Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
The Application of Modern Biotechnology To Food and Agriculture: A ...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Saving this for later?

Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime - even offline.

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

The Application of Modern Biotechnology To Food and Agriculture: A ...

2,855
views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Business

0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
2,855
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
77
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide
  • Good morning and welcome to the opening plenary session of the 2005 SNE annual conference, “A Food Systems Approach to Improving Human Nutrition and Health.”
    What I would like to talk to you about today is as follows. First, define the term ‘food system’ as well as review the broader systems that interact with and influence food systems. Second, highlight a variety of economic forces that are driving change in the food system. Third, discuss some of the key trends threatening the sustainability and viability of the US food system. And fourth, highlight a 3-stage continuum of strategies and activities to improve nutrition and health based on a food systems approach.
  • A food system broadly defines the production, processing, distribution, access, use and recycling of food. These interrelated parts of a food system interact and are influenced by broader systems including the natural resource base (such as land, air and water); society and culture (including food beliefs and food practices) as well as the use of technological systems. These systems are, in turn, influenced by broader institutions, including government and public policies.
  • As we move further into the 21st century, we’re finding that the food system is becoming increasingly more globalized.
    Some view this large scale transition towards a globalized food system as inevitable and eventually leading to improvement in quality of life indicators by increasing the abundance of the food supply through biotechnology and expanding the life span of people around the world through nutritionally-enhanced genetically-engineered foods.
    Others, however, argue that globalization of the food system and the competing global marketplace through international trade will have detrimental effects and counteract supportive actions to alleviate global food insecurity, protect the environment, and encourage the development of healthy diets and economies around the world (Lang, 1999). It is feared that the exportation of the North American diet through a globalized food system will lead to a dietary ‘burgerization’ of the entire world (Ritzer, 1993).
  • Lange and Heasman (2004) argue that the emergence of a global food system is resulting in a global ‘food wars’ or more specifically a global battle for mouths, minds and markets.
  • Although the globalized food system provides an abundance of inexpensive food, there is growing evidence that this type of food system is not economically, socially, or environmentally sustainable.
  • The next several slides provide a summary of the key trends threatening the sustainability and viability of the US food system, which is based on – for the most part – a dominant model of food consumption.
  • The global, industrialized food system also presents challenges related to the public’s health.
  • Time precludes me from discussing the issues of antibiotic use in agriculture and concentrated animal feeding operations. However, for those of you that are interested in exploring these issues further, I would recommend taking a look at the following American Public Health Association (APHA) resolutions on this topic.
  • With the many growing concerns related to the sustainability and safety of a globalized, industrial food system, there is an emerging movement that is focused on creating more localized community food systems, which are based on the premise of sustainable agriculture.
  • In stage 1, participants create small but significant changes to existing food systems. Data collected at this stage can be used to inform work undertaken in subsequent stages.
    In Stage 2, food systems change is progressing, and efforts are directed at facilitating and stabilizing that change.
    In Stage 3, efforts are made to institutionalize food systems change through advocacy and policy instruments that integrate different policy fields.
  • Farm to hospital programs provide the opportunity to bring fresh, healthy food to medical facilities and offer new markets for local farmers. In 2004, hospitals brought #3.3 billion dollars worth of food. Cumulatively, these expenditures rank the hospital industry as the nation’s third largest institutional purchaser of food items behind K-12 schools and colleges and universities.
    Farm to hospital programs also provide an alternative to fast food establishments, which are becoming increasingly more common in hospitals around the country. For example, according to a recently conducted survey, fast food franchises are in 38% of the nation’s top hospitals.
  • The fair trade movement is not limited to small businesses. For example, Procter and Gamble has announced that it will role out a line of Fair Trade certified coffee.
    Results from an Oxfam America survey conducted last fall show the certain supermarket chains have responded to consumers’ demand for fair trade products more effectively than others. Wild Oats and Ahold USA, which owns Giant-Carlisle, Giant-Landover, Tops, and Stop & Shop, came out on top against their competitors. Both companies provide customers with a range of Fair Trade Certified coffee. Wild Oats also carries tea, chocolate and fruit.
    Most fair trade coffee, tea, and chocolate in the US is also certified organic and shade grown, which means that the products you buy maintain biodiversity, provide shelter for migratory birds, and help reduce global warming.
  • Urban agriculture involves producing food closer to where most consumers live and is an increasingly important strategy for achieving food security in the 21st century as the world becomes more urbanized. It also offers many potential benefits such as reducing energy costs and pollution from food transportation and storage, absorbing greenhouse gas emissions, offering a viable use for urban waste as compost, and creating employment and economic development opportunities.
  • Transcript

    • 1. A Food Systems Approach toA Food Systems Approach to Improving Human Nutrition and HealthImproving Human Nutrition and Health Christine McCullum-Gomez, PhD, RD, LDChristine McCullum-Gomez, PhD, RD, LD Assistant Professor of Health PromotionAssistant Professor of Health Promotion & Behavioral Sciences& Behavioral Sciences University of Texas – Houston, School of Public HealthUniversity of Texas – Houston, School of Public Health July 23July 23rdrd 20052005 2005 SNE Annual Conference2005 SNE Annual Conference Leading the Way in Nutrition and HealthLeading the Way in Nutrition and Health Orlando, Florida
    • 2. “What is a food system?”
    • 3. -------- Government/Public Policies ---------- Natural Resources Society & Technological Culture Systems ProductionProduction ProcessingProcessing Recycling & CompostingRecycling & Composting Food SystemFood System DistributionDistribution UseUse AccessAccess Adapted from: Dahlberg, K. Local and regional food systems. A key to healthyAdapted from: Dahlberg, K. Local and regional food systems. A key to healthy
    • 4. Globalization of the Food SystemGlobalization of the Food System
    • 5. Change in the food system has been driven by wider economic forces:  Changes on the land which are transforming whatChanges on the land which are transforming what agriculture produces and how;agriculture produces and how;  A rapid industry concentration of control over theA rapid industry concentration of control over the entire food chain, e.g., in the Canadian food chain:entire food chain, e.g., in the Canadian food chain: -- 4 companies control the seed market;4 companies control the seed market; -- 4 companies dominate beef packing;4 companies dominate beef packing; - 4 companies mill 80% of Canadian flour;4 companies mill 80% of Canadian flour; - 5 companies control food retailing5 companies control food retailing Source: Lang, T, Heasman, M. Food Wars: The Global Battle for Mouths, Minds, and Markets. Earthscan Publications, Sterling, VA; 2004.
    • 6. Change in the food system has been driven by wider economic forces (cont’d):  Changes in both the scale & technology of foodChanges in both the scale & technology of food factories;factories;  A new emphasis on product development,A new emphasis on product development, branding and marketing;branding and marketing;  New levels of control by food retailing & serviceNew levels of control by food retailing & service over the rest of the food economy (e.g., Walmartover the rest of the food economy (e.g., Walmart (U.S.) was the world’s top grocery retailer in 2004(U.S.) was the world’s top grocery retailer in 2004 with $244.5 billion in annual sales –with $244.5 billion in annual sales – SupermarketSupermarket NewsNews 12/29/03)12/29/03) Source: Lang, T, Heasman, M. Food Wars: The Global Battle for Mouths, Minds, and Markets. Earthscan Publications, Sterling, VA; 2004.
    • 7. Competing Models for Patterns of Food Consumption Dominant Model - Alternative Model -  GlobalizationGlobalization  Urban/rural divisionsUrban/rural divisions  Long trade routesLong trade routes  Non-renewable energyNon-renewable energy  Few market playersFew market players  Costs externalizedCosts externalized  MonocultureMonoculture  One-track agricultureOne-track agriculture  Food from factoriesFood from factories  Private intellectual propertyPrivate intellectual property  LocalizationLocalization  Urban/rural partnershipsUrban/rural partnerships  Short trade routesShort trade routes  Re-useable energyRe-useable energy  Multiple playersMultiple players  Costs internalizedCosts internalized  BiodiversityBiodiversity  Multifunctional agricultureMultifunctional agriculture  Food from the landFood from the land  Common/public goodsCommon/public goods Source: Lang, T, Heasman, M. Food Wars: The Global Battle for Mouths, Minds, and Markets. Earthscan Publications, Sterling, VA; 2004.
    • 8. Competing Models for Patterns of Food Consumption Dominant Model - Alternative Model -  GlobalizationGlobalization  Urban/rural divisionsUrban/rural divisions  Long trade routesLong trade routes  Non-renewable energyNon-renewable energy  Few market playersFew market players  Costs externalizedCosts externalized  MonocultureMonoculture  One-track agricultureOne-track agriculture  Food from factoriesFood from factories  Private intellectual propertyPrivate intellectual property  LocalizationLocalization  Urban/rural partnershipsUrban/rural partnerships  Short trade routesShort trade routes  Re-useable energyRe-useable energy  Multiple playersMultiple players  Costs internalizedCosts internalized  BiodiversityBiodiversity  Multifunctional agricultureMultifunctional agriculture  Food from the landFood from the land  Common/public goodsCommon/public goods Source: Lang, T, Heasman, M. Food Wars: The Global Battle for Mouths, Minds, and Markets. Earthscan Publications, Sterling, VA; 2004.
    • 9. ‘Multifunctionality’ of Agriculture  ‘‘Multifunctionality’ is the notion that in addition toMultifunctionality’ is the notion that in addition to production of food and fiber, agriculture has aproduction of food and fiber, agriculture has a number of other, mostly non-commodity outputsnumber of other, mostly non-commodity outputs (e.g., environmental protection, clean water, flood(e.g., environmental protection, clean water, flood control, maintenance of landscape or habitat, ruralcontrol, maintenance of landscape or habitat, rural development, maintenance of agricultural heritage,development, maintenance of agricultural heritage, etc….)etc….) Buttel, F. Internalizing the societal costs of agricultural production. Plant Physiology 2003;133:1656-1665.
    • 10. Sustainability ““ Society’s ability to shape its economic and socialSociety’s ability to shape its economic and social systems to maintain both natural resources andsystems to maintain both natural resources and human life.”human life.” Source:Source: Position of the American Dietetic Association: Addressing worldPosition of the American Dietetic Association: Addressing world hunger, malnutrition, and food insecurity.hunger, malnutrition, and food insecurity. J Am Diet AssocJ Am Diet Assoc 2003;103:1046-1047.2003;103:1046-1047.
    • 11. Summary of key trends threatening the sustainability of the US food system EconomicEconomic SocialSocial EnvironmentalEnvironmental ProductionProduction -Rapid conversionRapid conversion of prime farmlandof prime farmland - 84% of farm84% of farm household incomehousehold income earned off-farmearned off-farm - Increasing numberIncreasing number of farms report aof farms report a lossloss -52% of52% of farmworkers arefarmworkers are illegalillegal - Age of farmAge of farm operatorsoperators increasing;increasing; declining entrydeclining entry of young farmersof young farmers -Depletion of topsoilDepletion of topsoil exceeds regenerationexceeds regeneration - Rate of groundwaterRate of groundwater withdrawl exceedingwithdrawl exceeding recharge in majorrecharge in major agricultural regionsagricultural regions - Loss to pestsLoss to pests increasingincreasing - Reduction in geneticReduction in genetic diversitydiversity Source: Heller, M.C., Keoleian, GA. Assessing the sustainability of the US food system: A life cycle perspective. Agricultural Systems 2003;76:1007-1041
    • 12. Summary of key trends threatening the sustainability of the US food system (cont’d) EconomicEconomic SocialSocial EnvironmentalEnvironmental ConsumptionConsumption -Costs of diet-Costs of diet- related diseasesrelated diseases increasingincreasing - Obesity ratesObesity rates risingrising - Diet deviatesDiet deviates from nutritionalfrom nutritional recommendationsrecommendations - 26% of edible food26% of edible food wastedwasted Source: Heller, M.C., Keoleian, GA. Assessing the sustainability of the US food system: A life cycle perspective. Agricultural Systems 2003;76:1007-1041
    • 13. Summary of key trends threatening the sustainability of the US food system (cont’d) EconomicEconomic SocialSocial EnvironmentalEnvironmental Total SystemTotal System -Marketing isMarketing is 80% of food bill80% of food bill - IndustryIndustry consolidationconsolidation threatens marketthreatens market competitioncompetition - Relation withRelation with food and its originfood and its origin has been losthas been lost - Heavy reliance onHeavy reliance on fossil fuel/energyfossil fuel/energy - 7.3 units of energy7.3 units of energy consumed to produceconsumed to produce one unit of energyone unit of energy - Others estimate 10Others estimate 10 units of energy perunits of energy per unit of output foodunit of output food energy (Pimental &energy (Pimental & Pimental 1996a);Pimental 1996a); (Hall et al, 1986)(Hall et al, 1986) Source: Heller, M.C., Keoleian, GA. Assessing the sustainability of the US food system: A life cycle perspective. Agricultural Systems 2003;76:1007-1041
    • 14. The Industrial Food System & Public Health  Pollution from factory farms is harming the health of bothPollution from factory farms is harming the health of both workers and residents living downstream or downwindworkers and residents living downstream or downwind from these operations.from these operations.  New strains of foodborne pathogens (e.g.,New strains of foodborne pathogens (e.g., ListeriaListeria && toxigenictoxigenic E. coliE. coli) have emerged in recent years, and long) have emerged in recent years, and long recognized pathogens have been causing more widespreadrecognized pathogens have been causing more widespread harmharm  The non-medical use of antibiotics in animal agricultureThe non-medical use of antibiotics in animal agriculture may be threatening the effectiveness of antibiotics inmay be threatening the effectiveness of antibiotics in treating human disease by creating selective pressure fortreating human disease by creating selective pressure for the emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteriathe emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria Source: Horrigan, L, Lawrence, RS, Walker, P. How sustainable agriculture can address the environmental and human health harms of industrial agriculture. Environmental Health Perspectives 2002;110(5):445-456.
    • 15. The Industrial Food System & Public Health  For more information, see the following AmericanFor more information, see the following American Public Health Association (APHA) Resolutions:Public Health Association (APHA) Resolutions: 1) Helping Preserve Antibiotic Effectiveness by1) Helping Preserve Antibiotic Effectiveness by Stimulating Demand for Meats Produced withoutStimulating Demand for Meats Produced without Excessive AntibioticsExcessive Antibiotics (Policy Number: 2004-13)(Policy Number: 2004-13) http://www.apha.org/legislative/policy/2004/2004-13.pdfhttp://www.apha.org/legislative/policy/2004/2004-13.pdf 2)2) Precautionary Moratorium on New ConcentratedPrecautionary Moratorium on New Concentrated Animal Feeding OperationsAnimal Feeding Operations (Policy Number: 20037)(Policy Number: 20037) http://www.apha.org/legislative/policy/2003/2003-007.pdfhttp://www.apha.org/legislative/policy/2003/2003-007.pdf
    • 16. Sustainable Agriculture ““Sustainable agriculture is a model of socialSustainable agriculture is a model of social and economic organization based on anand economic organization based on an equitable and participatory vision ofequitable and participatory vision of development which recognizes thedevelopment which recognizes the environment and natural resources as theenvironment and natural resources as the foundation of economic activity.”foundation of economic activity.” Madden, JP, Chaplowe, SG, eds.Madden, JP, Chaplowe, SG, eds. For All Generations: Making WorldFor All Generations: Making World Agriculture More Sustainable.Agriculture More Sustainable. Glendale, CA: World SustainableGlendale, CA: World Sustainable Agriculture Association; 1997.Agriculture Association; 1997.
    • 17. Sustainable Agriculture (cont’d) ““Agriculture is sustainable when it isAgriculture is sustainable when it is ecologically sound, economically viable,ecologically sound, economically viable, socially just, culturally appropriate, andsocially just, culturally appropriate, and based on a holistic scientific approach.”based on a holistic scientific approach.” Madden, JP, Chaplowe, SG, eds.Madden, JP, Chaplowe, SG, eds. For All Generations: Making WorldFor All Generations: Making World Agriculture More Sustainable.Agriculture More Sustainable. Glendale, CA: World SustainableGlendale, CA: World Sustainable Agriculture Association; 1997.Agriculture Association; 1997.
    • 18. Community Food System ““A collaborative effort to build more locally-based,A collaborative effort to build more locally-based, self-reliant food economies – one in whichself-reliant food economies – one in which sustainable food production, processing,sustainable food production, processing, distribution, and consumption is integrated todistribution, and consumption is integrated to enhance the economic, environmental, and socialenhance the economic, environmental, and social health of a particular place.”health of a particular place.” Source: Feenstra, G.W. Creating space for sustainable food systems: Lessons from the field. Agriculture and Human Values 2002;19:99-106.
    • 19. 3-Stage Continuum to Improve Nutrition and Health Based on a Food Systems Approach  Stage 1: Initial Food Systems ChangeStage 1: Initial Food Systems Change  Stage 2: Food Systems in TransitionStage 2: Food Systems in Transition  Stage 3: Food Systems Redesign forStage 3: Food Systems Redesign for SustainabilitySustainability Adapted from: McCullum, C., Desjardins, E, Kraak, V. et al. Evidence-based strategies to build community food security. J Am Diet Assoc 2005;105(2):278-283.
    • 20. 3-Stage Continuum to Improve Nutrition and Health Based on a Food Systems Approach  Stage 1: Initial Food Systems ChangeStage 1: Initial Food Systems Change - Counsel clients to maximize access to existing- Counsel clients to maximize access to existing programs providing food and nutrition assistance,programs providing food and nutrition assistance, social services, and job trainingsocial services, and job training - Identify food quality and price inequities in low-- Identify food quality and price inequities in low- income neighborhoodsincome neighborhoods - Educate consumers & institutions about the benefits- Educate consumers & institutions about the benefits of organically-produced and locally-grown foodsof organically-produced and locally-grown foods
    • 21. Benefits of Organically-Produced and Locally-Grown Foods  2-10 fold energy savings on switching to low-input/2-10 fold energy savings on switching to low-input/ organic agriculture (1).organic agriculture (1).  5-15% global fossil fuel emissions offset by5-15% global fossil fuel emissions offset by sequestration of carbon in organically managed soilssequestration of carbon in organically managed soils (1).(1).  Purchasing locally-grown foods protects thePurchasing locally-grown foods protects the environment by reducing use of fossil fuel andenvironment by reducing use of fossil fuel and packing materials (2).packing materials (2).  Organic farming practices reduce groundwaterOrganic farming practices reduce groundwater pollution from nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers,pollution from nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers, and improve soil fertility (3).and improve soil fertility (3).
    • 22. Benefits of Organically-Produced and Locally-Grown Foods  Results of a Washington state study showed thatResults of a Washington state study showed that organic apple production provided similar yields,organic apple production provided similar yields, better tasting fruit, higher profitability, and wasbetter tasting fruit, higher profitability, and was more environmentally sound and energy efficientmore environmentally sound and energy efficient than apples produced by conventional practicesthan apples produced by conventional practices (4).(4).  Statistically significant differences reported inStatistically significant differences reported in antioxidant levels in organic produce compared toantioxidant levels in organic produce compared to conventional produce (in 13 out of 15 cases) (5).conventional produce (in 13 out of 15 cases) (5).
    • 23. Benefits of Organically-Produced and Locally-Grown Foods  Organic systems produced better yields of corn andOrganic systems produced better yields of corn and soybeans under severe drought conditions and alsosoybeans under severe drought conditions and also gave better environmental stability under floodgave better environmental stability under flood conditions (6).conditions (6).  Scientists from Iowa State University reported thatScientists from Iowa State University reported that by the 3by the 3rdrd year, there was no significant differenceyear, there was no significant difference between organic and conventional yields (soybeansbetween organic and conventional yields (soybeans and corn). And by the 4and corn). And by the 4thth year, organic soybeans andyear, organic soybeans and corn exceeded conventional yields (7).corn exceeded conventional yields (7).
    • 24. “Growing an array of crops remains one of the hallmarks of successful organic farming. Diverse rotations improve soil fertility, break up pest cycles and provide many marketing options.” – Photo by Jerry DeWitt Source: Sustainable Agriculture Network. Opportunities in Agriculture: Transitioning to Organic Production. Sustainable Agriculture Network, The National Outreach Arm of USDA-SARE; October 2003.
    • 25. Benefits of Organically-Produced and Locally-Grown Foods  Organically-produced foods contain fewer pesticideOrganically-produced foods contain fewer pesticide residues (1/3 as many) compared to conventionally-residues (1/3 as many) compared to conventionally- grown foods (8).grown foods (8).  Organic agriculture is important to the food securityOrganic agriculture is important to the food security of poor farmers & peasants located inof poor farmers & peasants located in environmentally fragile or market-marginalized areas.environmentally fragile or market-marginalized areas. For example, Cuba reached self-sufficiency in fruitsFor example, Cuba reached self-sufficiency in fruits and vegetables through organic agriculture: aboutand vegetables through organic agriculture: about 7,000 organic urban gardens produce almost 20 kg of7,000 organic urban gardens produce almost 20 kg of food per square meter (9).food per square meter (9).
    • 26. Benefits of Organically-Produced and Locally-Grown Foods  Organic systems in Southwest Ethiopia haveOrganic systems in Southwest Ethiopia have allowed people once dependent on food aid toallowed people once dependent on food aid to increase their yields by 60%, enough food to feedincrease their yields by 60%, enough food to feed themselves and even have surplus to sell at localthemselves and even have surplus to sell at local markets (9).markets (9).  Buying food in local farmers’ markets generatesBuying food in local farmers’ markets generates twice as much for the local economy than buyingtwice as much for the local economy than buying food in supermarkets (1).food in supermarkets (1).  Money spent with a local supplier is worth 4 timesMoney spent with a local supplier is worth 4 times as much as money spent with a non-local supplieras much as money spent with a non-local supplier (1).(1).
    • 27. References (1) The Independent Science Panel: Promotion of Science for(1) The Independent Science Panel: Promotion of Science for the Public Good; 2005. Available at:the Public Good; 2005. Available at: http://www.http://www.indspindsp.org/.org/ SustainableWorldInitiativeSustainableWorldInitiative..phpphp (2) Walsh, J, de Beaufort, N. Dietitians and local farmers: A(2) Walsh, J, de Beaufort, N. Dietitians and local farmers: A unique alliance to change the way people think about food.unique alliance to change the way people think about food. Hunger and Environmental Nutrition Dietetic PracticeHunger and Environmental Nutrition Dietetic Practice Group NewsletterGroup Newsletter; Spring 2003:1-3.; Spring 2003:1-3. (3) Greene, C, Kremen A.(3) Greene, C, Kremen A. US Organic Farming in 2000-2001.US Organic Farming in 2000-2001. Adoption of Certified SystemsAdoption of Certified Systems. Washington, DC: US. Washington, DC: US Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service,Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Resource Economics Division; 2003.Resource Economics Division; 2003. (4) Baker, BP, Benbrook, CM, Groth, E, Lutz Benbrook, K.(4) Baker, BP, Benbrook, CM, Groth, E, Lutz Benbrook, K. Pesticide residues in conventional, integrated pestPesticide residues in conventional, integrated pest management (IPM)-grown and organic foods: insightsmanagement (IPM)-grown and organic foods: insights from three US data sets.from three US data sets. Food Additives and ContaminantsFood Additives and Contaminants 2002;19(5):427-446.2002;19(5):427-446.
    • 28. References (5) Reganold, JP, et al. Sustainability of three apple production(5) Reganold, JP, et al. Sustainability of three apple production systems.systems. NatureNature 2001;410:926-30.2001;410:926-30. (6) Benbrook, C.(6) Benbrook, C. Elevating Antioxidant Levels in Foods ThroughElevating Antioxidant Levels in Foods Through Organic Farming and Food ProcessingOrganic Farming and Food Processing. January 2005. Available. January 2005. Available at: http://at: http:// www.organic-center.orgwww.organic-center.org.. (7) Lotter, DW, Seidel, R, Liebhart, W. The performance of(7) Lotter, DW, Seidel, R, Liebhart, W. The performance of organic and conventional cropping systems in an extreme climateorganic and conventional cropping systems in an extreme climate year.year. American Journal of Alternative AgricultureAmerican Journal of Alternative Agriculture 2003;18(3):146-2003;18(3):146- 154.154. (8) Delate, K, Cambardella, CA. Organic production.(8) Delate, K, Cambardella, CA. Organic production. Agroecosystem performance during transition to certified organicAgroecosystem performance during transition to certified organic grain production.grain production. Agronomy JournalAgronomy Journal 2004;96:1288-1298.2004;96:1288-1298. (9) Hattam, C. Organic Agriculture and Sustainable Agriculture(9) Hattam, C. Organic Agriculture and Sustainable Agriculture and Rural Development. Food and Agriculture Organization; Mayand Rural Development. Food and Agriculture Organization; May 2002. Available at: http://www.fao.org/organicag/doc/oa_sard.htm2002. Available at: http://www.fao.org/organicag/doc/oa_sard.htm
    • 29. 3-Stage Continuum to Improve Nutrition and Health Based on a Food Systems Approach  Stage 2: Food Systems in TransitionStage 2: Food Systems in Transition -- Connect emergency food programs with local urbanConnect emergency food programs with local urban agriculture projects (e.g., community supportedagriculture projects (e.g., community supported agriculture (CSA) & urban gardens).agriculture (CSA) & urban gardens). -- Create multi-sector partnerships and networks (e.g.,Create multi-sector partnerships and networks (e.g., farm to school & farm to hospital programs,farm to school & farm to hospital programs, school/community garden projects, WIC and Seniorsschool/community garden projects, WIC and Seniors Farmers Market Nutrition Programs)Farmers Market Nutrition Programs) - Facilitate participatory decision-making and policy-Facilitate participatory decision-making and policy- development through serving on food policy councilsdevelopment through serving on food policy councils and organizing community mapping processes andand organizing community mapping processes and multi-stakeholder workshopsmulti-stakeholder workshops
    • 30. 3-Stage Continuum to Improve Nutrition and Health Based on a Food Systems Approach  Stage 2: Food Systems in TransitionStage 2: Food Systems in Transition - Create multi-sector partnerships and networksCreate multi-sector partnerships and networks Example # 1: “Gardens for Growing Healthy Communities”Example # 1: “Gardens for Growing Healthy Communities” - A partnership between Denver-based community organizations, the- A partnership between Denver-based community organizations, the University of Colorado, & community residentsUniversity of Colorado, & community residents - The goal of the project is to understand the role of community- The goal of the project is to understand the role of community gardens as a catalyst for broader neighborhood improvements,gardens as a catalyst for broader neighborhood improvements, including physical activity and dietary patterns.including physical activity and dietary patterns. - Provides access to fresh organic produce, opportunities for physical- Provides access to fresh organic produce, opportunities for physical activity, a connection to nature, & neighborhood meeting places.activity, a connection to nature, & neighborhood meeting places. Source: Aboelata, MJ., et al. The Built Environment and Health: 11 Profiles of Neighborhood Transformation, Oakland, CA: The Prevention Institute; 2004.
    • 31. Gardens for Growing Healthy CommunitiesGardens for Growing Healthy Communities
    • 32. 3-Stage Continuum to Improve Nutrition and Health Based on a Food Systems Approach  Stage 2: Food Systems in TransitionStage 2: Food Systems in Transition - Create multi-sector partnerships and networksCreate multi-sector partnerships and networks Example # 2: “Gardens for Growing HealthyExample # 2: “Gardens for Growing Healthy Communities”Communities” (cont’d)(cont’d) - Preliminary findings indicate that resident gardeners’ increase- Preliminary findings indicate that resident gardeners’ increase physical activity levels, fruit and vegetable consumption, socialphysical activity levels, fruit and vegetable consumption, social connectedness (through gardening circles) as well as stress reliefconnectedness (through gardening circles) as well as stress relief - Gardeners also share recipes for healthy salsas & other foods- Gardeners also share recipes for healthy salsas & other foods prepared from the gardens, which further encourage fruit andprepared from the gardens, which further encourage fruit and vegetable consumption.vegetable consumption. Source: Aboelata, MJ., et al. The Built Environment and Health: 11 Profiles of Neighborhood Transformation, Oakland, CA: The Prevention Institute; 2004.
    • 33. Stage 2: Food Systems in Transition  Create multi-sector partnerships and networksCreate multi-sector partnerships and networks Example # 2: “Farm to School Programs”Example # 2: “Farm to School Programs” -Farm to school programs provide local markets for-Farm to school programs provide local markets for farmers, integrate education about food & farmingfarmers, integrate education about food & farming issues into the school curriculum, & serve local foodsissues into the school curriculum, & serve local foods in the school cafeteria.in the school cafeteria. - Lincoln Elementary School in Olympia, Washington- Lincoln Elementary School in Olympia, Washington features an “Organic Choices Salad Bar,” andfeatures an “Organic Choices Salad Bar,” and purchases directly from farmers. The programpurchases directly from farmers. The program increased fruit and vegetable servings by 27% by staffincreased fruit and vegetable servings by 27% by staff and students.and students. Source: Sanger, K, Zenz. L. Farm-to-Cafeteria Connections: Marketing Opportunities for Small Farmers in Washington State. Olympia, WA: Washington State Dept. of Agriculture; 2004.
    • 34. 3-Stage Continuum to Improve Nutrition and Health Based on a Food Systems Approach  Stage 2: Food Systems in TransitionStage 2: Food Systems in Transition -- Create multi-sector partnerships and networksCreate multi-sector partnerships and networks Example # 3: “Farm to Hospital Programs”Example # 3: “Farm to Hospital Programs” -- Farmers markets and farm stands operateFarmers markets and farm stands operate successfully at various medical facilities throughoutsuccessfully at various medical facilities throughout the US, including Duke University Medical Center inthe US, including Duke University Medical Center in North Carolina, Allen Memorial Hospital in Iowa,North Carolina, Allen Memorial Hospital in Iowa, and at 14 Kaiser Permanente facilities in California,and at 14 Kaiser Permanente facilities in California, Hawaii, and Oregon, some of which serve local-Hawaii, and Oregon, some of which serve local- income communities in addition to patients and staff.income communities in addition to patients and staff. Source: Kulick, M. Healthy Food, Healthy Hospitals, Healthy Communities. Minneapolis, MN: Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy; May 2005. Available at: http://www.iatp.org/foodandhealth
    • 35. 3-Stage Continuum to Improve Nutrition and Health Based on a Food Systems Approach  Stage 2: Food Systems in TransitionStage 2: Food Systems in Transition - Create multi-sector partnerships and networks- Create multi-sector partnerships and networks Example # 3: “Farm to Hospital Programs”Example # 3: “Farm to Hospital Programs” - Cancer Treatment Centers of America serves patients in- Cancer Treatment Centers of America serves patients in facilities located in Illinois and Oklahoma a menu of largelyfacilities located in Illinois and Oklahoma a menu of largely certified organic food to optimize nutrition and avoidcertified organic food to optimize nutrition and avoid environmental toxins.environmental toxins. - In Vermont, Fletcher Allen Medical Center has a new patient- In Vermont, Fletcher Allen Medical Center has a new patient menu that focuses on the use of local, fresh food to improvemenu that focuses on the use of local, fresh food to improve patient health and support local businesses.patient health and support local businesses. Source: Kulick, M. Healthy Food, Healthy Hospitals, Healthy Communities. Minneapolis, MN: Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy; May 2005. Available at: http://www.iatp.org/foodandhealth
    • 36. 3-Stage Continuum to Improve Nutrition and Health Based on a Food Systems Approach  Stage 2: Food Systems in TransitionStage 2: Food Systems in Transition - Facilitate participatory decision-making and policyFacilitate participatory decision-making and policy development through serving on food policy councils anddevelopment through serving on food policy councils and organizing community-mapping processes and multi-organizing community-mapping processes and multi- stakeholder workshops.stakeholder workshops. Food Policy CouncilFood Policy Council – An officially sanctioned body– An officially sanctioned body representing various segments of a state, city, or local foodrepresenting various segments of a state, city, or local food system and is compromised of a wide range of interests relatedsystem and is compromised of a wide range of interests related to agriculture, food, nutrition and health.to agriculture, food, nutrition and health. The goal is to fosterThe goal is to foster a comprehensive and systematic examination of agriculture,a comprehensive and systematic examination of agriculture, food, nutrition and health policies.food, nutrition and health policies. Source: Hamilton, ND. Putting a face on our food: How state and local food policies can promote the new agriculture. Drake J Agricultural Law. 2002; 7:407-443.
    • 37. 3-Stage Continuum to Improve Nutrition and Health Based on a Food Systems Approach  Stage 2: Food Systems in TransitionStage 2: Food Systems in Transition - Examples of Food Policy CouncilsExamples of Food Policy Councils State –State – Arizona, Connecticut, Illinois, Iowa, Michigan, New Mexico, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Utah, and Washington City/CountyCity/County – Berkeley, CA; Chicago, IL: Knoxville, TN;– Berkeley, CA; Chicago, IL: Knoxville, TN; Los Angeles, CA; Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN; New York,Los Angeles, CA; Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN; New York, NY (under formation); Portland, OR; Salina, KS; Toronto,NY (under formation); Portland, OR; Salina, KS; Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Vancouver, British Columbia, CanadaOntario, Canada; Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada Adapted from: The State and Local Food Policy Council Initiative: Drake University Agricultural Law Center and the USDA Risk Management Agency 2003-2004 and http://www.statefoodpolicy.org/profiles.htm.
    • 38. 3-Stage Continuum to Improve Nutrition and Health Based on a Food Systems Approach  Stage 2: Food Systems in TransitionStage 2: Food Systems in Transition - Community-mapping processes –Community-mapping processes – - Diverse food system stakeholders – inc. urbanDiverse food system stakeholders – inc. urban planners, food producers, food retailers, volunteers inplanners, food producers, food retailers, volunteers in food access projects, food insecure individuals, andfood access projects, food insecure individuals, and other concerned citizens – convene to engage in aother concerned citizens – convene to engage in a process that examines how a local community foodprocess that examines how a local community food system can meet household and community needs bysystem can meet household and community needs by identifying local food resources, food prices,identifying local food resources, food prices, transportation options, & employment opportunities.transportation options, & employment opportunities.
    • 39. 3-Stage Continuum to Improve Nutrition and Health Based on a Food Systems Approach  Stage 2: Food Systems in TransitionStage 2: Food Systems in Transition –– community mapping processescommunity mapping processes Example 1: Portland-Multnomah County FoodExample 1: Portland-Multnomah County Food Policy CouncilPolicy Council –– Partnered with the regional government to create aPartnered with the regional government to create a geographical information system (GIS) map ofgeographical information system (GIS) map of grocery stores, farmers’ markets, emergency foodgrocery stores, farmers’ markets, emergency food locations, and community gardens in the county.locations, and community gardens in the county. Source:Source: Portland-Multnomah Food Policy Council.Portland-Multnomah Food Policy Council. Food PolicyFood Policy Recommendations. Portland-Multnomah Food Policy Council.Recommendations. Portland-Multnomah Food Policy Council. Multnomah County, City of Portland, Office of SustainableMultnomah County, City of Portland, Office of Sustainable
    • 40. 3-Stage Continuum to Improve Nutrition and Health Based on a Food Systems Approach  Stage 2: Food Systems in Transition –Stage 2: Food Systems in Transition – - community mapping processes- community mapping processes Example 2: Cuba’s Ministry of Agriculture, Department ofExample 2: Cuba’s Ministry of Agriculture, Department of Urban AgricultureUrban Agriculture Used mapping to identify where food needs are concentratedUsed mapping to identify where food needs are concentrated compared to the land base for production. One of their mapscompared to the land base for production. One of their maps identifies different zones in the city. With the zones closer toidentifies different zones in the city. With the zones closer to the Havana core, they aim to grow food that is difficult tothe Havana core, they aim to grow food that is difficult to transport, such as lettuce. In the zones on the periphery, theytransport, such as lettuce. In the zones on the periphery, they plan to grow more storable foods, such as potatoes andplan to grow more storable foods, such as potatoes and squash.squash. Source:Source: Common Ground.Common Ground. Mapping Food Matters: A Resource on Place-Mapping Food Matters: A Resource on Place- Based Food System Mapping.Based Food System Mapping. Victoria, British Columbia, Canada:Victoria, British Columbia, Canada: Common Ground & Victoria Chapter of Oxfam Canada; 2001.Common Ground & Victoria Chapter of Oxfam Canada; 2001.
    • 41. 3-Stage Continuum to Improve Nutrition and Health Based on a Food Systems Approach  Stage 3: Food Systems Redesign forStage 3: Food Systems Redesign for SustainabilitySustainability - Advocate for minimum wage increase and more- Advocate for minimum wage increase and more affordable housing.affordable housing. - Advocate for food labeling standards about productAdvocate for food labeling standards about product history (e.g., place of origin, organic certified, Fairhistory (e.g., place of origin, organic certified, Fair Trade certified)Trade certified)
    • 42. 3-Stage Continuum to Improve Nutrition and Health Based on a Food Systems Approach  Stage 3: Food Systems Redesign for SustainabilityStage 3: Food Systems Redesign for Sustainability Fair TradeFair Trade – an innovative, market based approach to sustainable– an innovative, market based approach to sustainable development that helps family farmers in developing countriesdevelopment that helps family farmers in developing countries gain direct access to international markets. The Fair Tradegain direct access to international markets. The Fair Trade Certified label guarantees that farmers and workers receive aCertified label guarantees that farmers and workers receive a fair price for their product. The Fair Trade System benefitsfair price for their product. The Fair Trade System benefits over 800,000 farmers organized into cooperatives and unionsover 800,000 farmers organized into cooperatives and unions in 48 countries.in 48 countries. In the US,In the US, TransFair USATransFair USA places the “Fair Trade Certified”places the “Fair Trade Certified” label on coffee, tea, cocoa, bananas, and other fruits.label on coffee, tea, cocoa, bananas, and other fruits. For more information, see: http://www.transfairusa.org
    • 43. By choosing this Fair Trade Certified product, you are directly supporting a better life for farming families through fair prices, direct trade, community development, and environmental stewardship. http://www.fairtradecertified.org
    • 44. Source: Time Magazine. March 8th 2004 (special insert)
    • 45. 3-Stage Continuum to Build Community Food Security Based on a Food Systems Approach  Stage 3: Food Systems Redesign for Sustainability (cont’d)Stage 3: Food Systems Redesign for Sustainability (cont’d) Through participatory decision-making & policy development,Through participatory decision-making & policy development, mobilize governments & communities to institutionalize:mobilize governments & communities to institutionalize: (1) land use policies that facilitate large-scale urban(1) land use policies that facilitate large-scale urban agriculture;agriculture; (2) market promotion and subsidizes as a way to increase a(2) market promotion and subsidizes as a way to increase a community’s food reliance, achieve nutritional goals, andcommunity’s food reliance, achieve nutritional goals, and promote environmental conservation; andpromote environmental conservation; and (3) tax incentives and financing mechanisms to attract local(3) tax incentives and financing mechanisms to attract local food businesses to low-income neighborhoods.food businesses to low-income neighborhoods.
    • 46. Closing Quotes from FARM AID (www.farmaid.org): “If there is hope for family farmers in America, then there is hope yet for America.” – John Mellencamp, Board Member “The heart of America is the family farmer…. It’s worth fighting for as long as we have breath. Because I think we’ll lose a lot more than just the family farmer if we lose the family farm.” – Dave Matthews, Board Member
    • 47. THE END