who couldbenefits.lt concluded that the system can provide opportunities to satisfy many groups ofconsumers with regard to nutritional, sensory, convenience and safety aspects.Tauscher(2002) studied that consumer demands for high-quality foods with“Fresh like” characteristics that require only a minimum amount of effort and time forpreparation has led to the introduction of convenience foods preserved by mildtreatments. Non-thermal methods allow the processing of foods below temperatures usedduring thermal pasteurisation, so flavours, essential nutrients, and vitamins undergominimal or no changes. This process is used to create food and food ingredients with newsensory and functional properties including also physiological functionality.
  • 32. Friedeck et al(2003)revealed that the flavor and texture effects of soyprotein fortification of low-fat dairy-based ice cream were most important for theacceptance of frozen ice-cream. Low fat ice cream mixes were formulated with 0, 2 and 4percent soy protein isolates(SPI). Sensory attributes, volatile flavor comments,instrumental color properties compared with the 0 percent SPI control. This informationaided in optimization of an acceptable soy-fortified dairy ice cream.Tillotson(2003) studied the effects of high pressure processing(HPP) onconsumer acceptance for chilled ready meals manufactured using a low-value beef cut.Data were collected on consumers‟ food consumption patterns, their attitudes towardsfood by means of the reduced food-related lifestyle and socio-demograhics.Ahlgen and hall(2004) studied that food choice is dependent upon beliefsabout both the products and those who consume these products. He studied the beliefsabout the protypical attributes of ready meal consumers to establish which beliefs existand whether they have any actual basis when compared with self-reported behaviors‟ ofready meal consumers. In a survey, respondents described what they considered to becommon attributes of ready meal consumers. Most interesting was the fact that twofrequently mentioned attributes, being alone and no interest in cooking or food, wereconfirmed by the frozen ready meal consuming respondents in the actual eating situationbut not by their life-style and beliefs in general. In the different eating situations therewere dissimilar reasons for consumption. Two ready meal eating situations wereinvestigated in greater detail in order to establish what triggered the ready mealconsumption in these situations. One of these meal situations proved to be conveniencedriven and the other time driven.Cardello and schutz(2004) conducted the analytic studies with civiles withcivillian and military consumers in order to assess the factors that contribute to theconcept of food freshness and the relative importance of freshness to order productvariables. Result showed the concept of freshness to be determined primarily by timefrom harvest/production and food type. Foods that were described as “minimamallyprocessed e.g.”frozen and thawed “were rated as less fresh than other foods.
  • 33. Hlgren et al (2004) reported that food choice is dependent upon beliefsabout the products and consumers. Beliefs about the prototypical attributes of ready mealconsumers have been investigated to establish the beliefs that exist and whether they haveany actual basis when compared with self-reported behaviour of ready meal consumers.Khanona and Aung(2004) proposed that the diverse consumer attitudestowards the safety of food. The diversity among consumers is based on a variety offactors, including demograhics and socio-economies status. The relationship betweenconsumer attitudes, knowledge and behaviour regarding food safety is also examined inthis paper. It indicates that different attitudes do not necessarily lead to behaviour thatsafety of the food consumed.Ling et al 92004) studied the attitude about new food purchases betweeninnovators/early adopters and non-innovators and to determine the food purchasecharacteristics of innovators/early adopters and non-innovators, food prices wererelatively important to both consumer groups. Marketing implications for food businesswere discussed.McCarthy et al (2004) focused on the Irish convenience food consumer andinvestigates four convenience food categories; frozen ready meals, take -away meals, andpub meals. Comparison of the regression result across the four convenience foodcategories highlighted the importance of convenience food-related lifestyle issues in thepurchase of ready meals. General food- related lifestyle issues were more important in thepurchase of take-away meals. The consumption of restaurants and pub meals was leasteffected by convenience related dimensions and more by the importance o f social events.Ragaert et al (2004) studied the consumer perception nad choice of foodproducts. The likelihood of buying minimally processed vegetables tends to be higheramong better-educated consumers and among consumers with young children. The mostimportant motivation for purchasing minimally processed vegetables relates toconvenience and speed, especially for consumers who buy this product during weekends.Although health and nutritional value scored relatively low in terms of importance duringthe purchasing and consumption stages of minimally processed vegetables, consumers
  • 34. with a high awareness of the relationship between food and health attach significantlymore importance to theses credence attributes.Urala(2004) studied attitude behind consumers‟ willingness to use foodproducts and described food related seven factors describing consumers‟ attitude towardsfoods. These factors were as follow :perceived reward from using foods, foods as part ofa healthy diet and the health effects of foods vs. their taste. These attitude subscalesdifferentiated between consumers in their reported willingness to use foods.Burns(2005) studied that consumers are being assailed by new products andservices, many of which can alter time-honored consumption customs. Adoption of time -saving processed food items by contemporary Chinese consumers was influenced byincreased income and demands on time.Verbeke (2006) studied that the forecast of a bright future for frozenfoods,which constitute the fastest growing segment in the food market. One of the keysucess factors pertains to consumer acceptance of the concept of these foods. Thelikelihood of these food acceptance also increases with the presence of a high level ofclaimed knowledge or awareness. This adverse impact of high awareness decreases withincreasing consumer age. Belief, knowledge and presence of an ill family memberoutweight socio-demographics as potential determinants.Carrigan et al (2007) studied the role of convenience food within the foodstrategies of contemporary UK families, and aims to elicit consumption meanings in thebroader social context of family relationships with food & their rituals, routines andconventions. The findings revealed that convenience was having multiple meanings forUK women, and that convenience food was incorporated into reiterpreted versions ofhomemade and “proper” meals. A hierarchy of acceptable convenience food waspresented by the mothers, who tackle complex and conflicting family routines byintroducing convenience solutions.Cowan(2008) examined the consumption of frozen ready meals by Britishconsumers. Attitudes were the best predictor of behavioural intention and an additionalvariable, habit was included in the study. This increased predictive power but reduced the
  • 35. influence of attitudes. For food products, behavioral intentions were the best predictor ofbehaviour for a model including behavioral intentions, perceived behavioral control andhabit, value for money was the most important of three beliefs investigated for eachproducts for those who intended to consume ready meals.Botonak(20 10) proposed that the increasing importance of convenience inconsumer food choices has attracted researchers‟ interest. In the effort to understand howconvenience affects consumers‟ food preferences, values are believed to play animportant role. The result reveal that convenience food consumption and convenienceorientation in the food domain are mainly connected.Sorenson et al (2011) studied the effects of high pressure processing (HPP)on consumer acceptance for chilled ready meals manufactured using a low-value beefcut. Data were also collected on consumers‟ food consumption patterns, their attitudestowards food by means of the reduced food-related lifestyle (FRL) instrument, and socio-demographics. The result indicated that a pressure treatment of 200MP was acceptable tomost consumers. K-means cluster analysis identified 4 consumer groups with similarpreferences, and the optimal pressure treatments acceptable to specific consumer groupswere identified for those firms that would wish to target attitudinally differentiatedconsumer segments.Although a lot of study has been done in the area of consumer behaviourand adoption of innovative and healthy food products but much research has not beencarried out to study the consumer attitude and adoption process of frozen food. Thisresearch is an attempt to fill the gap.
  • 36. Chapter-2COMPANY PROFILE2.1 Introductions:Verka, a leading dairy brand of Punjab, which provioddce fresh milk,paneer, curd ghee to million of homes across the region, is facing stiff competition from anamesake brand registered in the US which has patented the brand name and the productrange. A part from making the Punjab state corporative milk product federation‟s(milkfed) task difficult in exporting the product to the north American market ,thegovernment feels that the US brand is misguiding unsuspecting patrons .Milkfied isconsidering going the legal action.The US-based company in question is quality product Inc in calefornia,incorporated in 2002,is owned by an lndian, Kulwinder dhillion. The company websiteprovide detail of the company selling dahi, paneer, and ghee under the verka brand acrossthe north American continent. The smartly packages products bear the „real Californiaseal‟ and the status of approval accorded by the US health department and the FDA.Currently, Milkfied exports over 1,100 tones of „desi ghee‟ worth Rs 14crores, largly to the gulf, philippiness, Australia and new Zealand. Milkfied had aturnover of Rs.800 crores in 2006- 07 and is targeting a 15% growth with fiscal. With thestate government marking on the major revamp of milkfied exiting capacity, it has to beseen what the government do to protect the hugely popular verka brand. One of theleading dairy brands of north India. Verka is yet another contribution from the state ofPunjab. The flagship brand of Punjab‟ state corporative milk producers‟ Fedration LTD(milkfied), Verka is today enjoying the patronage of customers both within and outsidethe country. Milkfed future programmes can never be complete without verka.Verka is a brand leader in milk powders particularly in northern and easternsectors. The milkfied brand commands a premium price over milk powders manufacturedby competitors. This includes multinational as well as private trade and other corporativefederations.
  • 37. Mi!kfied is serving nationwide consumers through its network of regional offices andstrong distribution channels. Milkfied markets a wide Varity of products, which includeliquid milk, skimmed milk powder, whole milk powder, infant food, ghee, butter, cheese,lassi, SFM, ice cream, malted food and verka vigour etc.The annual turnover of milkfiedhas touched to Rs.45Ocrore.Milkfied state that it has successfully leveraged on the brandequity of verka to launch new trends, needs, taste and hopes.Health drinks like verka vigour, verka lassi,sweetened flavored milk and amango drink called raseela have also hit the markets.Milkfied has now come out withverka curd and a whole lot of different flavors of ice creams.Milkfied also made a forayinto the international markets. They say that it was the domestic competition that drovethem to alien destinations. However, Milkfied has already established its ghee market inthe middle east. verka ghee reaches all the emirates and is available in almost all supermarkets. In addition to ghee, SMP is also exported to Asian countries like Philippines,Bangladesh and sri lanka. verka malt plus (malted milkfood) is being exported toBangladesh also. with technology mission programmes,ever widening markets andincreasing exports,Milkfied is preparing it self to take verka to greater heights. Thefederation has planned to introduce more value-added products like tetra-pack plain milkand low calorie lassi.Milkfied not only provides assured market to milk producers but alsocarries input to enhance milk to their doorsteps.the District cooperative milk producer‟sunions and milk plant have attained self-sufficiency or are on the threshold of attaining it.Milkfied has played a very vital role in providing a strong was for remunerative price to
  • 38. the producer‟s they get more money for their milk and payments are timely. In additiontachnical input services in feeding ,breeding and management are easily accessible.Value addition is one of Milkfiedls trust areas and the plants produce notonly pasteurized, homogenized milk but also butter milk, cream, butter and classifiedbutter-oil (ghee) and several other products. The milk union have marketed milk and milkproducts. The puniab state Milk Federation yesterday launched verka sweet lassi andmango rasela in chandigarh.verka lassi is popiler in india as well as abroad (milkfiedexported lassi tojapan and bagladesh).The managing diractor of Milkfied ,vikas partap,said there had been apersistent demand from the consumers to launch the tetra pack and it was the ideal timeto hit the market.Milkfied has 11 plants in punjab producing 35 products, includingtraditional sweets.he said there was vast scope for expension in the milk sweets segmentand the firm would launch two more in the category (son papri and dhoda) by the end ofthis month.Milkfied supplies 50 lakh liter per annum of ultra heat treated milk to easterncommand (50 lakh liter per annum) and northern command (36 lakh liter per annum).Heinformed that the federation procures about 7 lakh litres of milk every day and 7 lakhfarmers of punjab were earning their livelihood through Milkfied.„pure ghee nad toned milk of verka is in great demand in West Asia and we earnedabout Rs 13.5 crore from export business last year‟ added. The Punjab milkfied alsosupplies 40,000hter of milk every day to mother dairy .The custom packaging of milk isdone at Patiala and the milk is then dispached to Delhi foe sale.”We have a turnover ofRs 700 crore last year and expect to do better this year with the opening up of trade tieswith Pakistan”, he said. He said a trade delegation was in the city to discuss the feasibilityof business with Milkfied. he pointed out that the government -run milk federation, a lossmaking unit for two years, has clocked in profit due to a up grade of marketing strategies.Milkfed was all set to pose a challenge to the private players, through anaggressive marketing drive in the near future, he added. The Mohali plant of milkfied hadreceived the national productivity award,2005,on Wednesday. The award was given by
  • 39. the union minister of agriculture in new Delhi. Milk plant mohali bagged the award forthe third time.PUNJAB DRINK „LASSI‟ OUTSCORES EXOTIC DRINKS IN COMPETITIONPatiala(PTI):Punjab‟s household drink „lassi‟has outscored other exotic drinks in a uniqueentrepreneurship competition held in Europe.‟ lassi‟ was named the best beverage drinkat the “Know Europe-2008”entrepreneurship programme in which a 20-year-old studentfrom Chandigarh, Taman raj singh, represented india. The month-long programme,organised under the aegis of normandy business school of finance, aimed at assessing theentrepreneurship acumen of business school students around the world.The invites were asked to given marketing presentation of beveragesfamous in their countries and taman chose the traditional pUnjabi drink.His presentation was a mix of tradition and modernity-the age-old”lassi” inverka‟s tetra bpacks. it impressed the judges immensely and got a high grading of 90 percent and the reason why none other beverages matched “lassi” was its unique qualities-amix of simplicity, flavor and health.” it was not very difficult to convince people thatlassi, a simple mixture of yogurt and water, was a healthy drink that could be consumedby people of all ages, infants and patients, without hitch. And what‟s more, it can be hadsweet, salt, spicy or even plain, Taman said. outscored exotic wines, fancy coffees-lattesand cappuccino in the competition that was held last month at four places in brussels, theNetherlands, France and spin.Believe it or not, Punjab‟s household beverages has outscored exotic wines,fancy coffees lattes and cappuccino-and brewed beer at a unique entrepreneurshipcompetition in Brussels, the Netherland, France and spin. And the youth, who achievedthis rare feat for “Lassi”, is a 20-year- old B.com student of S D college-32.Taman Rajsingh represented india at the “Know Europe - 2008”entrepreneurship programme,organized under the aegis o f normaandy Business school of france.For the month-long programmes, aimed at assessing the entrepreneurship of businessschool students, youth all over the world were invited to give marketing presentation of
  • 40. beverages famous in their countries, Taman chose the traditional punjabi drink. Hispresentation was a mix of tradition and modernity -the age-old “lassi”in verka‟s tetrapacks. The presentation impressed the judges immensely and it bagged an unprecedentedgrading of 90 per cent.And the reason why none other beverage matched “lassi” was its uniquequalities -a mix of simplicity, flavor and health.” it was not very difficult to convincepeople that “lassi”, a simple mixture of yogurt and water, was a healthy drink, a drinkthat could be consumed by people of alleges, infants, without hitch. And what‟s more, itcan be had sweet, salt, spicy or even plain,” said Taman.This entrepreneurship programme was conducted at four places at brusselsby hogeschool universities, at the Netherlands by inholttland university, at France byNormandy business school and at spin by the universitat politecnica catalunya. it washeld under the auspices of the student exchange programme orgnised between thenormandy Franch university and SD collage 32.Since the target market was paris, taman,along with his five-member team of foreign students, went to all restaurants and bighotlels of the city to promote their respectives drinks. An ecstatic taman said:”The feelingis just out of world”.2.2 Inception:Milk production is very important part of the agriculture economy in thestate of punjab. punjab is one of the smallest state in indian union with a total area of
  • 41. 50.362sq.kms,which is 1.5% of the indian landmass dairy farming is an age oldsubsidiary proffesion in the rural areas of punjab.Punjab is the second largest milkproducing state in india, producing around 10% of the countries milk production i.e .8million tones annually.1. First milk plant,of the state was setup at VERKA near amritsar.2. The brand name of milk and milk products adopted as VERKA.3. The foundation stone of milk plant,ludhiana was laid by Hon.S.Parkash singhBadal,the minister of punjab in june 22,1970.2.2.1 Objectives:a) To bring prosperity to Milk Producers in the State through assured market andremunerative prices all round the year.b) To provide fresh hygienic milk to urban consumers at reasonable rates.c) To ensure viability and growth of Milk Unions by converting surplus milk intoproducts and ensure their marketing.d) To modernize existing Plants and upgrade technology from time to time.2.2.2 Mission Statement:To support the Milk Producers in uplifting their rural economy, make allthe Milk Unions viable and ensure quality milk & milk products to consumers.2.2.3 Vision Statement:The vision for the next five years is to triple the turnover the federation from levelof INR 7.25 billion in 2006-07 to INR 26 billion in 2012-13.Ensure grass root level presentation of the Cooperative movement.Increase Economics of scale in Milk Unions (Procurement/ Marketing)Capacity expansion and modernization of the dairy plants.Serous thrust on increasing marketing orientation.
  • 42. 2.3 The Punjab state cooperative milk producers federation limited:The Punjab State Cooperative Milk Producers‟ Federation Limitedpopularly known as MILKFED Punjab, came into existence in 1973 with a twin objectiveof providing remunerative milk market to the Milk Producers in the State by valueaddition and marketing of produce on one hand and to provide technical inputs to themilk producers for enhancement of milk production on the other hand.Although the federation was registered much earlier, but it came to real selfin the year 1983 when all the milk plants of the erstwhile Punjab Dairy DevelopmentCorporation Limited were handed over to Cooperative sector and the entire State wascovered under Operation Flood to give the farmers a better deal and our valued customersbetter products.Today, when we look back, we think we have fulfilled the promise to someextent. The setup of the organisation is a three tier system, Milk Producers CooperativeSocieties at the village level, Milk Unions at District level and Federation as an ApexBody at State level. MILKFED Punjab has continuously advanced towards its covetedobjectives well defined in its byelaws.2.3.1 Milk production network:-Working on “Anand Pattern” the process of organizing societies at villagelevel started in Punjab as early as 1978. Presently, there is strong Network of about 6474(as on 3 1.3.2010) Milk Producers Cooperative Societies organized at village level.About 3.65 Lakh milk producer members are attached to these societies. Fresh milk isprocured from the milk producers twice a day through village level societies directlywithout the assistance of any middleman.2.3.2 Input service:It is one of the fundamental objectives of MILKFED to carry out activitiesfor promoting milk production in the State. In view of this, various technical inputservices like veterinary health care, artificial insemination services, vaccination, supply
  • 43. of VERKA balanced cattle feed and quality fodder seed etc. are provided for enhancingmilk production and economic development of farming community.2.3.3 Cattle induction programme:Government of Punjab has identified dairy sector as thrust area for ruraldevelopment. Recently, Milkfed Punjab has signed memorandum of understanding(MOU) with State Bank of India, State Bank of Patiala and Oriental Bank of Commercefor providing loan up to Rs.50,000/- without any collateral security to milk producerfarmers for purchase of milch cattle on soft terms and low rate of interest.2.3.4 Clean milk production programme:For improving quality of raw milk right from milk producer‟s level, qmassive programme called “CMP” has been launched under which 290 Bulk MilkCoolers have been installed in the societies and many more in pipe line. Besides, morethan 1226 Automatic Milk Collection Stations have been provided to the societies forbringing efficiency and total transparency in the system. Traditional manual method ofmilk testing at society level is being replaced with Electronic Milk Testers.2.3.5 Women dairy products:Household level dairying is largely the domain of women especially insmall and marginal household families. In view of this fact, Milkfed has undertakenWomen Dairy Project in six Milk Unions namely Hoshiarpur, Ropar, Patiala, Jalandhar,Ludhiana and Amritsar with an objective to empower rural women in the field of dairy.This Programme is being implemented under Support to Training & EmploymentProgramme (STEP) with the assistance of Government of India. Under this programme,390 women societies with 20596 women beneficiary members will be organized.
  • 44. 2.4 Marketing:MILKFED is serving nation wide consumers through its net work ofRegional offices and very strong Distribution channels. MILKFED markets a wide rangevariety of Verka products which include liquid milk, skimmed milk powder, whole milkpowder, ghee, butter, cheese, lassi, SFM, Ice Cream, etc. The annual turn over ofMILKFED has crossed Rs.1255 crores. Verka is a brand leader in milk powders and SMPmarketed by MTLKFED commands a premium price over powders manufactured bycompetitors which include multi national as well as private trade and other CooperativeFederations. Now Verka is known for its quality, freshness, purity and of course its homemade taste.2.4.1 Extension of the board:After winning faith of innumerable consumers, Verka did not stop.Changing times brought new trends, needs, tastes and hopes. Verka, dynamic as ever tooacquired newer forms of adding values to milk and milk products. Apart from introducingnew variants of UHT long shelf life milk and SFM in carry away bottles, Milkfed has aplan to add more variety of flavours in SFM. VERKA Ice Cream in different flavours andpackagings is available in the market. Many new products are in pipe line.In true sense,milk had never meant so much before.2.4.2 Export of milk products:After carving a niche in the national market, Verka brand has reached inforeign market also. MILKFED has established its Ghee market in Middle East . VerkaGhee reaches all the emirates and is available almost in all super markets. Thepenetration is so deep that Verka ghee is available even in far off labour camps. Inaddition to Dubai, Saudi Arabia, Muscat, Australia and Japan, Verka Ghee is exported toNewzealand and Malasia also.
  • 45. 2.5 Quality assurance programme:Quality assurance programme (QAP) which is a part and parcel of dairyplant improvement programme(DPIP) was taken up in Ludhiana Milk union with theTechnical guidance from NDDB. The main objective of the programme is to improveefficiency of plants coupled with loss management to bring down the cost of production,improve the quality of milk and milk productsmanufactured to ameliorate the general hygienicand house keeping standards and above all toenhance the profitability and financial viability ofthe milk plants to enable milk producers to getbetter price for there products.Verka milk product may go on stir:cutting across party affiliations, all 12 directors on the board of the verkamilk plant, Ludhiana, have got together to threaten an agitation if the milkfiedmanagement does not increase the procurement price of milk from producers.At a meeting held at the verka milk plant here today, the directors,belonging to the shiromani Akali dal (SAD), paramjit singh ghawadi(congress) and fivedirectors each from SAD and congress, said the milkfied management never takes updevelopment issues unemployment.The directors have demanded that the rates of purchases of milk from milkproducers should be increased immediately. They want an end to interference too.Ludhiana, november II in the backdrop of seizure of adulterated milk in thecity, the verka milk plant has installed a free milk-testing centre outside its main gate onfreozpur road.“The centre will be providing free milk testing facility from 9 am to 5 pmon all working days,” said Anup singh, general manager, verka milk plant. The companyis milling over the idea to extend the facility even on Sundays.
  • 46. It has asked consumers to get 250 ml of unpasteurized milk at the tests,including for synthetic milk, done there.” within ten to fifteen minutes a report will behanded over to the consumer,‟ said a company employee. In the past few weeks, thehealth department has seized a huge quality of adulterated milk from several shops in thecity.‟ there is an increase in the supply of spurious and adulterated milk in the market. soit was the need of the hour to open this kind of center,”Anup singh said. Due tounawareness and lack of facilities of getting milk tasted, the residents had no option butto use be-level milk and its products, he added. The verka milk plant receives about 2.50lakh liters of milk daily from 750 villages of Ludhiana district through villages-level milkcooprative socities,“In the last five months I have cancelled the contacts of many contractorswhose supply was not up to the mark, anup singh.ualthrough there was a lot of politicalpressure on me. I didn‟t bow to it and cancelled the contracts of 20 to 25 years oldcontractors. The company says it tests the milk at milk cooprative socities first and thenagain at verka milk plant just to rule out any adulteration in it.To keep a strict vigil on private daily owners, anup singh said the companywas planning to raid some private dairy owners along with the health authorities.”We willtake random milk samples from dairies and the health department will take strict actionagainst those indulging in adulteration,” he added.
  • 47. Chapter-3RESEARCH METHODOLOGYObjectives of study:1. Comparison of verka and another brand of beverages.2. To know the satisfaction level of customer with the quality of verka beverages.3. To know reason for preferring verka beverages than another by customers.4. To know the satisfaction level of customers with availability of verka beverages.Research methodology:Research methodology is the way to systematically solve the researchproblem .when we talk about research methodology we not only talk about researchmethods but also talk about the logic behind the method we use in the context of ourresearch that‟s why out research result are capable of being evaluated either by theresearcher himself or by others.The purpose of this section is to describe the methodology carried outcomplete the work. The methodology plays a dominant role in any research work .Theeffectiveness of any research work upon the correctness and effectiveness of the researchmethodology.Research design:A research design is an arrangement of conditions for collection & analysisof data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with theeconomy in procedure .it constitutes the blueprint for collection, measurement &analysisof data. I have used convenient, analytical and descriptive methods.Research instruments:Questionnaire is most common research instrument in collecting primarydata during marketing research .A questions presented to respondents. Because of itsflexibility, the questionnaire is by far the most common instrument used to collectprimary data.
  • 48. Sampling technique:In order to take the sample for the study sample technique selected israndom sampling technique.Sample size:100 customer of Ludhiana districtData collection:Primary data:It done from the randomly selected people from the customer.Secondary data:It done from various books, journals, newspapers and various internet websites.
  • 49. Chapter-4Data analysis and interpretationQ.4.1 Do you often purchase Milk beverage?Response No. of respondents PercentageYes 98 98%No 2 2%Total 100 100%Above table shows that more respondents often purchase milk beverages, very few ofrespondents said they do not purchase milk beverages.98%2%YesNo
  • 50. Q.4.2 Brands of beverages prefer mostly?Brand of beverages preferred mostlyOption No. of respondents PercentageMother dairy 6 (Average) 6.11Amul 22 (good) 22.44Verka 70 (excellent) 71.45Others 0 0Total 98 100%Above table shows that more respondents prefer verka beverages, another prefer amuland few prefer mother diary, because verka is mostly available in Punjab.6.1122.4471.45001020304050607080Mother dairy Amul Verka Others
  • 51. Q.4.3 Frequency of purchase verka beverages?Frequency of purchases verka beveragesOption No. of respondents PercentageDaily 70 71.44Weekly 14 14.3Twice in a week 10 10.2Fortnightly 4 4.06Total 98 100Above table shows that mostly consumer use verka beverages daily and some use weeklyand others twice in a week or fortnightly.71.4414.310.24.0601020304050607080Daily Weekly Twice in aweekFortnightly
  • 52. Q.4.4 Consumer verka beverages?Response No. of respondents PercentageYes 96 97.96No 2 2.06Total 100 100%Above table shows that mostly consumer purchase verka beverages, very few said theydo not purchase verka beverage.98%2%YesNo
  • 53. Q.4.4.B Preferred pack size?Options No. of respondents Percentage200ml 26 26500ml 34 341 litre 40 40Total 100 100Above table shows that more respondents prefer one litre pack size and other 500ml andfew prefer 200 ml.2634400510152025303540200ml 500ml 1 litre
  • 54. Q.4.4.C Problem with verka beverages?Options No. of respondents PercentageQuality problem 0 0Supply problem 1 1.45Price problem 0 0Others 1 1.45Satisfied 96 97.1Above table shows that very few said there is supply problem and other problems inverka beverages.98%0%1%0%1%Quality problemSupply problemPrice problemOthersSatisfied
  • 55. Q.4.5 Satisfaction level with verka beverages?Options No. of respondents PercentageHighly satisfied 26 26.53Satisfied 58 59.18Undecided 12 12.24Dissatisfied 2 2.05Highly dissatisfied 0 0Total 98 100Above table shows that some respondents are highly satisfied, many are satisfied, few aredissatisfied and others are undecided.26.5359.1812.242.0500102030405060HighlysatisfiedSatisfied Undecided Dissatisfied Highlydissatisfied
  • 56. Q.4.6 Customer retentive about verka beverages?Options No. of respondents PercentageYes 96 97.76No 2 2.06Total 98 100Above able indicates that more respondents are retentive about verka beverages becauseof its brand image and good quality.98%2%YesNo
  • 57. 4.7 Customer get verka beverages from?Options No. of respondents PercentageRetailers 72 73.47M.F. Store 20 20.41From other sources 6 6.12Total 98Above table indicates that more retailers purchase verka beverages from retailers, anotherfrom manufacturing stores and few from other sources.73.4720.416.1201020304050607080Retailers M.F. Store From other sources
  • 58. 4.8 Preferred season from verka beverages?Options No. of respondents PercentageSummer 40 40.81Winter 2 2.06Springs 2 2.06All seasons 54 55.13Total 98 100Above that indicates that mostly peoples prefer verka beverages in summer and allseasons. Very few said that they prefer verka beverage in winter.40.812.06 2.0655.130102030405060Summer Winter Springs All seasons
  • 59. 4.9 Satisfaction with availability of verka beverages at the outlets or retailers?Options No. of respondents PercentageYes 96 97.96No 2 2.06Total 98 100It is pertinent from above table that more people are satisfied with availability of verkabeverages, because verka beverages are almost easily available to customers.98%2%YesNo
  • 60. 4.10 Satisfaction with quality of beverages?Options No. of respondents PercentageYes 96 97.96%No 2 2.06%Total 98 100%Above table shows that mostly people are satisfied with the quality of verka beverages,very few they are not satisfied with the quality of verka beverages.962YesNo
  • 61. Most liked feature in verka beveragesOptions No. of respondents PercentageNutrients 22 22.44Taste and flavor 52 53.06Packing 6 6.12Cost 2 2.06Brand image 16 16.32Total 98 100%Above table shows mostly people liked taste and flavor, some liked nutrients, very fewlike it for brand image, packing and cost of verka beverage.22.4453.066.122.0616.320102030405060Nutrients Taste and flavor Packing Cost Brand image
  • 62. Q.4.12 Preference 4 different attributes of verka beverages?Nutrients % Taste % Cost % Packing % Availability %Excellent 24 24.5 50 51 12 12.3 2 2.1 14 14.5Good 66 67.4 34 34.7 60 61.3 56 56.8 50 51Average 8 8.1 14 14.3 26 26.4 40 41.1 34 34.5Total 98 100 98 100 98 100 98 100 98 100Above table shows that respondents like Nutrients, taste and cost of verka beverages.Availability and packaging is good, but not excellent.010203040506070Nutrients Taste Cost Packing AvailabilityExcellentGoodAverage
  • 63. Chapter-5Findings of the study1. 98%of respondents often purchase milk beverage and 2%do not purchase milkbeverage.2. 71 .45%respondent prefer verka. 22.44%respondents prefer amul and rest 6. IIprefer mother dairy.3. Out of 100, 71.44% respondents purchase verka beverage daily,14.3%respondentspurchase verka beverage weekly ,10.2% respondent verka beverage twice in aweek and 4.06%purchase verka beverage fortnightly.4. Out of 100 respondents 97.96% consume verka beverage and 2.06%do notpurchase verka beverage.5. Out of 100 respondents 26% respondents prefer 200 ml 34% prefer 500 ml and40%prefer I liter.6. Out of 100 respondents I.45%respondents said quality problem and 1.45% saidprice problem and 97.1% satisfied.7. Out of 100 respondents 26.53% are highly satisfied with verka beverages .59.18%satisfied, 12.24% undecided and 2.05% are dissatisfied.8. Out of 100 respondents, 97.96% respondents retentive about verka beverages and2.06%respondents are not retentive about verka beverages.9. Out of 100 respondents 73.47%respondents gets verka beverages fromretailers,20.41% respondents gets verka beverages other sources.10. Out of 100 respondents 55.13%respondents prefer verka beverages in all seasons,40.81 %in summer and 2.06%in winter and in springs.11. Out of 100 respondents 97.96% respondents are satisfied with availability of verkabeverages at respondents and outlets and rest 2.06%are not satisfied.12. Out of 100 respondents 97.96% are satisfied with quality of verka beverages andrest 2.06%are not satisfied.
  • 64. 13. Out of 100 respondents 22.44% like verka beverages because of nutrients,53.06%because of taste. 6.12%because of packing, 2.06%because of cost and16.32% like because of brand image.14. Out of 100 respondents 24.5% said nutrition is excellent, 67.4% said good and8.1% said average.51% said taste is excellent, 34.7% said good and 14.3% saidAverage.12.3% said cost is excellent, 61.3% is good and 26.4% is average. 2.1%said packing is excellent, 56.8°/a said good and 41.1% is average.14.5% saidavailability is excellent, 51% said good and 34.5 said average.
  • 65. Suggestions1. At some places it was found that demand is more but availability is notsatisfactory so quick and adequate supply must be insured.2. There should be replacement of products if that product is damaged by company‟sown fault. For instance passed expiry date or poor packaging.3. Packing of verka beverages should be improved like cane can be used for packingof cold coffee and milk which are earlier packed in bottle; it will attract the morecustomers.4. Time based feedback must be taken by the company from customers, so thatwhich problems are faced by the regarding verka beverages.5. There should be home delivery of milk in some areas like P.A.U Ludhiana.
  • 66. Limitation of the study1. There is not a particular trend followed in this industry to promote sales. Actionsare taken according to the situation and the situation changes very fast in theindustry.2. The number of shops is very large in the number and it is very difficult to cover allof them.3. No replacement of damaged and expired products.4. No advertisement is there.
  • 67. ConclusionBeverages industry is very competitive industry and dominance of verka makes it tougherfor other brands to establish in the field. So in order to complete in this market everythingshould be perfect with mm focus on distribution. The distribution must be proper andretailer s must be the main centre of focus. They are the people who can make difference.verka beverage mach with expectation of customers and they are fully satisfied with thequality and availability of verka beverages .Customer purchase verka beverage becauseof its good quality and price mostly peoples consume verka beverage daily. Customersare retentive about verka beverages because of its good taste and nutrition. Customerprefers verka beverages than another brand because its availability is good in Punjab. Forpromotion of sales there should be more improvement in packing because it is good notexcellent and in scheme also. Advertisement is good so no need to more stress on it. Thuswe can say that verka provide healthy beverages to customers.
  • 68. AppendixConsumer survey formName of customer _______________________________________________Address _______________________________________________Tel. No. _______________________________________________1) Do you often purchase Milk beverage?Yes __________No __________2) Brands of beverages prefer mostly?Mother dairy __________Amul __________Verka __________Others __________3) Frequency of purchase verka beverages?Daily __________Weekly __________Twice in a week __________Fortnightly __________4) Consumer verka beverages?Yes __________No __________5) Preferred pack size?200ml ___________500ml ___________1 liter ___________
  • 69. 6) Problem with verka beverages?Quality problem _________Supply problem ___________Price problem ____________Others ______________7) Satisfaction level with verka beverages?Highly satisfied _____________Satisfied _______________Undecided _____________Dissatisfied ____________Highly dissatisfied ____________8) Customer retentive about verka beverages?Yes ___________No ___________9) Customer gets verka beverages from?Retailers _____________M.F. Store ___________From other sources ___________10) Preferred season from verka beverages?Summer _____________Winter ______________Springs _____________All seasons ___________11) Satisfaction with availability of verka beverages at the outlets or retailers?Yes _____________No _____________12) Satisfaction with quality of beverages?Yes ____________No _____________
  • 70. 13) Most liked feature in verka beverages?Nutrients ____________Taste and flavor _________Packing _______________Cost _______________Brand Image _____________14) Preference 4 different attributes of verka beverages?Verka OtherNutrient _____________ _____________Taste _____________ _____________Cost _____________ _____________Packaging _____________ _____________Availability _____________ _____________15) Any suggestion _______________________________________________