Med. Terminology Presentation: Ch.3, Integumentary System
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Med. Terminology Presentation: Ch.3, Integumentary System

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Descriptions and word-building with various terms of the integumentary (skin, nails, and hair) system. Also overviews of various integumentary disorders.

Descriptions and word-building with various terms of the integumentary (skin, nails, and hair) system. Also overviews of various integumentary disorders.

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Med. Terminology Presentation: Ch.3, Integumentary System Med. Terminology Presentation: Ch.3, Integumentary System Presentation Transcript

  • Integumentary System: Combining Forms + Stating terms
    Meghan Cochran
    BIO120: Medical Terminology: Rashidah Abdullah
    11 September 2009
  • Dermatitis: Inflammation of the Skin
    “Dermatitis” is an all-encompassing term for any inflammation of the skin, primarily including:
    Eczema
    Psoriasis
    Contact Dermatitis
    Urticaria
  • Eczema is one of the more commonly seen forms of dermatitis:
    Most often seen in children (infant-5 years old), although it can affect people of any age.
    Results in oozing (“weeping”) lesions on the skin and profuse itching.
    Must be diagnosed by a dermatologist. It is typically treated with corticosteroid creams.
  • Contact Dermatitis, cont.
    Contact dermatitis is a commonly incurred work injury, especially in developed countries such as the United States. It is usually a result of exposure to chemicals such as tar, acids or bases, detergents, and industrial compounds. Symptoms include:
    Red, itchy skin
    Welts, blisters, or “wheals” (reddened, raised circles with white centers
    Dry, flaky, and cracked skin
    Allergic reactions
    Diagnosis of the various forms of contact dermatitis is done via a “patch test” administered by a dermatologist. This is necessary because the various forms look similar and may be difficult to accurately diagnose.
  • Melanoma: “Black Tumor”
    Melanoma is a relatively rarely occurring, but highly deadly, cancer of the skin. It is resistant to chemotherapy or other standard cancer treatments.
    Melanoma derives its name from appearance; it forms as a dark brown, spreading patch that darkens over time.
    The American Health Association recommends that people who spend a lot of time tanning or in the sun check their skin often for potentially cancerous melanoma spots. In warm sunny countries, such as Australia, it is recommended that children wear sun hats until the age of 18 to protect their skin.
  • Melanoma, cont.
    Early detection of spots is the most definitive way to survive melanoma. The AHA recommends the “ABCD” method:
    A: Asymmetry: the two halves of the mole are differently shaped.
    B: Border Irregularity: there are dents and curves around the edges of the mole.
    C: Color: Melanoma is often dark brown or black in appearance.
    D: Diameter: The spot is larger than 6mm across.
    Metastases of the cancer is often in satellites of the lymph node, and cancerous cells are then spread to other parts of the body via lymph fluid. Again, early detection is of the utmost importance because the known therapies are unsatisfactory.
  • Melanoma, cont.
    Description of the “ABCDs” of tumor detection.
  • Leukoderma: “White Skin”
    Leukoderma is a term used for various dermatological conditions resulting in total or partial whitening of skin. Some diseases in this category are:
    Vitiligo
    Albinism
    Waardenburg’s Syndrome/Piebaldism
    These can be the result of genetics, immunological maladies, infection, or contact with chemicals.
  • Leukoderma: Vitiligo
    Vitiligo is one of the more well-known forms of leukoderma; an autoimmune disorder that results in patches of whitened skin blotched all over the body. Onset usually occurs before the person’s 20s. Although these patients are usually healthy and capable of living a full and happy life, some may be at a greater risk for other autoimmune disorders. Makeup and topical steroid creams may slightly diminish the effects, but are overall not terribly helpful. Skin bleaching is also an option, and was purportedly used by Michael Jackson, a vitiligo sufferer.
  • Leukoderma: Albinism
    Albinism is characterized by a total or partial lack of color in the skin, including the eyes. There is no melanin in the skin cells. This is a genetic illness caused by a recessive allele from each parent. People with albinism are otherwise quite healthy, although the lack of pigmentation does put them at higher risk of ultraviolet radiation from outside exposure. There are also currently studies underway to determine if the lack of pigment in the eyes causes any developmental disorder of the eyes.
  • Onychia: “Inflammation of Nail Bed”
    Onychia is an inflammation of the nail bed, either on fingers or toes. It can be the result of dropping something on the nail, from cutting it or from various bacterial or fungal infections. A common sign is a pus or mucus “patch” at the nail bed. Although treatable, onychia can be quite serious and requires an emergency room or podiatrist visit. Otherwise, further infections can invade and spread within the healing nail.
  • “State the terms described, using the combining forms provided…” (3B)
    DERMAT/O
    Inflammation of the skin: dermatitis
    Any abnormal skin condition: dermatosis
    An instrument for cutting the skin: dermatome
    Specialist in skin: dermatologist
    Surgical repair of skin: dermatoplasty
    Study of the skin: dermatology
    MELAN/O
    Black tumor: melanoma
    Black cell: melanocyte
  • “State the terms described, using the combining forms provided…” (3B)
    -DERMA
    Scaly skin: ichthyoderma
    White skin: leukoderma
    Red skin: erythroderma
    ONYCH/O
    Softening of the nails:onychomalacia
    Infection around the nail: paronychia
    Nail eating (biting): onychophagia
    Removal of the nail: onychectomy
  • Bibliography
    The Center for Disease Control: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health: Education and Information Division. (2009). Contact Dermatitis. Retrieved September 10, 2009. Web Site:
    http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/skin/#contact
    Fremgen, Bonnie F., and Suzanne S. Frucht. Medical Terminology: A Living Language. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, 2009.
    Leese, Peter. (2003). “Davidson College: Human Immune Leukoderma: Vitiligo.” Retrieved September 10, 2009. Web Site:
    http://www.bio.davidson.edu/Courses/Immunology/Students/Spring2003/Leese/Vitiligo.htm
    Malay, Scott D., DPM, MSCE. “How to Address Nail Bed Injuries.” Podiatry Today, 19:9 (January 2006). Retrieved September 10, 2009. Web Site:
    http://www.podiatrytoday.com/article/5030
  • Bibliography, cont.
    Marieb, Elaine N., R.N., Ph.D. Human Anatomy and Physiology. San Francisco: Pearson Education, 2004.
    Melanoma Patients Australia. (2009). Melanoma Patients Australia. Retrieved September 11, 2009. Web Site: http://www.melanomapatients.org
    Moyer, P. “Dermatology Meets Gynecology.” Dermatology Times, 30(8), 48,50. August 2009.  Retrieved September 10, 2009, from Health Module.
    Neveu, M.M. “Albinism: Studies in the Area of Albinism Reported from University College, Institute of Ophthalmology.” Science Letter, 1928. February 2008. Retrieved September 12, 2009, from Health Module. 
    New Zealand Dermatological Society, Inc. (2009). DermNet NZ: Leukoderma. Retrieved September 10, 2009. Web Site:
    http://www.dermnetnz.org/colour/leukoderma.html