Data gathered and recorded previously for purposes other than the current project.
Usually historical and already assembled
Require no access to respondents or subjects
Table 4.1 A Comparison of Primary and Secondary Data
Obtainable in a short period of time
Complements primary data
May be inaccurate
May be inconsistent
Inconvenient to compare
May be inaccessible
Collected for a purpose other than the purpose at hand
Variations in definitions of terms
Different units of measurement
Is the Secondary Data appropriate for your study?
Is the subject matter consistent with your problem definition?
Do the data apply to the population of interest?
Do the data apply to the time period of interest?
Do the data appear in the correct units of measurement?
Do the data cover the subject of interest in adequate detail?
Additional Questions to Ask
Who collected the data?
For whom was the data collected?
What was the purpose of the research?
When was the data collected?
How was the data collected?
How was the data analyzed?
How does the data compare with similar information from different sources?
Common Secondary Data Study Objectives
Identifying consumption patterns
Estimating market potential
Selecting trade areas and sites
Enhancing customer databases
Developing prospect lists
Index of Retail Saturation
Calculation that describes the relationship between retail demand and supply
Local market potential (demand) divided by
Square feet of retailing space
Example Using the Index of Retail Saturation
Population = 261,785
Annual per capita shoe sales = $54.43
Local market potential = $14,249,000
Square feet of retail space used to sell shoes = 94,000 sq. ft.
Index of retail saturation = 152
Compare to other areas to determine which sites have the greatest potential with the least amount of retail competition.
Index values above 200 are considered to indicate exceptional opportunities.
Using someone’s work without giving credit or without obtaining permission, where necessary
Tips for Avoiding Plagiarism
NEVER use someone else’s research and fail to cite the individual(s).
Do not copy information from a source text without proper acknowledgement
Always use quotation marks when reproducing material from a source text, and use proper documentation
Do not paraphrase material from a source text without appropriate documentation
Always cite the research service when purchasing completed research from the service
Adapted from Strong, William S. (1993), The Copyright Book: A Practical Guide , (London: MIT Press), 1.
Getting Copyright Permission
Determine if permission is needed
Is the material protected under law?
Would your use of the material violate the law?
Identify the owner
Identify the rights you need
Plan ahead for permissions
Negotiate whether payment is required
Get it in writing
Source: Stim, Richard (2000), Getting Permission: How to License & Clear Copyrighted Materials Online & Off , (Berkley, CA: Nolo Press), 1-6.
Figure 4.3 A Classification of Secondary Data A Classification of Secondary Data Secondary Data Internal Requires Further Processing Ready to Use Published Materials Computerized Databases Syndicated Services External
Sources of Secondary Data
Information systems personnel
Other expert employees
Sources of Secondary Data
Books & Periodicals
Figure 4.4 A Classification of Published Secondary Sources Published Secondary Data General Business Sources Other Government Publications Census Data Government Sources A Classification of Published Secondary Sources Guides Directories Indexes Statistical Data
Figure 4.5 A Classification of Computerized Databases Computerized Databases Online Internet Offline Special Purpose Databases Directory Databases Full- Text Databases Bibliographic Databases Numeric Databases A Classification of Computerized Databases
National Trade Data Bank (NTDB)
Established by the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988
Purpose was to provide reasonable public access, including electronic access, to an export promotion data system that was centralized, inexpensive, and easy to use
Over 1,000 libraries offer access to the NTDB through the Federal Depository Library system.
Examples of Information Contained in the NTDB
Agricultural commodity production & trade
Basic export information
Calendars of trade fairs
Capital markets & export financing
Export licensing info
International trade terms directory
Maritime & shipping information
Market research reports
Overseas & domestic industry information
Small business info
State trade contacts
Syndicated Sources of Secondary Data
Syndicated Sources (Services)
Firms that collect and sell common pools of data designed to serve information needs shared by a number of clients, including competing firms in the same industry.
Figure 5.3 A Classification of Syndicated Services Unit of Measurement Households/ Consumers Institutions A Classification of Syndicated Services
Figure 5.4 A Classification of Syndicated Services: Household/Consumers Household Consumers Surveys Mail Diary Panels Electronic Scanner Services Psychographic & Lifestyles General Advertising Evaluation Media Purchase Scanner Diary Panels Volume Tracking Data Scanner Diary Panels w/ Cable TV A Classification of Syndicated Services: Household/Consumers
Figure 5.5 Classification of Syndicated Survey Research Surveys by Syndicated Firms Periodic Panel Shared Psychographic and Lifestyles General Advertising Evaluation Classification of Syndicated Survey Research
Collect data on the same set of variables at regular intervals, each time sampling from a new group of respondents .
Measure the same group of respondents over time but not necessarily on the same variables .
Developed and executed for multiple clients, each of whom shares the expense.
Quantified psychological profiles of individuals and psychologically based measures of lifestyles, such as brand loyalty and risk taking.
Data that describes individuals’ distinctive pattern of living
Described by the activities people engage in
The interests they have
The opinions they hold of themselves
The opinions they hold of the world around them
Advertising Evaluation Surveys
Measure the size and profile of the advertising audience, and
Assess the effectiveness of advertising using print and broadcast media
Conducted for a variety of other purposes (I.e., examination of purchase and consumption behavior)
Consumer Diary Panels
Made up of a group of individuals and households that record their purchases and behavior in a diary over time.
Frequent attempts are made to maintain the representativeness of the panel in relation to the U.S. population (on the basis of demographics)
Consumer Diary Panels
Diary Purchase Panels
Data-gathering technique in which respondents record their purchases in a diary.
Diary Media Panels
Data-gathering technique composed of samples of respondents whose television viewing behavior is automatically recorded by electronic devices
Supplemented by the purchase information recorded in a diary
Electronic Scanner Services
Data obtained by passing merchandise over a laser scanner that reads the UPC (Universal Product Code) from the packages.
Scanner data that provides information on purchases by brand, size, price, and flavor or formulation
Scanner Diary Panels
Panel members issued an ID card allowing panel members’ purchases to be linked to their identity
Scanner Diary Panels with Cable TV
Combination of scanner diary panels with manipulations of the advertising that is being broadcast by cable television companies.
Figure 5.6 Classification of Syndicated Services: Institutions Classification of Syndicated Services : Institutions Institutions Retailers Wholesalers Industrial Firms Audits Direct Inquiries Clipping Services Corporate Reports
Syndicated Data from Institutions
Retailer and Wholesaler Audits
Collect of product movement data for wholesalers & retailers
Periodic audits may be
A physical count of inventory, or
May be managed through a link to the scanning process
Track inventory flow, current inventory levels, and the impact of both promotional & pricing programs on inventory levels
Industrial Research Services
Secondary data derived from industrial sources & intended for industrial use