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  • Good morning and welcome to the opening plenary session of the 2005 SNE annual conference, “A Food Systems Approach to Improving Human Nutrition and Health.” What I would like to talk to you about today is as follows. First, define the term ‘food system’ as well as review the broader systems that interact with and influence food systems. Second, highlight a variety of economic forces that are driving change in the food system. Third, discuss some of the key trends threatening the sustainability and viability of the US food system. And fourth, highlight a 3-stage continuum of strategies and activities to improve nutrition and health based on a food systems approach.
  • A food system broadly defines the production, processing, distribution, access, use and recycling of food. These interrelated parts of a food system interact and are influenced by broader systems including the natural resource base (such as land, air and water); society and culture (including food beliefs and food practices) as well as the use of technological systems. These systems are, in turn, influenced by broader institutions, including government and public policies.
  • As we move further into the 21 st century, we’re finding that the food system is becoming increasingly more globalized. Some view this large scale transition towards a globalized food system as inevitable and eventually leading to improvement in quality of life indicators by increasing the abundance of the food supply through biotechnology and expanding the life span of people around the world through nutritionally-enhanced genetically-engineered foods. Others, however, argue that globalization of the food system and the competing global marketplace through international trade will have detrimental effects and counteract supportive actions to alleviate global food insecurity, protect the environment, and encourage the development of healthy diets and economies around the world (Lang, 1999). It is feared that the exportation of the North American diet through a globalized food system will lead to a dietary ‘burgerization’ of the entire world (Ritzer, 1993).
  • Lange and Heasman (2004) argue that the emergence of a global food system is resulting in a global ‘food wars’ or more specifically a global battle for mouths, minds and markets.
  • Although the globalized food system provides an abundance of inexpensive food, there is growing evidence that this type of food system is not economically, socially, or environmentally sustainable.
  • The next several slides provide a summary of the key trends threatening the sustainability and viability of the US food system, which is based on – for the most part – a dominant model of food consumption.
  • The global, industrialized food system also presents challenges related to the public’s health.
  • Time precludes me from discussing the issues of antibiotic use in agriculture and concentrated animal feeding operations. However, for those of you that are interested in exploring these issues further, I would recommend taking a look at the following American Public Health Association (APHA) resolutions on this topic.
  • With the many growing concerns related to the sustainability and safety of a globalized, industrial food system, there is an emerging movement that is focused on creating more localized community food systems, which are based on the premise of sustainable agriculture.
  • In stage 1, participants create small but significant changes to existing food systems. Data collected at this stage can be used to inform work undertaken in subsequent stages. In Stage 2, food systems change is progressing, and efforts are directed at facilitating and stabilizing that change. In Stage 3, efforts are made to institutionalize food systems change through advocacy and policy instruments that integrate different policy fields.
  • Farm to hospital programs provide the opportunity to bring fresh, healthy food to medical facilities and offer new markets for local farmers. In 2004, hospitals brought #3.3 billion dollars worth of food. Cumulatively, these expenditures rank the hospital industry as the nation’s third largest institutional purchaser of food items behind K-12 schools and colleges and universities. Farm to hospital programs also provide an alternative to fast food establishments, which are becoming increasingly more common in hospitals around the country. For example, according to a recently conducted survey, fast food franchises are in 38% of the nation’s top hospitals.
  • The fair trade movement is not limited to small businesses. For example, Procter and Gamble has announced that it will role out a line of Fair Trade certified coffee. Results from an Oxfam America survey conducted last fall show the certain supermarket chains have responded to consumers’ demand for fair trade products more effectively than others. Wild Oats and Ahold USA, which owns Giant-Carlisle, Giant-Landover, Tops, and Stop & Shop, came out on top against their competitors. Both companies provide customers with a range of Fair Trade Certified coffee. Wild Oats also carries tea, chocolate and fruit. Most fair trade coffee, tea, and chocolate in the US is also certified organic and shade grown, which means that the products you buy maintain biodiversity, provide shelter for migratory birds, and help reduce global warming.
  • Urban agriculture involves producing food closer to where most consumers live and is an increasingly important strategy for achieving food security in the 21 st century as the world becomes more urbanized. It also offers many potential benefits such as reducing energy costs and pollution from food transportation and storage, absorbing greenhouse gas emissions, offering a viable use for urban waste as compost, and creating employment and economic development opportunities.

The Application of Modern Biotechnology To Food and Agriculture: A ... The Application of Modern Biotechnology To Food and Agriculture: A ... Presentation Transcript

  • A Food Systems Approach to Improving Human Nutrition and Health Christine McCullum-Gomez, PhD, RD, LD Assistant Professor of Health Promotion & Behavioral Sciences University of Texas – Houston, School of Public Health July 23 rd 2005 2005 SNE Annual Conference Leading the Way in Nutrition and Health Orlando, Florida
  • “ What is a food system?”
  • -------- Government/Public Policies ---------- Natural Resources Society & Technological Culture Systems
    • Production
    • Processing Recycling & Composting
    • Food System
    • Distribution Use
    • Access
    • Adapted from: Dahlberg, K. Local and regional food systems. A key to healthy cities. Available at: http://homepages.wmich.edu/~dahlberg/F14.pdf
  • Globalization of the Food System
  •  
  • Change in the food system has been driven by wider economic forces:
    • Changes on the land which are transforming what agriculture produces and how;
    • A rapid industry concentration of control over the entire food chain, e.g., in the Canadian food chain:
    • - 4 companies control the seed market;
    • - 4 companies dominate beef packing;
    • 4 companies mill 80% of Canadian flour;
    • 5 companies control food retailing
    Source: Lang, T, Heasman, M. Food Wars: The Global Battle for Mouths, Minds, and Markets. Earthscan Publications, Sterling, VA; 2004 .
  • Change in the food system has been driven by wider economic forces (cont’d):
    • Changes in both the scale & technology of food factories;
    • A new emphasis on product development, branding and marketing;
    • New levels of control by food retailing & service over the rest of the food economy (e.g., Walmart (U.S.) was the world’s top grocery retailer in 2004 with $244.5 billion in annual sales – Supermarket News 12/29/03)
    Source: Lang, T, Heasman, M. Food Wars: The Global Battle for Mouths, Minds, and Markets. Earthscan Publications, Sterling, VA; 2004 .
  • Competing Models for Patterns of Food Consumption Dominant Model - Alternative Model -
    • Globalization
    • Urban/rural divisions
    • Long trade routes
    • Non-renewable energy
    • Few market players
    • Costs externalized
    • Monoculture
    • One-track agriculture
    • Food from factories
    • Private intellectual property
    • Localization
    • Urban/rural partnerships
    • Short trade routes
    • Re-useable energy
    • Multiple players
    • Costs internalized
    • Biodiversity
    • Multifunctional agriculture
    • Food from the land
    • Common/public goods
    Source: Lang, T, Heasman, M. Food Wars: The Global Battle for Mouths, Minds, and Markets. Earthscan Publications, Sterling, VA; 2004 .
  • Competing Models for Patterns of Food Consumption Dominant Model - Alternative Model -
    • Globalization
    • Urban/rural divisions
    • Long trade routes
    • Non-renewable energy
    • Few market players
    • Costs externalized
    • Monoculture
    • One-track agriculture
    • Food from factories
    • Private intellectual property
    • Localization
    • Urban/rural partnerships
    • Short trade routes
    • Re-useable energy
    • Multiple players
    • Costs internalized
    • Biodiversity
    • Multifunctional agriculture
    • Food from the land
    • Common/public goods
    Source: Lang, T, Heasman, M. Food Wars: The Global Battle for Mouths, Minds, and Markets. Earthscan Publications, Sterling, VA; 2004 .
  • ‘ Multifunctionality’ of Agriculture
    • ‘ Multifunctionality’ is the notion that in addition to production of food and fiber, agriculture has a number of other, mostly non-commodity outputs (e.g., environmental protection, clean water, flood control, maintenance of landscape or habitat, rural development, maintenance of agricultural heritage, etc….)
    Buttel, F. Internalizing the societal costs of agricultural production. Plant Physiology 2003;133:1656-1665.
  • Sustainability
    • “ Society’s ability to shape its economic and social systems to maintain both natural resources and human life.”
    • Source: Position of the American Dietetic Association: Addressing world hunger, malnutrition, and food insecurity. J Am Diet Assoc 2003;103:1046-1047.
  • Summary of key trends threatening the sustainability of the US food system Source: Heller, M.C., Keoleian, GA. Assessing the sustainability of the US food system: A life cycle perspective. Agricultural Systems 2003;76:1007-1041
    • Depletion of topsoil exceeds regeneration
    • Rate of groundwater withdrawl exceeding recharge in major agricultural regions
    • Loss to pests increasing
    • Reduction in genetic diversity
    • 52% of farmworkers are illegal
    • Age of farm operators increasing; declining entry of young farmers
    • Rapid conversion of prime farmland
    • 84% of farm household income earned off-farm
    • Increasing number of farms report a loss
    Production Environmental Social Economic
  • Summary of key trends threatening the sustainability of the US food system (cont’d) Source: Heller, M.C., Keoleian, GA. Assessing the sustainability of the US food system: A life cycle perspective. Agricultural Systems 2003;76:1007-1041
    • 26% of edible food wasted
    • Obesity rates rising
    • Diet deviates from nutritional recommendations
    • Costs of diet-related diseases
    • increasing
    Consumption Environmental Social Economic
  • Summary of key trends threatening the sustainability of the US food system (cont’d) Source: Heller, M.C., Keoleian, GA. Assessing the sustainability of the US food system: A life cycle perspective. Agricultural Systems 2003;76:1007-1041
    • Heavy reliance on fossil fuel/energy
    • 7.3 units of energy consumed to produce one unit of energy
    • Others estimate 10 units of energy per unit of output food energy (Pimental & Pimental 1996a); (Hall et al, 1986)
    • Relation with food and its origin has been lost
    • Marketing is 80% of food bill
    • Industry consolidation threatens market competition
    Total System Environmental Social Economic
  • The Industrial Food System & Public Health
    • Pollution from factory farms is harming the health of both workers and residents living downstream or downwind from these operations.
    • New strains of foodborne pathogens (e.g., Listeria & toxigenic E. coli ) have emerged in recent years, and long recognized pathogens have been causing more widespread harm
    • The non-medical use of antibiotics in animal agriculture may be threatening the effectiveness of antibiotics in treating human disease by creating selective pressure for the emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria
    Source: Horrigan, L, Lawrence, RS, Walker, P. How sustainable agriculture can address the environmental and human health harms of industrial agriculture. Environmental Health Perspectives 2002;110(5):445-456.
  • The Industrial Food System & Public Health
    • For more information, see the following American Public Health Association (APHA) Resolutions:
    • 1) Helping Preserve Antibiotic Effectiveness by Stimulating Demand for Meats Produced without Excessive Antibiotics (Policy Number: 2004-13)
    • http://www.apha.org/legislative/policy/2004/2004-13.pdf
    • 2) Precautionary Moratorium on New Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (Policy Number: 20037)
    • http://www.apha.org/legislative/policy/2003/2003-007.pdf
  • Sustainable Agriculture “ Sustainable agriculture is a model of social and economic organization based on an equitable and participatory vision of development which recognizes the environment and natural resources as the foundation of economic activity.” Madden, JP, Chaplowe, SG, eds. For All Generations: Making World Agriculture More Sustainable. Glendale, CA: World Sustainable Agriculture Association; 1997.
  • Sustainable Agriculture (cont’d) “ Agriculture is sustainable when it is ecologically sound, economically viable, socially just, culturally appropriate, and based on a holistic scientific approach.” Madden, JP, Chaplowe, SG, eds. For All Generations: Making World Agriculture More Sustainable. Glendale, CA: World Sustainable Agriculture Association; 1997.
  • Community Food System
    • “ A collaborative effort to build more locally-based, self-reliant food economies – one in which sustainable food production, processing, distribution, and consumption is integrated to enhance the economic, environmental, and social health of a particular place.”
    • Source: Feenstra, G.W. Creating space for sustainable food systems: Lessons from the field. Agriculture and Human Values 2002;19:99-106.
  • 3-Stage Continuum to Improve Nutrition and Health Based on a Food Systems Approach
    • Stage 1: Initial Food Systems Change
    • Stage 2: Food Systems in Transition
    • Stage 3: Food Systems Redesign for Sustainability
    Adapted from: McCullum, C., Desjardins, E, Kraak, V. et al. Evidence-based strategies to build community food security. J Am Diet Assoc 2005;105(2):278-283.
  • 3-Stage Continuum to Improve Nutrition and Health Based on a Food Systems Approach
    • Stage 1: Initial Food Systems Change
    • - Counsel clients to maximize access to existing programs providing food and nutrition assistance, social services, and job training
    • - Identify food quality and price inequities in low-income neighborhoods
    • - Educate consumers & institutions about the benefits of organically-produced and locally-grown foods
  • Benefits of Organically-Produced and Locally-Grown Foods
    • 2-10 fold energy savings on switching to low-input/ organic agriculture (1).
    • 5-15% global fossil fuel emissions offset by sequestration of carbon in organically managed soils (1).
    • Purchasing locally-grown foods protects the environment by reducing use of fossil fuel and packing materials (2).
    • Organic farming practices reduce groundwater pollution from nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers, and improve soil fertility (3).
  • Benefits of Organically-Produced and Locally-Grown Foods
    • Results of a Washington state study showed that organic apple production provided similar yields, better tasting fruit, higher profitability, and was more environmentally sound and energy efficient than apples produced by conventional practices (4).
    • Statistically significant differences reported in antioxidant levels in organic produce compared to conventional produce (in 13 out of 15 cases) (5).
  • Benefits of Organically-Produced and Locally-Grown Foods
    • Organic systems produced better yields of corn and soybeans under severe drought conditions and also gave better environmental stability under flood conditions (6).
    • Scientists from Iowa State University reported that by the 3 rd year, there was no significant difference between organic and conventional yields (soybeans and corn). And by the 4 th year, organic soybeans and corn exceeded conventional yields (7).
  • “ Growing an array of crops remains one of the hallmarks of successful organic farming. Diverse rotations improve soil fertility, break up pest cycles and provide many marketing options.” – Photo by Jerry DeWitt Source: Sustainable Agriculture Network. Opportunities in Agriculture: Transitioning to Organic Production . Sustainable Agriculture Network, The National Outreach Arm of USDA-SARE; October 2003.
  • Benefits of Organically-Produced and Locally-Grown Foods
    • Organically-produced foods contain fewer pesticide residues (1/3 as many) compared to conventionally-grown foods (8).
    • Organic agriculture is important to the food security of poor farmers & peasants located in environmentally fragile or market-marginalized areas. For example, Cuba reached self-sufficiency in fruits and vegetables through organic agriculture: about 7,000 organic urban gardens produce almost 20 kg of food per square meter (9).
  • Benefits of Organically-Produced and Locally-Grown Foods
    • Organic systems in Southwest Ethiopia have allowed people once dependent on food aid to increase their yields by 60%, enough food to feed themselves and even have surplus to sell at local markets (9).
    • Buying food in local farmers’ markets generates twice as much for the local economy than buying food in supermarkets (1).
    • Money spent with a local supplier is worth 4 times as much as money spent with a non-local supplier (1).
  • References
    • (1) The Independent Science Panel: Promotion of Science for the Public Good; 2005. Available at: http://www. indsp .org/ SustainableWorldInitiative . php
    • (2) Walsh, J, de Beaufort, N. Dietitians and local farmers: A unique alliance to change the way people think about food. Hunger and Environmental Nutrition Dietetic Practice Group Newsletter ; Spring 2003:1-3.
    • (3) Greene, C, Kremen A. US Organic Farming in 2000-2001. Adoption of Certified Systems . Washington, DC: US Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Resource Economics Division; 2003.
    • (4) Baker, BP, Benbrook, CM, Groth, E, Lutz Benbrook, K.
    • Pesticide residues in conventional, integrated pest management (IPM)-grown and organic foods: insights from three US data sets. Food Additives and Contaminants 2002;19(5):427-446.
  • References (5) Reganold, JP, et al. Sustainability of three apple production systems. Nature 2001;410:926-30. (6) Benbrook, C. Elevating Antioxidant Levels in Foods Through Organic Farming and Food Processing . January 2005. Available at: http:// www.organic-center.org . (7) Lotter, DW, Seidel, R, Liebhart, W. The performance of organic and conventional cropping systems in an extreme climate year. American Journal of Alternative Agriculture 2003;18(3):146-154. (8) Delate, K, Cambardella, CA. Organic production. Agroecosystem performance during transition to certified organic grain production. Agronomy Journal 2004;96:1288-1298. (9) Hattam, C. Organic Agriculture and Sustainable Agriculture and Rural Development. Food and Agriculture Organization; May 2002. Available at: http://www.fao.org/organicag/doc/oa_sard.htm
  • 3-Stage Continuum to Improve Nutrition and Health Based on a Food Systems Approach
    • Stage 2: Food Systems in Transition
    • - Connect emergency food programs with local urban agriculture projects (e.g., community supported agriculture (CSA) & urban gardens).
    • - Create multi-sector partnerships and networks (e.g., farm to school & farm to hospital programs, school/community garden projects, WIC and Seniors Farmers Market Nutrition Programs)
    • Facilitate participatory decision-making and policy-development through serving on food policy councils and organizing community mapping processes and multi-stakeholder workshops
  • 3-Stage Continuum to Improve Nutrition and Health Based on a Food Systems Approach
    • Stage 2: Food Systems in Transition
    • Create multi-sector partnerships and networks
    • Example # 1: “Gardens for Growing Healthy Communities”
    • - A partnership between Denver-based community organizations, the University of Colorado, & community residents
    • - The goal of the project is to understand the role of community gardens as a catalyst for broader neighborhood improvements, including physical activity and dietary patterns.
    • - Provides access to fresh organic produce, opportunities for physical activity, a connection to nature, & neighborhood meeting places.
    Source: Aboelata, MJ., et al. The Built Environment and Health: 11 Profiles of Neighborhood Transformation , Oakland, CA: The Prevention Institute; 2004.
  • Gardens for Growing Healthy Communities
  • 3-Stage Continuum to Improve Nutrition and Health Based on a Food Systems Approach
    • Stage 2: Food Systems in Transition
    • Create multi-sector partnerships and networks
    • Example # 2: “Gardens for Growing Healthy Communities” (cont’d)
    • - Preliminary findings indicate that resident gardeners’ increase physical activity levels, fruit and vegetable consumption, social connectedness (through gardening circles) as well as stress relief
    • - Gardeners also share recipes for healthy salsas & other foods prepared from the gardens, which further encourage fruit and vegetable consumption.
    Source: Aboelata, MJ., et al. The Built Environment and Health: 11 Profiles of Neighborhood Transformation , Oakland, CA: The Prevention Institute; 2004.
  • Stage 2: Food Systems in Transition
    • Create multi-sector partnerships and networks
    • Example # 2: “Farm to School Programs”
    • -Farm to school programs provide local markets for farmers, integrate education about food & farming issues into the school curriculum, & serve local foods in the school cafeteria.
    • - Lincoln Elementary School in Olympia, Washington features an “Organic Choices Salad Bar,” and purchases directly from farmers. The program increased fruit and vegetable servings by 27% by staff and students.
    Source: Sanger, K, Zenz. L. Farm-to-Cafeteria Connections: Marketing Opportunities for Small Farmers in Washington State . Olympia, WA: Washington State Dept. of Agriculture; 2004.
  • 3-Stage Continuum to Improve Nutrition and Health Based on a Food Systems Approach
    • Stage 2: Food Systems in Transition
    • - Create multi-sector partnerships and networks
    • Example # 3: “Farm to Hospital Programs”
    • - Farmers markets and farm stands operate successfully at various medical facilities throughout the US, including Duke University Medical Center in North Carolina, Allen Memorial Hospital in Iowa, and at 14 Kaiser Permanente facilities in California, Hawaii, and Oregon, some of which serve local-income communities in addition to patients and staff.
    Source: Kulick, M. Healthy Food, Healthy Hospitals, Healthy Communities. Minneapolis, MN: Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy; May 2005. Available at: http://www.iatp.org/foodandhealth
  •  
  • 3-Stage Continuum to Improve Nutrition and Health Based on a Food Systems Approach
    • Stage 2: Food Systems in Transition
    • - Create multi-sector partnerships and networks
    • Example # 3: “Farm to Hospital Programs”
    • - Cancer Treatment Centers of America serves patients in facilities located in Illinois and Oklahoma a menu of largely certified organic food to optimize nutrition and avoid environmental toxins.
    • - In Vermont, Fletcher Allen Medical Center has a new patient menu that focuses on the use of local, fresh food to improve patient health and support local businesses.
    Source: Kulick, M. Healthy Food, Healthy Hospitals, Healthy Communities. Minneapolis, MN: Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy; May 2005. Available at: http://www.iatp.org/foodandhealth
  • 3-Stage Continuum to Improve Nutrition and Health Based on a Food Systems Approach
    • Stage 2: Food Systems in Transition
    • Facilitate participatory decision-making and policy development through serving on food policy councils and organizing community-mapping processes and multi-stakeholder workshops.
    • Food Policy Council – An officially sanctioned body representing various segments of a state, city, or local food system and is compromised of a wide range of interests related to agriculture, food, nutrition and health. The goal is to foster a comprehensive and systematic examination of agriculture, food, nutrition and health policies.
    Source: Hamilton, ND. Putting a face on our food: How state and local food policies can promote the new agriculture. Drake J Agricultural Law . 2002; 7:407-443.
  • 3-Stage Continuum to Improve Nutrition and Health Based on a Food Systems Approach
    • Stage 2: Food Systems in Transition
    • Examples of Food Policy Councils
    • State – Arizona, Connecticut, Illinois, Iowa, Michigan, New Mexico, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Utah, and Washington
    • City/County – Berkeley, CA; Chicago, IL: Knoxville, TN; Los Angeles, CA; Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN; New York, NY (under formation); Portland, OR; Salina, KS; Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    Adapted from: The State and Local Food Policy Council Initiative: Drake University Agricultural Law Center and the USDA Risk Management Agency 2003-2004 and http://www.statefoodpolicy.org/profiles.htm.
  • 3-Stage Continuum to Improve Nutrition and Health Based on a Food Systems Approach
    • Stage 2: Food Systems in Transition
    • Community-mapping processes –
    • Diverse food system stakeholders – inc. urban planners, food producers, food retailers, volunteers in food access projects, food insecure individuals, and other concerned citizens – convene to engage in a process that examines how a local community food system can meet household and community needs by identifying local food resources, food prices, transportation options, & employment opportunities.
  • 3-Stage Continuum to Improve Nutrition and Health Based on a Food Systems Approach
    • Stage 2: Food Systems in Transition
    • – community mapping processes
    • Example 1: Portland-Multnomah County Food Policy Council –
    • Partnered with the regional government to create a geographical information system (GIS) map of grocery stores, farmers’ markets, emergency food locations, and community gardens in the county.
    • Source: Portland-Multnomah Food Policy Council. Food Policy Recommendations. Portland-Multnomah Food Policy Council. Multnomah County, City of Portland, Office of Sustainable Development, Portland, Oregon; 2003.
  • 3-Stage Continuum to Improve Nutrition and Health Based on a Food Systems Approach
    • Stage 2: Food Systems in Transition –
    • - community mapping processes
    • Example 2: Cuba’s Ministry of Agriculture, Department of Urban Agriculture
    • Used mapping to identify where food needs are concentrated compared to the land base for production. One of their maps identifies different zones in the city. With the zones closer to the Havana core, they aim to grow food that is difficult to transport, such as lettuce. In the zones on the periphery, they plan to grow more storable foods, such as potatoes and squash.
    • Source: Common Ground. Mapping Food Matters: A Resource on Place-Based Food System Mapping. Victoria, British Columbia, Canada: Common Ground & Victoria Chapter of Oxfam Canada; 2001.
  • 3-Stage Continuum to Improve Nutrition and Health Based on a Food Systems Approach
    • Stage 3: Food Systems Redesign for Sustainability
    • - Advocate for minimum wage increase and more affordable housing.
    • Advocate for food labeling standards about product history (e.g., place of origin, organic certified, Fair Trade certified)
  • 3-Stage Continuum to Improve Nutrition and Health Based on a Food Systems Approach
    • Stage 3: Food Systems Redesign for Sustainability
    • Fair Trade – an innovative, market based approach to sustainable development that helps family farmers in developing countries gain direct access to international markets. The Fair Trade Certified label guarantees that farmers and workers receive a fair price for their product. The Fair Trade System benefits over 800,000 farmers organized into cooperatives and unions in 48 countries.
    • In the US, TransFair USA places the “Fair Trade Certified” label on coffee, tea, cocoa, bananas, and other fruits.
    For more information, see: http://www.transfairusa.org
  • By choosing this Fair Trade Certified product, you are directly supporting a better life for farming families through fair prices, direct trade, community development, and environmental stewardship. http://www.fairtradecertified.org
  • Source: Time Magazine. March 8 th 2004 (special insert)
  • 3-Stage Continuum to Build Community Food Security Based on a Food Systems Approach
    • Stage 3: Food Systems Redesign for Sustainability (cont’d)
    • Through participatory decision-making & policy development, mobilize governments & communities to institutionalize:
    • (1) land use policies that facilitate large-scale urban agriculture;
    • (2) market promotion and subsidizes as a way to increase a community’s food reliance, achieve nutritional goals, and promote environmental conservation; and
    • (3) tax incentives and financing mechanisms to attract local food businesses to low-income neighborhoods.
  • Closing Quotes from FARM AID (www.farmaid.org): “ If there is hope for family farmers in America, then there is hope yet for America.” – John Mellencamp, Board Member “ The heart of America is the family farmer…. It’s worth fighting for as long as we have breath. Because I think we’ll lose a lot more than just the family farmer if we lose the family farm.” – Dave Matthews, Board Member
  • THE END