Victoria, Raveena, Kenneth & Dimas SupervolcanoesWhat is a supervolcano?A supervolcano is a volcano that is much more powerful compared to othervolcanoes. It is immensely powerful and causes severe destruction from a local toglobal scale.Where are super volcanoes located?Supervolcanoes develop on a handful of places around the globe and are locatedon destructive plate margins or over parts of the mantle that are really hot, calledhotspots. Here are some examplesofsupervolcanoes around the globe:
Victoria, Raveena, Kenneth & Dimas• Yellowstone, USA• Valley Grande, USA• Long Valley, USA• Snowdonia, Wales, UK• Lake District, England, UK• Glen Coe, Scotland, UK• Campi Flegrei, Naples, Italy• Siberian Traps, Russia• Whakamaru, New Zealand• Lake Taupo, New Zealand• Aira Caldera, Kyushu, Japan• Lake Toba, North Sumatera, IndonesiaWhat are the characteristics and key features of a supervolcano?• it erupts at least 1,000km3 of material.• it forms a depression called a caldera.• it often has a ridge of higher land around it.• it erupts less frequently and eruptions are hundreds of thousands of years apart.• it forms of convergent plate boundaries.• it is ﬂat, unlike normal volcanoes.What are the differences between supervolcanoes and shield/composite volcanoes? SIZE SHAPE IMPACT SHIELD VOLCANO Small, gentle Slopes caused by It is a gentle eruptions. Does not the runny lava ﬂow. volcano and does cause much not have many damage. destructive impacts. COMPOSITE Large eruptions, Large cone like It has many impacts VOLCANO depending on the shape, very steep such as it causes size of the volcano. cliffs. death, destruction of housing areas and farmland as well as affects the country’s economy. SUPER VOLCANO It causes a huge It does not have a Massive eruptions depression in the cone like shape like that could cause ground called a the other volcanoes, global caldera, and causes it is barely visible. consequences. massive eruptions.
Victoria, Raveena, Kenneth & DimasA super volcano has many unique characteristics that sets it apart fromnormal volcanoes. It erupts 1000km3 of material, while even the biggestcomposite volcanoes can only erupt 1km3 of material. It isn’t a large conelike shape like regular volcanoes. Instead, it is a huge depression in theground which makes it even harder to spot. A supervolcano erupts veryrarely, and eruptions are usually hundreds of thousands of years apart,while shield and composite volcanoes erupt more frequently. PRIMARY EFFECTS SECONDARY EFFECTS Primary effects are the effects Secondary effects are the which occur immediately after an effects which occur after a eruption. period of time. • Death and severe injuries from • Trigger rainfall that would volcanic ash, gases and potentially cause lahars. airborne material. • Reduce sunlight, potentially • Agriculture and vegetation causing global cooling. would be destroyed. • Earth would plunge into a • Loss of homes. constant winter, which will affect plants and animals. • Disruption of air, road and rail transport. • Disruption of food supplies will cause mass worldwide • Buildings may be crushed. starvation. • Water supplies will be • Cities may become contaminated. unaccessible due to ash fall.Whatare theeffects of a super volcanic eruption?If a supervolcano eruption were to occur, there would be devastatingpotential effects. Since supervolcanoes are dormant for hundreds ofthousands of years, there is a lot of build up of volcanic gas and magma,thus creating a ‘super’ eruption that could cause global consequences.
Victoria, Raveena, Kenneth & Dimas LOCAL NATIONALEnvironmental: Environmental:• Landscape destroyed. • Environment becomes polluted due to volcanic• Crops destroyed. hazards.• Plants and animals killed. • Country’s agriculture, plant an animal species,• Heavy pollution decreases quality of life. become damaged, killed, endangered or extinct.Social:• Death or sever injuries. Social:• Trauma due to loss of family members and • Decrease in population of the community. friends. • Resources and supplies become harder due to• Starvation and thirst due to lack of resources. disruption of telecommunication services.• Exposed to elements due to lack of shelter. • Mass hysteria due to the impending situation.• Prolonged suffering due to delay of medical • Possible collapse or evacuation of whole or services. parts of the country.• Telecommunication, electricity and clean water • Crime, theft and murder skyrocket as the supply disrupted. situation becomes worse.Economic: Economic:• Buildings and infrastructures are damaged or • Country becomes ﬁnancially unstable. destroyed. • Government must give compensation for damage or loss of properties. • Tourism and trade are disrupted. GLOBAL • Parts of or whole country obliterated.Environmental:• Global cooling due to ash blocking out the sun.• Very heavy pollution on global scales.Social:• Countries or parts of countries obliterated and abandoned.• Global food and clean water crisis due to water polluted by ash, and livestock and plants killed.• Mass panic as the situation worsens.• Crime, theft and murder skyrocket.• Overcrowding of countries that are not so heavily affected.• Resource wars among governments.• Death and injuries on massive scales.Economic:• Global economic crisis.
Victoria, Raveena, Kenneth & DimasWhat are the consequences of a supervolcano eruption?Yellowstone National ParkYellowstone is an example of a supervolcano. It was formed because of a volcanichotspot.It is believed to have last erupted 630,000 years ago, and was 1,000 times biggerthan the Mount St. Helens eruption in 1980.The large volume of material from the last eruption caused the ground tocollapse, creating a depression called a caldera.
Victoria, Raveena, Kenneth & DimasThere are many features located at Yellowstone, such as hot springs andthe famous geyser, Old Faithful.An eruption at Yellowstone would cause global consequences and havemany different effects on people all over the world.Here are a few examples of what would occur if the supervolcano were toerupt:
Victoria, Raveena, Kenneth & DimasGlossary and Key Terms• Caldera - A large depression in the ground caused by the collapse of the mouth of the volcano.• Fissures - A long and narrow opening in the ground.• Geothermal - The internal heart of the Earth.• Geyser - A vent that shoots out hot steam and water.• Hotspot - A area with volcanic activity.• VIE scale - A scale that represents the explosiveness of a volcano, the higher the scale the more explosive the volcano.• Global cooling - A global decrease on the Earth’s average temperature.