To accompany Georgia Middle School Lessons on
Written by: Christina M. Spears
Georgia Agriculture Education Curriculum Office
• Define Biotechnology
• Compare and contrast biotechnology and
• Explain how biotechnology helps increase
• List uses of biotechnology in plant and
• Explain historical uses of biotechnology
What is DNA?
• Hereditary information
• Stored as sequence of
• Five carbon base sugar
• Phosphate group
• Nitrogenous base
What is Biotechnology?
• Management of biological systems for
benefit of humanity
• Applied to general sciences
Biotechnology vs Genetic
• All subjects of science
• Bigger picture
• Gene splicing,
transfer of genes
• More concentrated
How does Biotechnology
• Develop new forms of plants and animals
• Modify plants and animals to improve their
• Improving the quality of food
• Longer shelf life for perishables
Historical Uses of Biotechnology
• Earliest techniques were
used to make cheese and
• Spoiled milk
fermented to make
• Grape juice
fermented to make
• Today…we not only
see wine and cheese
but also yogurt and
bread made from
• THE OLD RED DOG WAS TOO BIG FOR HIS
• Have a deletion that would delete the D in OLD…
sentence look like
• THE OLR EDD OGW AST OOB IGF ORH ISB
• If mutation caused inversion of word DOG…
• THE OLD RED GOD WAS TOO BIG FOR HIS
Intro to Biotechnology
• Making Yogurt
Review handout on it
Form groups of three people and work
together to make the yogurt
• Identify biotechnologies
in plant science
• Discuss importance of
biotechnology to humans
• Explain the impact of
cloning on plant science
• Identify how manipulation
of chromosome number
• In groups of three research one plant
• Genetic engineering
• Number of chromosomes
• What are some biotechnologies used in
• How will these biotechnologies help plants?
• Identify some negative impacts of
biotechnology use in plants
• What is the danger of using herbicides?
• How can grain be produced more efficiently
with the use of nitrogen?
Number of Chromosomes
• What is polyploidy?
• Contain more than one
haploid set of
• How does polyploidy
• About 30-70% of
• Peanut is 4n, Banana and
apple 2n or 3n, and cotton
• Deliberate polyploidy in
• Asexual Propagation:
• For assignment:
• Students break up into lab groups
• Each group given a plant for stem tip cutting
• Identify examples of
biotechnology in animal
Internet articles about
• Describe how cloning
affects animal science
• Explain how the number
• In groups of three you will research a topic
on biotechnology in animal science
• After your research, your group will present
your topic to the class
• What are some biotechnologies used in animal
• How will these biotechnologies help in the
productivity of animals?
• What are the impacts of these biotechnologies on
the environment, consumer health, and animals?
• How will these biotechnologies benefit humans?
• What is cloning and how will it impact animal
• What is polyploidy and what kinds of
animals are polyploids?
• Polyploidy means having one or more set of haploid
• In animals this phenomenon is rare, but one does see
it in reptiles, amphibians, and insects
• In the September 1999 issue of Nature, scientists
revealed they found a tetraploid (4n) rat in
• What is genetic engineering?
• Also called recombinant DNA technology or gene
manipulation. Two major techniques: 1) Genes are
engineered into organisms such as microbes,
bacteria, for mass-production and 2) insertion of
select genes into organisms to improve their
• Identify a procedure of genetic engineering.
• 1) Isolate the genes, 2) Recombination, 3)
Transformation, 4) Screening, and 5) Induction
• Uses an electric current to
separate various fragments
of DNA to different
lengths on the gel.
• DNA fragments are
attracted to the positive
side of the gel
• The larger fragments
migrate slower than the
Genetic Engineering in Agriculture
• How is genetic engineering
applied to agriculture?
• Crops have been developed
that resist insect damage and
spoilage. Some species of
plants have the ability to kill
off weeds surrounding them.
Scientists now insert a gene to
prolong the shelf life of fruits
• What are some uses of genetic
engineering in agriculture?
• Black walnut has ability to
kill off surrounding weeds in
its area. Once this gene is
isolated, scientists can apply it
to other plants. Tomato has a
gene to increase its shelf life.
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