Roll no 17,13,28,10,14


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Roll no 17,13,28,10,14

  1. 1. Interpersonal Conflict and Negotiation Skills Presented By Group 6 Juhi(10), Kriti Kumari(13), Meenu(14), Pallavi Kashyap(17), Surbhi Bhushan(28)
  2. 2. Introduction Conflict A process that begins when party perceives that another party has negatively or about to affect something that the first party cares about.
  3. 3. Intraindividual Conflict: MACRO MICRO Organizational Intergroup Interpersonal Intra- individual CONFLICT
  4. 4. Conflict due to Frustration Frustration occurs when a motivated drive is blocked before a person reaches a desired goal .
  5. 5. Overt covert A Model of Frustration NEED DRIVE GOAL (deficiency) ( deficiency BARRIER with direction) FRUSTRATION Defense mechanisms Aggression Withdrawal Fixation Compromise Overt Covert
  6. 6. Goal Conflict  Three type of goal conflict are –  Approach - approach conflict  Approach – avoidance conflict  Avoidance –avoidance conflict
  7. 7. Role Conflict and Ambiguity: Role of expectation Perception of focal person’s behaviours Evaluation Perceptio ns of messages and pressures Role conflict Role ambiguity ROLE SENDER FOCAL PERSON Role messages Role pressures Role messages Role pressures
  8. 8. Interpersonal Conflict  Two individuals get into conflict over an issue, such conflict is called interpersonal conflict.  Such conflicts may arise because of incompatibility between individuals or when an individual perceives that his image is under threat because of the actions of another individual .
  9. 9. Sources of Interpersonal Conflict  Personal difference  Information deficiency  Role incompatibility  Environmental stress
  10. 10. Analysis of interpersonal conflict  Collaborating –A situation in which the parties to a conflict each desire to satisfy fully the concerns of all parties.  Compromising-Compromising is also described as a "give and take" style. Conflicting parties bargain to reach a mutually acceptable solution. Both parties give up something in order to reach a decision and leave with some degree of satisfaction.
  11. 11.  Accommodating-The willingness of one party in a conflict to place the opponent’s interests above his or her own.  Avoiding-The desire to withdraw from or suppress a conflict.  Forcing-Forcing is also known as competing, controlling, or dominating style. Forcing occurs when one party goes all out to win it's position while ignoring the needs and concerns of the other party.
  12. 12. Strategies for Interpersonal Conflict Resolution Lose-Lose strategy Win-Lose approach Win-Win approach
  13. 13. WIN-LOSE APPROACH  People learn the behaviors of destructive conflict early in life – competition,dominance,aggression and defense permeate many of our social.  It involves secret strategies,threat. LOSE –LOSE STRATEGY  Is exemplified by smoothing over conflict or by reaching the simplest of compromises in neither case in the creative potential of productive conflict resolution realize or explored.
  14. 14. WIN-WIN APPROACH  Attempt to maximize the goals of both parties through collaboration problem solving.  Emphasis on the quality of the long term relationship between the parties rather than short term accommodation.
  15. 15. Intergroup Behavior  Behavior toward another person or group based on their group identification.  “GROUP” includes many types of things that can be used to categorize people, as race, sex, nationality, social class, profession, age, sexual identity, religion, etc.,
  16. 16. Intergroup Conflict  Intergroup conflict involves opposition and clashes between groups .  It often occurs in union-management relation  such conflicts may be highly intense drawn out, and costly to the groups involved
  17. 17. Why Intergroup Conflict Occurs ?  Work Interdependence It occur when two or more organizational groups depend on one another to complete their task  Barriers to communication  Differences in goals  Differences in Perceptions
  18. 18. Categories Of Intergroup Conflict Intergroup Conflict Vertical Conflict Line-staff Conflict Diversity – based conflict Horizontal conflict
  19. 19.  Vertical Conflict Clashes between employees at different levels in an organization  Horizontal conflict Clashes between groups employees at the same hierarchical level in an organization  Line-staff Conflict Clashes over authority relationships often involve line –staff conflict  Diversity –based conflict It appear to be related to issue of race, gender, ethnicity and religion
  20. 20. • Conflict within the group is high • There are negative interactions between groups (or between members of those groups) • Influential third-party gossip about other group is negative • Work to eliminate specific negative interactions between groups (and members). • Conduct team building to reduce intergroup conflict and prepare employees for cross-functional teamwork. • Encourage personal friendships and good working relationships across groups and departments. • Foster positive attitudes toward members of other groups (empathy, compassion, sympathy). • Avoid or neutralize negative gossip across groups or departments. Recommended actions: Level of perceived Inter-group conflict tends to increase when: Minimizing Inter-group Conflict: An Updated Contact Model
  21. 21. Organizational Conflict  . Organizational conflict is opposition or disagreement, as an open discussion between two or more groups in an organization  Conflict may involve a difference of opinion regarding business goals or lack of resources in a company.
  22. 22. Reasons of Conflict  The factors that generate conflicts are scarcity, obstruction and incompatible interests or goals etc.  Resource scarcity, either monetary, job, prestige or power, encourages the obstruction of behaviour and conflict arises. Conflict can also be broken out when one party avoids the goal achievement of the other one.
  23. 23. Consequences of Conflict  Consequences of conflict can be positive or negative: Positive Consequences of Conflict:  Increased involvement  * Increased innovation and creativity * Personal growth and change * Clarification of key issues  Negative consequences of conflict * Unresolved anger * Wastage of resources * Negative climate * Less self esteem * Inefficiency
  24. 24. Conditions which influence an organization towards conflict situations  Ambiguous jurisdictions  Communication barriers  Dependence on one party  Differentiation in organization  Association of the parties  Unresolved prior conflicts
  25. 25. Organization Conflict Theories MATURITY-IMMATURITY THEORY According to Maslow, Rogers, and other writers of the growth schools, there is a basic tendency in the development of the human personality toward self-fulfillment, or self-actualization. This implies that as an individual matures, he wants to be given more responsibility, broader horizons, and the opportunity to develop his personal potential. This process is interrupted whenever a person's environment fails to encourage and nurture these desires.
  26. 26. Distributive negotiation: Single issue; fixed-pie; win-lose. Integrative negotiation: More than one issue; win-win. Negotiation: “A give-and-take decision-making process involving interdependent parties with different preferences.” Negotiation
  27. 27. 17-27 Integrative Negotiation  Integrative Negotiation  Parties perceive that they might be able to increase the resource pie by trying to come up with a creative solution to the conflict  View the conflict as a win-win situation in which both parties can gain  Handled through collaboration or compromise
  28. 28. 17-28 Distributive Negotiation  Distributive negotiation  Parties perceive that they have a “fixed pie” of resources that they need to divide  Take a competitive adversarial stance  See no need to interact in the future  Do not care if their interpersonal relationship is damaged by their competitive negotiation
  29. 29. Negotiation Skills  Act assertively to achieve objectives  Reduce resistance & minimise conflict  Know how & when to accept the opinions, values & will of others  Work to achieve a WIN-WIN situation  Negotiation is also a process that is of benefit to all parties
  30. 30. • Emphasises the relationship between the two parties • Encourages the spirit of any agreement reached Traditional Approach  Has two sides  Has opposing objectives approach  Is a form of warfare  Has a short sighted Formal Negotiation Informal Negotiation  Favours the party with the strongest power base  Limits the likelihood of informal talks  Emphasises the letter of agreement
  31. 31. THANK YOU