▶management is a process of designing and
maintaining an environment in which individuals
works together in group, and accomplish aims.
▶in other words it is the accomplishment of
THE CYCLICAL PROCESS
Nature of Management
▶Universality: Irrespective of the site nature and
local of the organization.
▶Purposeful: attainment of organization goals.
▶Social process : motivation
▶Coordinating force : orderly management and
▶Continuous process: cycle of management
continues for achievement of objectives.
IMPORTANCE OF MANGEMENT
▶Effective utilization of resources
▶Development of resources
▶Integrating group interest
▶Stability in society
◦ Management as Science
◦ Focus on Increasing Productivity & Efficiency
◦ Strict Control Over People & Process
◦ Top down Management
Evolution of Management
◦ Functional Organization
◦ Emergence of HR
◦ Goal Setting
◦ Performance reviews with Job Description
◦ Strategic Planning
◦ Focus on Resource allocation
◦ Swot analysis
◦ Growth Share Matrix (BCG)
◦ Developing contingency theories
◦ Benchmarking performance
◦ Business process reengineering
◦ Total quality management
◦ Balance score cards tools for employees
◦ Technology for value addition and growth
◦ Consulting as tool to implement ideas
◦ Scientific Management
◦ Bureaucratic Management
◦ Administrative Management
▶ Classical Theory of Management
Different Types of Management
◦ Human Relations
◦ Behavioral Science Approach
▶Modern Management Theory
◦ Quantitative Approach
◦ System Approach
◦ Contingency Approach
◦ Operational Approach
Management is a social process
Management is an integrating process
Ethics and governance
Career success & personal fulfillment
Types of managers
▶First line Managers
▶Middle line Managers
Social Responsibilities and
ethics of business
▶The organization must interact with the environment in order
▶The organization has to find and obtain the needed resources.
▶The business organization are open system, means they make
profit to survive.
▶Balance between the desire profit against the needs of the
▶Social responsibility are related to the economy, consumer,
local community and physical environment.
In simple terms, Planning is deciding in advance what is to be
done, when is to be done, how is to be done, and by whom it is
to be done.
It bridges the gap from where we are and where we want to
It includes selection of objectives, policies, procedures and
programmes from among alternatives.
A plan is a predetermined course of action to achieve a
Planning is the primary function of management.
According to Koontz and O' Donnell, "Planning is an intellectual
process, conscious determination of course of action, the
basing of decision on purpose, facts and considered estimates.“
According to Alford and Beatt, "Planning is the thinking
process, the organized foresight, the vision based on fact and
experience that is required for intelligent action."
According to Theo Haimann, "Planning is deciding in advance
what is to be done. When a manager plans, he projects a course
of action for further attempting to achieve a consistent co-
ordinate structure of operations aimed at the desired
Planning is an intellectual Process
Panning Contributes to the objectives of the firm
It is a primary function of management
It’s a continuous process
Planning pervades Managerial activities
Importance of Planning
▶Planning provides directions
▶Reduces the risk of uncertainty
▶Planning reduces overlapping and wasteful activities
▶Planning promotes innovative ideas
▶Planning facilitates decision making
▶Planning establishes standards for controlling
Steps in planning process
Limitations of Planning
▶Planning leads to rigidity
▶Planning may not work in a dynamic
▶Planning reduces creativity
▶Planning involves huge costs
▶Planning is a time consuming process
▶Planning does not guarantee success
▶Making a flexible plan is the most effective
way to achieve success.
▶Flexible planning is different from traditional
planning in many ways.
▶Traditional planning usually starts with the
objective or the goal and slowly works towards
the present, making it so rigid that there is no
room to react when unexpected events happen.
▶Flexible planning, on the other hand, begins
from the present and works forward.
▶A goal will be set but with no strict route to
it. It allows a person to take alternative
paths to lead him to his goal, giving him room
for changes and allowing him to adjust his
strategy when something unexpected occurs.
CHARACTERISTICS OF A SOUND
▶ It should be based on clearly defined objectives.
▶ It must be simple and easily understandable
▶ It should be flexible or adaptable to changing
▶ It must be balanced in all respects and should be
reason ably comprehensive.
▶ It should provide standards for the evaluation of
perfor-mance and actions.
▶ It should be economical i.e., permit optimum use of
available resources before creating new authorities
and new resources.
▶ It should be practicable or feasible and unambiguous.
Apian should be precise as to its nature and scope.
▶ It should be prepared with the consultation of concerned
▶ Different plans must be properly integrated and
harmonized with one another so as to ensure unity or
consistency in plans
▶ It should provide for proper analysis and classification
Management by Objectives
Management by objectives (MBO), also known
as management by results (MBR), is a process of
defining objectives within an organization so
that management and employees agree to the
objectives and understand what they need to do in the
organization in order to achieve them. The term
"management by objectives" was first popularized
by Peter Druck in his 1954 book The Practice of
Aims of Management By
▶ greater efficiency through systematic procedures
▶ greater employee motivation and commitment
through participation in the planning process
▶ planning for results instead of planning just
The objectives must meet
five criteria: they must be
▶ arranged in order of their importance
▶ expressed quantitatively, wherever
▶ consistent with the organization's policies
▶ compatible with one another
Problem Solving And Decision
Problem solving and decision-making are important
skills for business and life. Problem-solving often
involves decision-making, and decision-making is
especially important for management and leadership.
There are processes and techniques to improve
decision-making and the quality of decisions. Decision-
making is more natural to certain personalities, so
these people should focus more on improving the
quality of their decisions.
▶ Define and clarify the issue
▶ Gather all the facts and understand their causes.
▶ Think about or brainstorm possible options and
▶ Consider and compare the pros and cons of each
▶ Select the best option - avoid vagueness or 'foot in
both camps' compromise.