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The Phenomena of Biotechnolgy
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The Phenomena of Biotechnolgy

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  • 1. The Phenomena of Biotechnology Biotechnology
  • 2. Technology  What is it?  Using laws of nature to create devices we use  Then: trial and error  Now: study why things behave in a particular manner  Most advanced computer/network applications = simple compared to:  Body of a mammal  Functions of all the systems of a corn plant
  • 3. Unlocking the Secrets of Living Organisms  Scientists just now unlocking secrets of nature  New breakthroughs very complicated and intricate  Why the difference?  Mechanical and electronic technology  Biological technology  Answer:  Mechanical and electronic: applying principles and laws already understood  Biological: begin with complicated operational systems
  • 4. Biotechnology - Defined
  • 5. Defining Biotechnology  How would you define it?  Many ways!  Simplest: manipulation of living organisms to make products useful to humans  Modifying cell activities  Genetically manipulating organisms to alter their behavior, characteristics, or value  Most potential, most controversial
  • 6. Development  Slow – why?  Using living organisms that grow and reproduce  Care and welfare of animals  Manipulation of cells must be done carefully with many safeguards  Public hesitance
  • 7. Need for Biotechnology  World population: 6.7 billion  India: over 1 billion  2040 projection: 10 billion  Lesser-developed countries  Contribute most to population increase  Already inadequate food supplies  Present rate of food production + advancement trends  Running out of food still a danger!
  • 8. Genetic Improvement  Existing technology can engineer plants and animals to produce more efficiently  Change genetic makeup  Better growth  Higher yields  Shorter generations  Improve nutrition
  • 9. Current Uses of Biotechnology
  • 10. Current Uses of Biotechnology  Plant Biotechnology  Cloning  Transgenic crops  Resist insects  Resist certain types of herbicides  Increased nutrition  Custom-design plants to increase production and nutrition
  • 11. Current Uses of Biotechnology  Animal Science  Making cheese from milk using animal enzymes & bacteria  Artificial insemination  Embryo transfer  Cloning
  • 12. Current Uses of Biotechnology  Medicine  Insulin  Insulin-producing genes are spliced into bacteria that are reproduced for extraction of the insulin  Gene therapy  Treats and cures genetic disorders and illnesses once considered untreatable  Vaccine-containing plants  Genetic mapping  Helps determine if a person has inherited a genetically transmitted disorder (cystic fibrosis, hemophilia, sickle cell anemia, etc.)
  • 13. Current Uses of Biotechnology  Environment  Plants developed to indicate pollutants  Bioremediation  Examples:  Certain microorganisms feed on toxins in polluted soil  Digest toxins and convert to harmless substances (i.e. carbon dioxide)  Certain plants can absorb pollutants from soil or water