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American colonies prt 1
American colonies prt 1
American colonies prt 1
American colonies prt 1
American colonies prt 1
American colonies prt 1
American colonies prt 1
American colonies prt 1
American colonies prt 1
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American colonies prt 1

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  • 1. American Colonies:The Settling of North America
    Megan Foster
  • 2. American Colonies: 5 Canada and Iroquoia
    The French discovered in Florida during the 1560’s, that the Spanish were a powerful foe, able to destroy any hostile colony within easy reach
    For this reason, North America offered a safer setting for a French Colony
    Spanish Emperor declined to block French from colonization in Canada because “As regards in settling in the Northern Sea, there is nothing to envy in this; for it is of no value, and if the French it, necessity will compel them to abandon it.”
    As predicted, the French settlement, led by Jacques Cartier, was defeated by the bitter cold, the ravages of scurvy, and the hostility of Indians provoked by French thefts and threats.
    This put a stop to French colonization in St. Lawrence Valley until the next century.
    French voyagers then developed profitable and semi permanent presence at the rivers broad mouth in the Gulf of St. Lawrence
    Here they discovered two profitable commodities; Fish and Fur
    Here they practiced a mixed economy, in which hunting and gathering supplemented highly productive horticulture that sustained many large and permanent villages
  • 3. American Colonies: 5 Canada and Iroquoia
    During the late 16th Century, French took early lead in the Fur Trade
    Developing alliances with the northern Algonquians
    Mariners offered European manufactured goods (beads, kettles, knives) in order to purchase furs from eager Indians
    Offering high value per volume, furs were an ideal colonial commodity, one that (like gold and silver) could more than pay for it’s transatlantic transportation
    Indians thought of all objects, material as well as living, as possessed of some spiritual power, which Algonquian speakers called Manitou
    The word "manitou" written in Canadian Aboriginal Syllabics.
  • 4. American Colonies: 5 Canada and Iroquoia
    At first the Indians pursued trade within own cultural parameters. Indians thought of all objects, material as well as living(stones as well as beavers), as possessed of some spiritual power, which Algonquian speakers called Manitou. Detecting Manitou concentrated in especially bright and shiny objects, the northeastern Indians traditionally cherished copper ornaments brought from Lake Superior or polished seashell beads, known as wampum, from Long Island Sound. They discerned the same beauty and spiritual power in the colorful glass beads and shiny metals brought by European mariners and traders. Displayed on the body or carried into the grave, the new goods demonstrated high status and access to Manitou. Adapting the shiny new materials to traditional uses, Indians broke up brass kettles for reworking into arrowheads, necklaces, earrings, finger rings, and armbands
  • 5. American Colonies: 5 Canada and Iroquoia
    Natives also adopted alcohol
    At first they balked at the novel taste and disorienting effect
    Eventually developed a craving
    Got drunk as a shortcut to spiritual trances
    Also offered a tempting release of aggressions
    Occasionally, the more ruthless mariners interrupted trade to kidnap Indians as human commodities
    The Indians were often take to Europe where they were put on profitable display as curiosities, and trained to assist future voyages as interpreters
  • 6. American Colonies: 16; French America
    During the 1670’s and 1680’s, French traders and priests probed the southwest from trading posts along the Great Lakes, into the Mississippi Valley
    1682 Sieur de la Salle led a party of French and allied Indians down the river to the Gulf of Mexico
    King Louis XIV was impressed with the Mississippi Rivers’ enormous strategic and economic potential
    To flatter the King, La Salle named the valley and adjoining Gulf Coast, Louisiana
  • 7. American Colonies: 16; French America
    New France and Louisiana annually cost the crown more to administer than they generated in revenue from the fur and deerskin trades.
    Weary of the financial drain, the crown abruptly ordered a withdrawal from the upper country posts in 1696
    No longer able to live comfortably without metal ware, firearms, and gunpowder, the Indians faced hunger and destitution if denied access to European goods
    Beginning in the late 1720’s French posts sold goods at below market value to dissuade Indians from trading with the British colonists
    This revealed that the French’s strategic dependence on Indians exceeded Indians’ dependence on French trade
  • 8. American Colonies: 16; French America
    During the long and hard-fought war of the Spanish Succession(1702-1713), Louisiana languished as Frances most peripheral colony in an outstretched Empire
    After the war, the Crown entrusted Louisiana to the company of the Indies
    1718 established New Orleans
    1717-1730 Company of the Indies transported 5,400 European colonists, and 6,000 slaves into Louisiana
    Slaves included a mix of vagrants, blasphemers, thieves, smugglers, political prisoners, and prostitutes
    After 1731, Louisiana’s population grew by natural increase to 4,100 slaves, 3,000 slaves, 3,300 settlers, and 600 soldiers by 1746
    Louisiana failed to develop a profitable export staple
    Planters raised inferior grades of tobacco and Indigo that sold in France for less than the high costs of production and shipment
  • 9. American Colonies: 16; French America
    During the 17th Century, fewer than 250 families emigrated to Canada
    Only 12% were female
    Most were poor, single young men in search of work and food
    Most were urban laborers and artisans
    Most of the females came from an orphanage in Paris, and were known as filles du roi(daughtersof the King)
    Male emigrants arrived in servitude as either soldiers or indentured servants, known as engages
    Most of the French who did emigrate (and stayed), significantly improved their status and standard of living, escaping their former poverty as landless laborers
    At least 80% of colonists lived as habitants, leasing farms of about 100 acres
    Engages generally served only 3 year terms
    Loaded and unloaded ships, rowed boats, constructed buildings, and cleared forests to make farms
    Soldiers served long and indeterminate terms until the Crown decided to demobilize
    Drilled, hauled supplies, constructed and repaired forts, and fought the Iroquois
    Filles du roiwere provided passage and a cash marriage from the Crown
    Were technically free, but were expected to marry within a few weeks of their arrival
    They then became subject to legal authority of their new husbands, and served as housekeepers

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