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The Phenomena of Biotechnolgy

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  • 1. The Phenomena of Biotechnology
    Biotechnology
  • 2. Technology
    What is it?
    Using laws of nature to create devices we use
    Then: trial and error
    Now: study why things behave in a particular manner
    Most advanced computer/network applications = simple compared to:
    Body of a mammal
    Functions of all the systems of a corn plant
  • 3. Unlocking the Secrets of Living Organisms
    Scientists just now unlocking secrets of nature
    New breakthroughs very complicated and intricate
    Why the difference?
    Mechanical and electronic technology
    Biological technology
    • Answer:
    • 4. Mechanical and electronic: applying principles and laws already understood
    • 5. Biological: begin with complicated operational systems
  • Biotechnology - Defined
    With a partner…
    Come up with a definition.
    Write it on the board.
  • 6. Defining Biotechnology
    How would you define it?
    Many ways!
    Simplest: manipulation of living organisms to make products useful to humans
    Modifying cell activities
    Genetically manipulating organisms to alter their behavior, characteristics, or value
    Most potential, most controversial
  • 7. Development
    Slow – why?
    Using living organisms that grow and reproduce
    Care and welfare of animals
    Manipulation of cells must be done carefully with many safeguards
    Public hesitance
  • 8. Need for Biotechnology
    World population: 6.7 billion
    India: over 1 billion
    2040 projection: 10 billion
    Lesser-developed countries
    Contribute most to population increase
    Already inadequate food supplies
    Present rate of food production + advancement trends
    Running out of food still a danger!
  • 9. Genetic Improvement
    Existing technology can engineer plants and animals to produce more efficiently
    Change genetic makeup
    Better growth
    Higher yields
    Shorter generations
    Improve nutrition
  • 10. Current Uses of Biotechnology
    Can you name some??
  • 11. Current Uses of Biotechnology
    Plant Biotechnology
    Cloning
    Transgenic crops
    Resist insects
    Resist certain types of herbicides
    Increased nutrition
    Custom-design plants to increase production and nutrition
  • 12. Current Uses of Biotechnology
    Animal Science
    Making cheese from milk using animal enzymes & bacteria
    Artificial insemination
    Embryo transfer
    Cloning
  • 13. Current Uses of Biotechnology
    Medicine
    Insulin
    Insulin-producing genes are spliced into bacteria that are reproduced for extraction of the insulin
    Gene therapy
    Treats and cures genetic disorders and illnesses once considered untreatable
    Vaccine-containing plants
    Genetic mapping
    Helps determine if a person has inherited a genetically transmitted disorder (cystic fibrosis, hemophilia, sickle cell anemia, etc.)
  • 14. Current Uses of Biotechnology
    Environment
    Plants developed to indicate pollutants
    Bioremediation
    Examples:
    Certain microorganisms feed on toxins in polluted soil
    Digest toxins and convert to harmless substances (i.e. carbon dioxide)
    Certain plants can absorb pollutants from soil or water