Through the 19th Century Megan Walsh History 141 Assignment 7
Latin America in the 19th century 10 Causes of War: the race war; ideology of Independence; controversy of Separation vs. Union; boundary disputes; territorial conquests; caudilloism; resource wars; intraclass struggles ; interventions caused by capitalism & religious wars. Latin American wars for Independence were fought between 1791-1824 mostly against the European Monarch and resulted in the creation of a number of independent countries in Latin America. Driven by political, economic, and social frustrations within its class system. -Political ex.: Creoles (Spanish blood born in the New World) frustrated with the lack of political opportunities. - Economical ex.: economic system favored peninsular (born in Spain) Trade was monopolistic by Europeans, heavy taxes on the lower class.
The Haitian War for Independence was a struggle in Haiti, a French slave colony, between the white plantation owners and the affranchise (those of mixed blood). Dominated by pure blacks, those that escaped Haiti contributed to the spread of race in neighboring countries. Colonial entities without the support of the Spanish King, and the geographical barriers of mountains; jungles; deserts; rivers and distance isolated populations and arose the separate vs. union issue. This caused civil wars and revolts between centralists and federalists and boundary wars of independence. Latin America
Latin America Post war territorial conquest wars: The U.S confrontations with Mexico (1835-48), the British expansion in Central America( 1821-56), & the War of the Triple Alliance (1864-70). U.S Filibusters invaded Mexico, Cuba, and Nicaragua to conquer territory. British government seized Honduran & Nicaraguan territory in attempts to block the U.S from further expanding in Central America. Caudillos: individuals in seek of power with political ideologies.
Latin America Interventions: U.S and Great Britain intervened with Latin America because of an assumed commercial power threat. Latin American countries, post-war, were bankrupt, indebted, devastated and politically unstable. The Monroe Doctrine of 1823 outlined a policy for intervention in Latin America in order to prevent a monarchic counterrevolution against republican governments and to deter the expansion of European colonies in the New World.
ParagKhanna: Part III Venezuela 19th century: Simon Bolivar fought to liberate South America from Spanish rule; dreaming of continental unity. Its resource of Oil makes Venezuela an energy provider. Hugo Chavez president in 1998. Spending of oil wealth increasing the country’s debt. Disagrees with U.S foreign policy and threatened to cut off oil to the U.S & selling ownership of refineries in the U.S to invest in Asian ones. Europe is Venezuela’s largest energy & services investor
BRAZIL : The Southern Pole
The largest country in South America & the 3rd largest country in the world.
Its global role is based on its environmental resources; its massive economy & Latin America’s geopolitical ambition.
1950s: boom in foreign investment & the development of steel & automobiles.
The Amazon is one of Brazils greatest
resources & to protect it is crucial to human survival. The Southern Pole
The Fraternal Twins Unharmed by WWII. Juan Domingo Peron: Argentina ruler led country into “Dirty War”, a war of 15,000 casualties. To pay debts, the government seized pension funds. Income fell from 8,500 in late 1990s to 2,800 in 2002. Over half the population was below poverty line. Argentine leaders blame the U.S Treasury, IMF, & Wall Street for failing to support Argentina when in crisis. Resistant to Americas current high-tariff and heavy subsidy policies. Free trade agreement with the U.S, EU, &China. Pacific coastline of 3,000+ miles. Keeps its distance from unruly continental affairs while seeking pragmatic alliances. Government emphasizes education & technology. Poverty is below 15% Chile gives Bolivia access to its ports in exchange for oil & gas. Argentina Chile
January 1, 1994: The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) went into effect to propel Mexico into the 1st world.
The Zapatista National Liberation Army began a renewed insurgency.
Manufactured goods are 80% of Mexico’s exports.
Gangs, police squads, and indigenous activities is destroying the tourism industry.
Illegal Immigration continues to be a problem for Mexico & the U.S.
Alejandro Toledo: Peru Presidency President of Peru from 2001-2006 Media reports accused Toledo of using cocaine, cavorted with prostitutes, and abandoned a child he fathered in an extramarital affair. He was seen as a role model to urban lower-class voters. His Indian and Latino heritage widely appealed to Peruvians who share the same ancestry. Toledo is well versed in international trade and promised to give voice to the labor movement. He preached a centrist platform, pledging to award small-business loans to farmers, balance the budget, lure foreign investment, and create jobs. Toledo's moderate campaign and carefully selected issues have found broad appeal. Man of the Poor Alejandro Toledo
Cecilia Tait: Volleyball & Politics Cecilia Roxana Tait Villacorta born March 5, 1962 in Lima A former Afro-Peruvian volleyball player who became a Peruvian politician. Nicknames La Zurda del Oro Participated in (3) Summer Olympics with the Peruvian national team; finishing 4th and received a silver medal at the 1988 Summer Olympics in Seoul In the Volleyball Hall of Fame in 2005. In 1998 Tait joined politics; elected municipal councilor in Villa Maria del Triunfo representing the Fujimori's party. Elected Congresswoman in 2000 In February 2011, former President Alejandro Toledo, asked Tait to head his congressional list of candidates for Peru Posible. April 2011: Tait was elected again to Congress with the 10th highest vote in Lima out of 468 candidates from the various political parties.