IntroductionBollywood is formally referred to as Hindi cinema.Bollywood is the informal term popularly used forthe Hindi-language film industry based in Mumbai(formerly known as Bombay), Maharashtra, India.The term is often incorrectly used to refer to thewhole of Indian cinema; it is only a part of the totalIndian film industry, which includes otherproduction centres producing films in regionallanguages.
The name "Bollywood" is derivedfrom Bombay (the former name forMumbai). The naming scheme for"Bollywood" was inspired by"Tollywood", the name that was usedto refer to the cinema of West Bengal .
HistoryFilm poster for first Indian Pukar (1939)sound film, Ardeshir IranisAlam Ara(1931)
Raja Harishchandra (1913), by Dadasaheb Phalke, was the first silent feature film made in India. By the 1930s, the industry was producing over 200 films per annum. The first Indian sound film, Ardeshir Iranis Alam Ara (1931), was a major commercial success. There was clearly a huge market for talkies and musicals; Bollywood and all the regional film industries quickly switched to sound filming. In 1937, Ardeshir Irani, of Alam Ara fame, made the first colour film in Hindi, Kisan Kanya. The next year, he made another colourGuruDutt(192 film, Mother India. However, colour did not become a popular feature until the late 1950s. 5-1964) At this time, lavish romantic musicals and melodramas were the staple fare at the cinema.
In the late 1960s and early 1970s, romance movies and action films starred actors like Rajesh Khanna, Dharmendra, Sanjeev Kumar and Shashi Kapoorand ; actresses like Sharmila Tagore, Mumtaz and Asha Parekh. In the mid-1970s, Amitabh Bachchan, the star known for his "angry young man" roles, rode the crest of this trend with actors like Mithun Chakraborty and Anil Kapoor, which lasted into the early 1990’s. Actresses from this era included Hema Malini, Jaya Bachchan and Rekha. Some Hindi filmmakers such as Shyam Benegal continued to produce realistic Parallel Cinema throughout the 1970s, alongside Mani Kaul, Kumar Shahani, Ketan Mehta, Govind Nihalani and Vijaya Mehta. The 1970s thus saw the rise of commercial cinema in the form of enduring films such as Sholay(1975), which solidified Amitabh Bachchans position as a lead actor.
The Hindi film industry has preferred films that appeal to all segments of the audience, and has resisted making films that target narrow audiences. It was believed that aiming for a broad spectrum would maximise box office receipts. However, filmmakers may be moving towards accepting some box-office segmentation, between films that appeal to rural Indians, and films that appeal to urban and overseas audiences.
Influences for Bollywood The ancient Indian epics of Mahabharata and Ramayana which have exerted a profound influence on the thought and imagination of Indian popular cinema, particularly in its narratives. Examples of this influence include the techniques of a side story, back-story and story within a story. Indian popular films often have plots which branch off into sub-plots; such narrative dispersals can clearly be seen in the 1993 films Khalnayak and Gardish. The traditional folk theatre of India, which became popular from around the 10th century with the decline of Sanskrit theatre. These regional traditions include the Yatra of Bengal, the Ramlila of Uttar Pradesh, and the Terukkuttu of Tamil Nadu.
Western musical television, particularly MTV, which has had an increasing influence since the 1990s, as can be seen in the pace, camera angles, dance sequences and music of 2000s Indian films. An early example of this approach was in Mani Ratnams Bombay (1995).
Genre Conventions Bollywood films are mostly musicals, and are expected to contain catchy music in the form of song-and-dance numbers woven into the script. A films success often depends on the quality of such musical numbers. Indeed, a films music is often released before the movie itself and helps increase the audience.
Melodrama and romance are common ingredients toBollywood films. Pictured Achhut Kanya (1936)
Bollywood plots have tended to be melodramatic. They frequently employ formulaic ingredients such as star-crossed lovers and angry parents, love triangles, family ties, sacrifice, corrupt politicians, kidnappers, conniving villains, courtesans with hearts of gold, long-lost relatives and siblings separated by fate, dramatic reversals of fortune, and convenient coincidences.
Cast And Crew Bollywood employs people from all parts of India. It attracts thousands of aspiring actors and actresses, all hoping for a break in the industry. Models and beauty contestants, television actors, theatre actors and even common people come to Mumbai with the hope and dream of becoming a star. Just as in Hollywood, very few succeed. Since many Bollywood films are shot abroad, many foreign extras are employed too.
Only a very few non-Indian actors are able to make a mark in Bollywood, though many have tried from time to time. There have been some exceptions, one recent example is the hit film Rang De Basanti where the lead actress is Alice Patten, an Englishwoman. Kisna, Lagaan, and The Rising: Ballad of Mangal Pandey also featured foreign actors. There is also Emma Brown Garett, an Australian born actress, who is starring in a few Indian films.
Bollywood Songs And DanceSongs in Bollywood are sung by professionalplayback singers, rather than actors, who lip-syncthe lyrics. Pictured here is Mukesh, a famedplayback singer.
Playback singers are prominently featured in the opening credits and have their own fans who will go to an otherwise lackluster movie just to hear their favourites. Going by the quality as well as the quantity of the songs they rendered, most notable singers of Bollywood are Lata Mangeshkar, Asha Bhosle, Geeta Dutt, Shamshad Begum and Alka Yagnik among female playback singers. K.L.Saigal, Talat Mahmood, Mukesh, Mohammed Rafi, Hemant Kumar, Kishore Kumar, Udit Narayan and Sonu Nigam among male playback singers.
Their songs can make or break a film and usually do. Remixing of film songs with modern beats and rhythms is a common occurrence today, and producers may even release remixed versions of some of their films songs along with the films regular soundtrack album. Previously song and dance scenes often used to be shot in Kashmir, but due to political unrest in Kashmir since the end of the 1980s, those scenes have since then often been shot in Western Europe, particularly in Switzerland Austria.
Dialogues & Lyrics Dialogues are usually written in an unadorned Hindi or Hindustani that would be understood by the largest possible audience. Some movies, however, have used regional dialects to evoke a village setting, or old- fashioned, courtly, Persian-influenced Urdu in Mughal era. historical films. Contemporary mainstream movies also make great use of English. Some movie scripts are first written in Roman alphabet. Characters may shift from one language to the other to express a certain atmosphere.
Cinematic language, whether in dialogues or lyrics, is often melodramatic and invokes God, family, mother, duty, and self-sacrifice liberally. Song lyrics are often about love. Bollywood song lyrics, especially in the old movies, frequently use the poetic vocabulary of court Urdu, with many Persian loanwords. Another source for love lyrics is the long Hindu tradition of poetry about the amours of Krishna, Radha, and the gopis, as referenced in films such as Jhanak Jhanak Payal Baje and Lagaan.
Advertising Releasing the film music, or music videos, before the actual release of the film can also be considered a form of advertising. A popular tune is believed to help pull audiences into the theaters. Bollywood publicists have begun to use the Internet as a venue for advertising. Most of the better-funded film releases now have their own websites, where browsers can view trailers, stills, and information about the story, cast, and crew.
Bollywood is also used to advertise other products. Product placement, as used in Hollywood, is widely practiced in Bollywood. Bollywood movie stars appear in print and television advertisements for other products, such as watches or soap. Advertisers say that a star endorsement boosts sales.
Award Year of Inception Awarded by Directorate of FilmNational Film Awards 1954 Festivals, Government of India Directorate of FilmDadasaheb Phalke Award 1969 Festivals, Government of IndiaFilmfare Awards 1954 Bennett, Coleman and Co. Ltd.Filmfare Awards South Wizcraft InternationalIIFA Awards 2000 Entertainment Pvt LtdTamil Nadu State Film Awards 1967 Government of Tamil NaduBengal Film Journalists Association 1937 Government of West BengalAwardsNandi Award 1964 Government of Andhra PradeshMaharashtra State Film Awards 1963 Government of MaharashtraKarnataka State Film Awards Government of Karnataka
Break-up of 2009 Indian feature films produced in 24 Languages. Rank Language No. of films1 Hindi 2352 Telugu 2183 Tamil 1904 Kannada 1775 Marathi 996 Malayalam 947 Bengali 848 Bhojpuri 649 Gujarati 6210 Oriya 1711 Punjabi 1512 English 913 Assamese 513 Rajasthani 515 Konkani 416 Santali 217 Haryanvi 117 Kodava 117 Maithili 117 Nagpuri 117 Nepali 117 Rajbanshi 117 Sambalpuri 117 Mishing 1
Film Music Music in Indian cinema is a substantial revenue generator, with the music rights alone accounting for 4–5% of the net revenues generated by a film in India. The major film music companies of India are Saregama, Sony Music etc. Commercially, film music accounts for 48% Indias net music sales. A film in India may have many choreographed songs spread throughout its length.
The demands of a multicultural, increasingly globalized Indian audience often led to a mixing of various local and international musical traditions. The end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 21st saw extensive interaction between artists from India and the western world. Artists from Indian diaspora blended the traditions of their heritage to those of their country to give rise to popular contemporary music.
In South Asia Bollywood is the informal name given to the Mumbai- based film industry in India. Dhaliwood or Dhallywood refers to the Bangladeshi film industry, based in the city of Dhaka. Lollywood refers to the Pakistani film industry, based in the city of Lahore. Mollywood may refer to the Malayalam film industry in India. Ollywood is the colloquial name given to the Oriya language movie industry in Orissa, India. Gollywood is the nickname for the film industry in the state of Gujarat.
Kollywood is the name of the Tamil language film industry, based in the Kodambakkam district of Chennai, India. Kollywood West can refer to Tamil films produced in western countries, such as Canada, Germany, France and the United Kingdom. Kollywood South can refer to the filmmaking hubs of Singaporean Tamil films or Sri Lankan Tamil films. Tollywood may refer to the Bengali film industry in Tollygunge, West Bengal, India. It was the first Hollywood-inspired nickname, dating back to 1932. Tollywood may also refer to the Telugu film industry in the state of Andhra Pradesh.
All Over The World Dollywood is an amusement park owned by Dolly Parton. FC Hollywood is a nickname for FC Bayern Munich. Bulawood is the name given to the Fiji film industry, Bula being a greeting in the Fijian language. Chinawood is a nickname for the Hengdian World Studio, the largest filmstudio in China. Hollywood North refers to film and television production in Canada, especially the cities of Vancouver and Toronto.
Mollywood may refer to the Mormon film industry in the United States. Nollywood is the Nigerian film industry. Pinewood, name given because of the pine trees surrounding it. Is located in Buckinghamshire, England. Pallywood is a term used by conservative commentators to describe alleged anti-Israeli media manipulation through video footage. Tamalewood is the nickname for the film industry in the state of New Mexico. Valleywood is the informal name for the Dragon International film studio complex in Wales. Wellywood refers to Wellington, New Zealand - home of Weta Workshop, Weta Digital and Peter Jacksons film studio.
Highest-grossing Bollywood films (extract) Nett Gross Nett Gross Rank Movie Year Studio(s) (according to (according to IBOS) BOI) Vinod Chopra1 3 Idiots 2009 202,57,00,000 189,38,74,729 Productions3 Ghajini 2008 Geetha Arts 114,67,00,000 117,48,22,7566 Rab Ne Bana Di Jodi 2008 Yash Raj Films 86,78,00,000 73,52,37,848 Dharma10 My Name Is Khan 2010 Productions/Red 72,74,00,000 62,08,89,048 Chillies Entertainment Filmkraft Productions15 Krrish 2006 69,25,00,000 81,46,05,346 Pvt. Ltd.
Biggest opening week gross Opening Week Opening Week Rank Movie Year Studio(s) Nett Gross Nett Gross (according to BOI) (according to IBOS) Arbaaz Khan1 Dabangg 2010 80,87,00,000 83,20,45,400 Productions Shree3 Golmaal 3 2010 Ashtavinayak Cine 62,29,00,000 59,23,32,410 Vision Ltd UTV Motion6 Tees Maar Khan 2010 49,04,00,000 42,34,14,300 Pictures Rab Ne Bana Di10 2008 Yash Raj Films 42,19,00,000 39,30,21,855 Jodi
Year Movie Record Held Studio(s) Nett Gross1943 Kismet 6 years Bombay Talkies 1,00,00,0001949 Barsaat 2 years R.K. Films 1,10,00,0001951 Awaara 1 year R.K. Films 1,25,00,0001952 Aan 3 years Mehboob Productions 1,50,00,0001955 Shree 420 2 years R.K. Films 2,00,00,0001957 Mother India 3 years Mehboob Productions 4,00,00,0001960 Mughal-e-Azam 15 years Sterling Investment 5,50,00,0001975 Sholay 19 years G.P. Sippy Productions 15,00,00,0001994 Hum Aapke Hain Kaun...! 7 years Rajshri Productions 69,75,00,0002001 Gadar: Ek Prem Katha 5 years Zee Telefilms 73,75,00,0002006 Dhoom 2 2 years Yash Raj Films 80,25,00,0002008 Ghajini 1 year Geetha Arts 114,67,00,0002009 3 Idiots Current holder Vinod Chopra Productions 202,57,00,000