Unit 19 - Biotechnology


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Unit 19 - Biotechnology

  1. 1. Biotechnology To accompany Georgia Middle School Lessons on Biotechnology Written by: Christina M. Spears Georgia Agriculture Education Curriculum Office July 2003
  2. 2. Objectives • Define Biotechnology • Compare and contrast biotechnology and genetic engineering • Explain how biotechnology helps increase production • List uses of biotechnology in plant and animal science • Explain historical uses of biotechnology
  3. 3. What is DNA? • Hereditary information stored in chromosomes • Stored as sequence of nucleotides • Five carbon base sugar • Phosphate group • Nitrogenous base (c) http://whyfiles.org/075genome/images/d na.gif
  4. 4. What is Biotechnology? • Management of biological systems for benefit of humanity • Applied to general sciences
  5. 5. Uses of Biotechnology in Plant and Animal Science • Cloning • Herbicides • Increasing shelf life © http://www.amnh.org/exhibitions/genomics/5_reshap ing/images/dolly.jpg
  6. 6. Biotechnology vs Genetic Engineering Biotechnology • All subjects of science • Bigger picture Genetic Engineering • Genetics • Gene splicing, replication, and transfer of genes • More concentrated
  7. 7. How does Biotechnology increase Production? • Develop new forms of plants and animals • Modify plants and animals to improve their life processes • Improving the quality of food • Longer shelf life for perishables
  8. 8. Historical Uses of Biotechnology • Earliest techniques were used to make cheese and wine • Spoiled milk fermented to make cheese • Grape juice fermented to make wine • Today…we not only see wine and cheese but also yogurt and bread made from processes of biotechnology
  9. 9. Activity • THE OLD RED DOG WAS TOO BIG FOR HIS BED • Have a deletion that would delete the D in OLD… sentence look like • THE OLR EDD OGW AST OOB IGF ORH ISB ED • If mutation caused inversion of word DOG… • THE OLD RED GOD WAS TOO BIG FOR HIS BED
  10. 10. Intro to Biotechnology Lab Activity!! • Making Yogurt Review handout on it Form groups of three people and work together to make the yogurt Two-day activity
  11. 11. Biotechnology Biotechnology in Plant Science
  12. 12. Objectives • Identify biotechnologies in plant science • Discuss importance of biotechnology to humans • Explain the impact of cloning on plant science • Identify how manipulation of chromosome number affects plant characteristics (c) http://www.myjanee.com/images/photoalbum/flora/m arigolds.jpg
  13. 13. Assignment • In groups of three research one plant biotechnology • Hybrids • Herbicides • Genetic engineering • Number of chromosomes
  14. 14. Discussion • What are some biotechnologies used in plant science? • How will these biotechnologies help plants? • Identify some negative impacts of biotechnology use in plants • What is the danger of using herbicides? • How can grain be produced more efficiently with the use of nitrogen?
  15. 15. Number of Chromosomes • What is polyploidy? • Contain more than one haploid set of chromosomes (n) • How does polyploidy affect plants? • About 30-70% of angiosperms are polyploids • Peanut is 4n, Banana and apple 2n or 3n, and cotton is 4n • Deliberate polyploidy in marigolds, snapdragons, and watermelons (c) http://www.mahyco.com/images/c otton.jpg
  16. 16. Lab Assignment • Asexual Propagation: • Cuttings • Layerings • For assignment: • Students break up into lab groups • Each group given a plant for stem tip cutting
  17. 17. Biotechnology Biotechnology In Animal Science
  18. 18. Objectives • Identify examples of biotechnology in animal science • Interpret magazine/newspaper and Internet articles about biotechnology • Describe how cloning affects animal science • Explain how the number of chromosomes influences animal characteristics (c) http://www.advancedcell.com/pg_page1.html
  19. 19. Assignment • In groups of three you will research a topic on biotechnology in animal science • After your research, your group will present your topic to the class
  20. 20. Discussion • What are some biotechnologies used in animal science? • How will these biotechnologies help in the productivity of animals? • What are the impacts of these biotechnologies on the environment, consumer health, and animals? • How will these biotechnologies benefit humans? • What is cloning and how will it impact animal science?
  21. 21. Epistasis • Define epistasis. • Having one or more genes that mask the effect of the dominant gene • Example: In Labrador Retrievers, BB/Bb gives black, bb gives brown, EE/Ee gives normal coat color, and ee gives yellow. Cross BBEE with bbEE, what is the F1 generation? Now cross the F1 generation, what is the F2? © www.belquest.com/ homelogo02.jpg
  22. 22. Polyploidy • What is polyploidy and what kinds of animals are polyploids? • Polyploidy means having one or more set of haploid chromosomes (n). • In animals this phenomenon is rare, but one does see it in reptiles, amphibians, and insects • In the September 1999 issue of Nature, scientists revealed they found a tetraploid (4n) rat in Argentina
  23. 23. Biotechnology Genetic Engineering
  24. 24. Objectives • Explain genetic engineering • Describe a procedure of genetic engineering • Identify the process of DNA fingerprinting • Complete the DNA fingerprinting lab • Explain how genetic engineering is applied in agriculture • Cite examples of genetic engineering uses in agriculture © http://www.sierraclub.org/biotech/report. asp
  25. 25. Genetic Engineering • What is genetic engineering? • Also called recombinant DNA technology or gene manipulation. Two major techniques: 1) Genes are engineered into organisms such as microbes, bacteria, for mass-production and 2) insertion of select genes into organisms to improve their genotype • Identify a procedure of genetic engineering. • 1) Isolate the genes, 2) Recombination, 3) Transformation, 4) Screening, and 5) Induction
  26. 26. Gel Electrophoresis • Uses an electric current to separate various fragments of DNA to different lengths on the gel. • DNA fragments are attracted to the positive side of the gel • The larger fragments migrate slower than the smaller fragments (c) http://medlib.med.utah.edu/block2/biochem/Formosa /Figures/Lecture6/6-01%20Agarose%20gel.GIF
  27. 27. Genetic Engineering in Agriculture • How is genetic engineering applied to agriculture? • Crops have been developed that resist insect damage and spoilage. Some species of plants have the ability to kill off weeds surrounding them. Scientists now insert a gene to prolong the shelf life of fruits and vegetables. • What are some uses of genetic engineering in agriculture? • Black walnut has ability to kill off surrounding weeds in its area. Once this gene is isolated, scientists can apply it to other plants. Tomato has a gene to increase its shelf life. (c) http://www.isu.edu/pics/treewalk/black- walnut1.gif