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- 1. OilSim – An overview of the Oil and Gas Upstream value chain <br />
- 2. Login<br />www.oilsim.com<br />
- 3. Learning cycle<br />
- 4. Today’s Challenges<br />
- 5. Additional knowledge/skills<br />Environmental issues<br />Team work and negotiation <br />Critical decision making, analytical skills, multi-tasking<br />Learn through experience<br />Economically viable volumes- reducing uncertainty<br />Return on Investment<br />Function appreciation<br />
- 6. Money and Credibility<br />You start with $700 millionYou can apply for more money later.<br />Create valueMeasured by the net value of the oil and gas fields discovered MINUS all costs involved.<br />Correct answers and sensible decisions are awarded with CPs <br />
- 7. Oil and Gas Value Chain<br />Complete Value Chain<br />Upstream <br />
- 8. Today’s Challenges<br />
- 9. Main screen<br />
- 10. Map<br />Columns e.g C1, and C54, <br />Rows e.g. R35 and R163,<br />Block<br />Blocks are divided into smaller cells<br />e g. R1C1<br />
- 11. First task<br />Challenge: Find three sedimentary basins in the area. Basins are sedimentary rocks in the deep subsurface where oil and gas has been generated.<br />Procedure: Buy and study magnetic and gravimetric surveys; and to submit the coordinates, column and row number for each basin centre.<br />
- 12. Gravimetric surveys<br />Gravimetric surveys show the gravity in the sub-surface. Measured by airborne sensors.<br />Sedimentary rocks have lower densities than the surrounding crystalline rocks. Low gravitational pull means high probability of a basin below.<br />Basins have a lower gravitational pull. <br />Crystalline rocks have higher gravitational pull<br />
- 13. Gravimetric surveys<br />Gravimetric survey:South-east quadrant<br />
- 14. Magnetic surveys<br />Magnetic surveys show similar information as gravimetric surveys. The sedimentary rocks in the basins have a lower concentration of magnetic materials than the surrounding crystalline rocks.<br />Sedimentary basins are the areas with the lowest magnetic field.<br />Basins have low magnetic field<br />Non-basins have high magnetic fields. <br />
- 15. Magnetic Surveys<br />Magnetic survey:North-west quadrant<br />
- 16. Centre may not be the same<br />Example:<br />Top basin on both maps <br />Calculate the midpoint between the gravimetric and magnetic centres found<br />= C55 and R105<br />C50<br />R100<br />C60<br />R110<br />
- 17. Finding the Midpoint<br />
- 18. Enter decision<br />
- 19. Centre Midpoint calculation<br />3 centres – one Centre midpoint for each basin<br />Example: C55, R105<br />Solve before deadline. All submissions are evaluated after the deadline (and not before).<br />You may get 0-100 CPs. All three centres must be located to get full CPs.<br />
- 20. Today’s Challenges<br />
- 21. Task 1 solved<br />All teams have submitted their answers. Basin centres are located.<br />Message in Inbox. All teams have answers and CPs awarded.<br />
- 22. Task 2 license round<br />Sedimentary basins may contain oil and gas<br />The government has decided to put the blocks around one of the basins on offer<br />Challenge: Identify the 3 most promising blocks and submit a bid to the Government for these licences<br />
- 23. Source and migration<br />2. MIGRATION ROCK<br />where hydrocarbons are driven through<br />3. CAP ROCK<br />Impermeable rock that stops migration of hydrocarbons<br />1. SOURCE ROCK<br />where organic material is put under sufficient pressure<br />4. PROSPECT<br />
- 24. Traps<br /><ul><li>Geological “pockets”, that might contain hydrocarbons.</li></ul>Anticline trap<br />(c) OLF<br />Stratigraphic<br /> trap<br />Salt dome trap<br />Fault trap<br />
- 25. Red areas<br />You will not be awarded blocks that contain any red spots<br />Blue areas<br />Blocks in area may be awarded<br />Spawning Grounds<br />
- 26. Common Risk Segment<br />CRS. Common Risk Segment surveys tell you about the probability of a structure in the block/cell containing oil or gas<br />Surface<br />Layer 3 Eocene<br />1500m below the seabed<br />Layer 2 Paleocene<br />2500m below the seabed<br />Layer 1 Cretaceous<br />3500m below the seabed<br />
- 27. 2D Seismic surveys<br />Traps can be found with seismic surveys<br />2D seismic survey is a cross section of the geological layers along either a column or a row<br />2D seismic surveys are used<br /> for locating prospects<br />
- 28. 2D Seismic in OilSim <br />Unprocessed<br />Processed<br />Red is top of the sealing rock<br />Green is top of the reservoir rock<br />Interpreted<br />
- 29. Anticlinal traps<br />
- 30. Leakage?<br />Leakage<br />Sealant rock<br />
- 31. Order Seismic<br />What type of data do you want?<br /><ul><li>Columns or Rows
- 32. Unprocessed or processed data
- 33. Interpreted or not</li></ul>Only buy maximum of 4 blocks of data at a time to speed up processing<br />The yellow hatched area on map can be clicked on and dragged to blocks of interest<br />
- 34. View the Seismic<br /><ul><li>Red circles – navigate through the 2D seismic
- 35. Yellowsquare – Row 1 from Column 1-56</li></li></ul><li>Cross-sections<br />Column<br />Row<br />Prospect, Reservoir<br />Basin,Source<br />
- 36. Enter bids<br /><ul><li>Three blocks
- 37. Three amounts
- 38. Min: $1M
- 39. Max: $30M
- 40. Awarded 1 block
- 41. Pay for 1 block
- 42. Highest bid wins
- 43. If equal, then team with highest CP wins</li></li></ul><li>Recap on Task 2<br />Environmental Sensitive Areas map to see which blocks to avoid<br />Common Risk Segment surveys to see which blocks to examine closer<br />2D surveys seismic to identify which ones have the most (big) structures<br />Check water depth, and go for shallow water blocks if possible<br />Remember to submit 3 bids<br />
- 44. Today’s Challenges<br />
- 45. Task 2 solved<br />Message sent to all teams with the results<br />Credibility Points are given for prosperity of the blocks you bid for<br />Every team has got one exploration license<br />
- 46. Task 3 Exploration Drilling<br />HQ is happy with the license awarded.<br />Challenge: Farm-out minimum 20% from your license – and farm-in as much as you can in other good licenses.<br />Acquire 3D Seismic interpretations for the block you operate, and study the results from the licensing round<br />Get others to invest 20% or more in your license – you can show/send 3D seismic<br />
- 47. Real 3D Seismic<br />Shows the subsurface structure in a cube.<br />
- 48. 3D Seismicin OilSim<br />Layer 3 Eocene<br />Layer 2 Paleocene<br />Layer 1 Cretaceous<br />
- 49. Partnerships<br />Spread the risk: e.g Investing in other blocks divides the risks amongst all partners, much more preferable than keeping 100% of one field and all the risk.<br />Increase probability of profit: investment in only 1 field which could be a dry prospect is possible, whereas the likelihood of investing in 5 fields which are all dry is unlikely.<br />
- 50. Licences<br />
- 51. Farm-in<br /><ul><li>Enter the percentage and total amount for have agreed to offer
- 52. Minimum $100,000 per %
- 53. Add a message to the seller
- 54. Press “Send offer”</li></li></ul><li>Farm-in<br />When a team receives a Farm-In offer to appears under Financing. This is where a team can receive finance or money for a % of their own blocks <br />
- 55. Farm-in<br />license OWNER decides whether to ACCEPT or REJECT the offer<br />Partnerships established every time a license owner accepts an offer.<br />Overview: On the main page, you can see all licenses. 1) licenses you operate, 2) licenses you have invested in, and other licenses.<br />
- 56. Farm-in<br />All your farm-in offers to other teams are shown under “Investing” on the right-hand side of the homepage . <br />This is where a team offers investments to other teams for a % of their blocks<br />
- 57. Partnerships<br />Partners pay a proportional share of all future costs<br />Partners receive a proportional share of the net proceeds from oil and gas<br />The operator team makes all decisions regarding drilling<br />Teams can farm-out up to 70% of licence<br />Operators must keep 30% of licence <br />
- 58. Water depth<br /><ul><li>Before choosing a rig, you need to check your water depth </li></ul>Find this at the bottom of the BLOCK page<br />
- 59. Choose Rig<br />Choose the right rigs for your water depths<br />Jack-up rigs for shallow waters<br />Semi-submersible rigs for middle waters<br />Drillships for the deepest waters <br />Rig cost = drilling days * day rate<br />
- 60. Service Providers<br />Upto 9 Star quality-<br />Good: normally costs more<br />Bad: cheaper, <br /> but reliability is low, so you risk extra drilling time and extra costs<br />
- 61. Environmental Impact Assessment<br />EIA survey: more knowledge about the area.<br />Less probability for drilling problems.<br />Less severe consequences if you run into problems.<br />= Which drilling locations to avoid.<br />
- 62. Drill Position<br />EIA: enviromental impact analysis shows where it will cost you more to drill.<br />Place your mouse where to drill<br />
- 63. Drilling Position<br />Layer 3 Eocene<br />Layer 2 Paleocene<br />Layer 1 Cretaceous<br />
- 64. Drilling Days<br />
- 65. Estimated cost<br />Oil spill or Gas Blowout control<br />Estimated cost<br />
- 66. DrillingResult<br />Volume Range in MBOE counts<br />Test may increase Proven MBOE if oil or gas found<br />
- 67. After testing<br />
- 68. Reprocess Seismic<br />
- 69. Value <br />
- 70. Assumptions<br />
- 71. Value calculation<br />
- 72. Appraisal<br />From Probable volume to proven reserves<br />
- 73. Narrowing ranges<br />Exploration well:<br />0 to 1572 MBOE (after drilling)<br />11 to 1266 MBOE (after testing)<br />First appraisal well:<br />25 to 1033 MBOE (after drilling)<br />34 to 910 MBOE (after testing)<br />Second appraisal well:<br />65 to 850 MBOE (after drilling)<br />101 to 752 MBOE (after testing)<br />Only proven MBOE counts<br />
- 74. Drilling Summary<br />After your first drill in each well, reprocess seismic<br />Decide which discoveries to drill how many appraisal wells into<br />Ultimately, you should either:<br />Get a positive net present value,<br />Or a conclusion that additional appraisal wells will not result in a net present value<br />
- 75. Apply For More Funds<br />Click on Apply for More Funds Tab. <br />1 CP for each $100,000 applied for.<br />Answer the questions: All correct gives cash and you can keep CPs. One wrong gives cash and you keep ½ of your CPs. Two wrong gives ½ cash and you lose all CPs. All wrong, you get no cash and lose all CPs.<br />Expensive money if less than 10 Credit points: Apply for cash and be fined $5million for each $20million requested.<br />
- 76.
- 77. Challenge<br />Make a well plan for each reservoir in your block, choosing:<br />Number of production wells<br />Tubing size<br />Aiming to choose a plan that <br /> maximises value of block<br />Increased sales value<br />Decreased drilling costs<br />
- 78. Where to find the surveys<br />Click the Surveys tab<br />Nodal analysis<br />Expected Production Profile <br />
- 79. Nodal analysis<br /><ul><li>Read the maximum well flow rate
- 80. Most suitable Tube size</li></ul>Most suitable tube<br />Highest well flow rate<br />
- 81. Expected Production Profile<br />
- 82. Reservoir information<br />1. Click the Reservoir tab<br />2. Click the magnifyingglass for the reservoir<br />3. Study the data forthe reservoir<br />
- 83. Production Wells<br /><ul><li>Click on Drilling Rig</li></li></ul><li>Reservoir Information<br />
- 84. Submit a well plan<br />
- 85. Combined Plan<br />
- 86. Improve value – revise well plan<br />Submit plans with different number of wells and tubing sizes<br />Review Reservoir information after each revised plan <br />Aiming to maximize sales value and minimize drilling costs, whilst increasing Recovery Factor<br />You can amend your well plans until the deadline<br />Credibility points – upto 100 kp if plans are optimal for all your reservoirs<br />After deadline – Value of Licence will be adjusted based on final Well Plan submitted<br />
- 87.
- 88. Challenge<br />Plan the facilities to produce the oil and gas that has been found in the block<br />Maximize the value of the license block<br />Maintain sales value<br />Decrease facilities costs<br />Reduce risk<br />
- 89. Metocean data<br />Environmental surveys<br />Waveheights<br />Hurricanes<br />Earthquake survey legend<br />
- 90. Choose platform type<br />
- 91. Impact of discount rate<br />Value Shown = income less expenses<br />Discount factors: 0%-20%<br />0%<br />5%<br />20%<br />189M<br />118M<br />48M<br />
- 92. Block Water depth<br />1. Click the Reservoir tab<br />2. Click the magnifyingglass for the reservoir<br />3. Average seabed depthvisible here<br />
- 93. Detailed production profile<br />Determine maximum production volumes of values of oil, gas and water<br />(In gas fields it is gas, condensate and water)<br />
- 94. Platform parameters<br />
- 95. Transport volumes<br />Estimated no. of barrels can be transported per day Different flowline (riser) and pipeline sizes = Different no. of barrels<br />Flowline size :<br />Multiphase fluid from seabed to platform (acting as flowline and riser) <br /> Pipeline size :<br />Oil and condensate to storage tanks<br />Gas to processing plant<br />
- 96. Transport connections<br />Connect pipelines to Gas terminal and an Oil terminal<br />
- 97. Facility overview<br />
- 98. Flow overview<br />
- 99.
- 100. Challenge<br />Plan the construction of facilities required to operate your platform<br />Submit a financial summary of the plan <br />Execute construction plan<br />Minimize capital expenses<br />Amend construction plan as issues occur<br />Get to FIRST oil!<br />
- 101. Activity hierarchy<br />Where a solid line exists, the task below the line must be completed before starting the task above the line<br />Choose only 1 activity – where a Dotted line<br />
- 102. Vendor Resource analysis<br />Considerations:<br />Reach First Oil within 21 periods of 90 days – TOTAL 1890 days<br />Time V. Cost<br />Local Content<br />
- 103. Planning Summary<br />
- 104. Construction execution<br />
- 105. Activities in 1st period<br />
- 106. Activity feedback<br />Activity completed<br />Activity delay – still ongoing<br />Issue with activity <br />Progress of activity<br />
- 107. Period information<br />
- 108. Timeline<br />
- 109. Updated hierarchy<br />
- 110. First Oil and bonuses<br />
- 111. Recap<br />PART A<br />Activity Hierarchy Survey – study activity dependencies<br />Vendor report - compare providers/local content<br />Prepare construction plan<br />Submit Planning Summary<br />PART B<br />Execute Plan - as many activities as possible within each period; provider for each activity<br />CheckTimeline chart to see progress<br />Reassess/alter providers as issues occur<br />
- 112.
- 113. Operations<br />
- 114. Operations<br />
- 115. Strategy discussions<br />Financial consequences of your decision?<br />Other major drivers of decision<br />Did country strategy play a role?<br />Above-ground risks?<br />Changeable market conditions?<br />Impact on commercial contracts?<br />Operating agreements affected?<br />Other information to consider?<br />

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