Nervous System: Suffixes and Implications


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Nervous System: Suffixes and Implications

  1. 1. Nervous System: Suffixes and Implications<br />Meghan Cochran<br />BIO120: Medical Terminology: Rashidah Abdullah<br />18 November 2009<br />
  2. 2. Hemiplegia: paralysis of the right or left side of the body<br />Monoplegia: paralysis of one limb<br />Quadriplegia/Tetraplegia: paralysis of four limbs<br />Paraplegia: paralysis of the lower extremities<br />-plesia: “Paralysis”<br />
  3. 3. Congenital paralysis is seen in children that were born prematurely (before 32 weeks,) or with very low birth weight. It may also result from pregnant mothers being exposed to illnesses or teratogens. It is often a complication of cerebral palsy, a neurological disorder that results in lack of motor skills and muscle control. Children suffering from cerebral palsy may demonstrate mono- or hemiplegia. This heartbreaking condition shows damage to the brain’s ‘white matter.’ They often cannot sit, stand, walk, or hold their heads up properly. Other neurological disorders such as spina bifida will also cause childhood paralysis, usually showing up before the age of two. <br />CONGENITAL PARALYSIS<br />
  4. 4. Areas affected by cerebral palsy<br />
  5. 5. Damage or injury to the spinal cord will, in effect, “short-circuit” the ability of nerves to ‘communicate’ with the brain. Thus, injury to the spinal cord in a specific location will result in paralysis below the location of the injury. Spinal cord injuries, such as from a car crash or a gunshot wound, are almost impossible to fully recover from. <br />AQUIRED PARALYSIS<br />
  6. 6. Hyde and Setaro said that …when the spinal cord is cut or crushed, a break of even a hair&apos;s width means silence between the nerve cells on one side and those on the other side of the injury. And this means paralysis.” (“Challenge”)<br />
  7. 7. Aphasia: the patient is not able to speak.<br />Dysphasia: the patient cannot speak. <br />-phasia: “speech” <br />
  8. 8. Broca’s Aphasia: damage to the frontal lobe of the brain. The patient is often aware and disturbed that their words are slow and incorrectly pronounced.<br />Wernicke’s Aphasia: damage to the temporal lobe. Words may be substituted or ‘gibberish,’ not connecting in a meaningful way to the intended word. <br />These may be in tandem, resulting in “global aphasia.” <br />Aphasia can be caused by strokes, head injury, brain tumors, or Alzheimer’s Disease. <br />
  9. 9. Expressive Dysphasia: the patient is aware of what s/he is trying to say. <br />Receptive Dysphasia: the patient does not understand what s/he is trying to say. <br />Words are difficult for the speaker to say, and for the listener to comprehend. Again, these can be divided by the Broca and Wernicke areas (and globally,) among other types.<br />Dysphasia may be caused by autism, strokes, or various dementias. Speech therapy may be necessary. <br />
  10. 10. Ancel, P., Livinec, F., Larroque, B., et al. (2006). “Cerebral Palsy Among Very Preterm Children in Relation to Gestational Age and Neonatal Ultrasound Abnormalities: The EPIPAGE Cohort Study.” Pediatrics, 117(3), 828-835. EBSCO. Web. 18 Nov. 2009. <br />&quot;APHASIA.&quot; 467. Oxford University Press, 2001, 2001. Health Source - Consumer Edition. EBSCO. Web. 18 Nov. 2009.<br />Fremgen, Bonnie F., and Suzanne S. Frucht. Medical Terminology: A Living Language. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, 2009.<br />Hyde, Margaret O., and John Setaro &quot;THE CHALLENGE OF SPINAL CORD REPAIR.&quot; 31. Lerner Publishing Group, 2001. Health Source - Consumer Edition. EBSCO. Web. 18 Nov. 2009.<br />Marieb, Elaine N., R.N., Ph.D. Human Anatomy and Physiology. San Francisco: Pearson Education, 2004. <br />Patient UK. “Dyarthria and Dysphasia.” 2009. Retrieved 17 November 2009. Web site:<br /><br />BIBLIOGRAPHY<br />