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Slide 1 - International Society for Child Indicators
Slide 1 - International Society for Child Indicators
Slide 1 - International Society for Child Indicators
Slide 1 - International Society for Child Indicators
Slide 1 - International Society for Child Indicators
Slide 1 - International Society for Child Indicators
Slide 1 - International Society for Child Indicators
Slide 1 - International Society for Child Indicators
Slide 1 - International Society for Child Indicators
Slide 1 - International Society for Child Indicators
Slide 1 - International Society for Child Indicators
Slide 1 - International Society for Child Indicators
Slide 1 - International Society for Child Indicators
Slide 1 - International Society for Child Indicators
Slide 1 - International Society for Child Indicators
Slide 1 - International Society for Child Indicators
Slide 1 - International Society for Child Indicators
Slide 1 - International Society for Child Indicators
Slide 1 - International Society for Child Indicators
Slide 1 - International Society for Child Indicators
Slide 1 - International Society for Child Indicators
Slide 1 - International Society for Child Indicators
Slide 1 - International Society for Child Indicators
Slide 1 - International Society for Child Indicators
Slide 1 - International Society for Child Indicators
Slide 1 - International Society for Child Indicators
Slide 1 - International Society for Child Indicators
Slide 1 - International Society for Child Indicators
Slide 1 - International Society for Child Indicators
Slide 1 - International Society for Child Indicators
Slide 1 - International Society for Child Indicators
Slide 1 - International Society for Child Indicators
Slide 1 - International Society for Child Indicators
Slide 1 - International Society for Child Indicators
Slide 1 - International Society for Child Indicators
Slide 1 - International Society for Child Indicators
Slide 1 - International Society for Child Indicators
Slide 1 - International Society for Child Indicators
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Slide 1 - International Society for Child Indicators

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  • 1. Exploring narratives with children and young people over time Patricia McNamara PhD School of SocialWork and Social Policy LaTrobe University, Bundoora, 3086 AUSTRALIA p.mcnamara@latrobe.edu.au
  • 2. Co-creating knowledge over time with young people: Experience of three studies applying qualitative longitudinal approaches
  • 3. RESPECTFUL APPROACHES TO RESEARCH WITH YOUNG PEOPLE CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK The principles and theoretical perspectives e.g. empowerment. developmental, systems, narrative METHODOLOGY The overall approach or design e.g. qualitative, quantitative, mixed methods METHOD The specific tools, techniques or procedures we use eg focus groups, interviews, direct observation, ethnology “The distinction between method and methodology is especially important for research with children” Bessell, 2009 Adapted from Access Grid, October 22nd 2009 www.aracy.org.au Sharon.bessell@anu.edu.au
  • 4. Rights-based methodology UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION ON RIGHTS OF THE CHILD Article 12:Children’s right to express opinions on matters concerning them; Article 13: Children’s right to express their views in the way they wish; Article 3.3: Children’s right to the highest quality services, including research; Article 36 : Children’s right to protection from all forms of exploitation, including protection from exploitation through research processes and through dissemination of information; Article 31 : Right to rest and leisure. www.aracy.org.auAccess Grid October 22nd, 2009 Sharon Bessell Sharon.bessell@anu.edu.au
  • 5. Models of children’s participation *Mason and Urquhart (2001) p.17 "Developing a Model for Participation by Children in Research on Decision Making." Children Australia 26(4): 16-21. Adultist Children’s rights Children’s movements Initiation of participation strategy Agency/external statutory agency Agency/external statutory agency Children (eg children’s labour movements) Ideological framework Positivist/market forces consumer involvement Phenomenological/ constructivist Minority rights groups struggle Children viewed as Passive, incompetent, developmentally incomplete, ‘becomings’ Actors, competent beings, oppressed Actors, competent human beings Locus of power Adults, through governance, ‘best interests’, asymmetrical Questions the generational order; symmetrical Children, empowered Needs identification Normative from psychological literature Individualised from listening to children Asserted both as a group and individually Method of decision-making Adults structures, procedures Negotiation between stakeholders Children dominated Knowledge Adult authority Opportunity for children to shape and contribute Children experts on own lives; recognises and challenges adults power over children Professionals Superiority of expertise used for empowering Facilitate through alliances Provide resources Children’s services Filtered Reflexivity by adults and children facilitates children’s voices being heard Challenge and unsettle adults
  • 6. FIRST STUDY
  • 7. Conversations over fifteen years with onetime residents of an adolescent psychiatric unit
  • 8. The ecology of development Bronfenbrenner, 1979
  • 9. A study in three Stages#  Stage One – admission, discharge and six months follow-up  StageTwo - six year post discharge follow-up (completed 2000)  StageThree – fifteen year follow-up (completed in 2007) Original data source Adolescent Residential Unit, Child andAdolescent Mental Health Service Austin and Repatriation Medical Centre, Melbourne, Victoria, AUSTRALIA #This is the first Australian longitudinal study of adolescent inpatients; internationally it is the first in the area to utilize a qualitative methodology.
  • 10. Stage Three auspice Anita Morawetz Scholarship in FamilyTherapy Research School of SocialWork , University of Melbourne, AUSTRALIA Centre for Adolescent Health Royal Children’s Hospital, Melbourne.
  • 11. Aims  Develop, pilot and refine assessment procedures (Stage One)  Learn “How did the kids/adults get on”? (Stages One,Two andThree)  Advance the clinical, academic and political cause of child, adolescent and adult mental health (Stages One,Two andThree)
  • 12. What was asked of the young people?  Semi-structured face-to-face interviews at admission, discharge and then at : six months 7 years (average) 15 years (average) post discharge  Completion of AchenbachYouth Self Report and Harter (Measure of Self Esteem) at admission, discharge and six months post-discharge McNamara P (2008) Negotiating welfare and mental health systems: The experience of former adolescent milieu residents over fifteen years. in Assessing the evidence base of intervention for vulnerable children and their families English (ISBN: 22-22243-24-8 and Italian version (ISBN: 88-88843-25-6) McNamara P (2009) Feminist ethnography: Storytelling that makes a difference. Qualitative Social Work 8(2):161-177
  • 13. Relationship to models of children’s participation *Mason and Urquhart (2001) p 17 Adultist Children’s rights Children’s movements Initiation of participation strategy Agency/external statutory agency Agency/external statutory agency Children (eg children’s labour movements) Ideological framework Positivist/market forces consumer involvement Phenomenological/ constructivist Minority rights groups struggle Children viewed as Passive, incompetent, developmentally incomplete, ‘becomings’ Actors, competent beings, oppressed Actors, competent human beings Locus of power Adults, through governance, ‘best interests’, asymmetrical Questions the generational order; symmetrical Children, empowered Needs identification Normative from psychological literature Individualised from listening to children Asserted both as a group and individually Method of decision-making Adults structures, procedures Negotiation between stakeholders Children dominated Knowledge Adult authority Opportunity for children to shape and contribute Children experts on own lives; recognises and challenges adults power over children Professionals Superiority of expertise used for empowering Facilitate through alliances Provide resources Children’s services Filtered Reflexivity by adults and children facilitates children’s voices being heard Challenge and unsettle adults
  • 14. SECOND STUDY
  • 15. The Sensitive Outcomes Study
  • 16.  Cross national research  Six countries – Australia, Canada, Israel, NZ, UK, USA  Qualitative method  Case study design  Participant action empowerment approach  Conducted under the auspices of iaOberfcs  Developed with financial support from the Fondazione Zancan in Padua, Italy InternationalJournal ofChild and FamilyWelfare (2006), 9 (1-2) Special Issue, Edited by Professor Marianne Berry iaOBERfcs International Association for Outcome-based Evaluation and Research on Family and Children’s Services
  • 17. Aims  To identify sensitive outcomes or “small steps on the way” to larger outcome/change in community based child and family centres  One example of a sensitive outcome might be the child’s engagement in an after-school literacy support program  A larger outcome associated with this small step might be the child’s retention at school
  • 18. What was asked of the young people?  Background briefing conversation  Two observed and videotaped family therapy sessions  Several incidental conversations (telephone and face-to-face)  Two home based research conversations (the second of which was videotaped by the young people with equipment supplied by the researcher )  Permission to describe the research and show the home-based videotaped conversation at an international conference in NewYork Brandon M, Fernandez E, Grietens H, Lightburn A, McNamara P, Warren Adamson C and Zeira A (2006) Introduction to Special Issue International Journal of Child and Family Welfare June 9, 1-2 1-11 International research on community centres for children and families:The importance of sensitive outcomes in evaluation McNamara P (2006b) Mapping change in a child and family centre in Melbourne, Australia International Journal of Child and Family Welfare 9 1-2, 41-52
  • 19. Relationship to models of children’s participation *Mason and Urquhart (2001) p 17 Adultist Children’s rights Children’s movements Initiation of participation strategy Agency/external statutory agency Agency/external statutory agency Children (eg children’s labour movements) Ideological framework Positivist/market forces consumer involvement Phenomenological/ constructivist Minority rights groups struggle Children viewed as Passive, incompetent, developmentally incomplete, ‘becomings’ Actors, competent beings, oppressed Actors, competent human beings Locus of power Adults, through governance, ‘best interests’, asymmetrical Questions the generational order; symmetrical Children, empowered Needs identification Normative from psychological literature Individualised from listening to children Asserted both as a group and individually Method of decision-making Adults structures, procedures Negotiation between stakeholders Children dominated Knowledge Adult authority Opportunity for children to shape and contribute Children experts on own lives; recognises and challenges adults power over children Professionals Superiority of expertise used for empowering Facilitate through alliances Provide resources Children’s services Filtered Reflexivity by adults and children facilitates children’s Challenge and unsettle adults
  • 20. THIRD STUDY
  • 21. Preserving families through primary prevention: The vital role of respite care
  • 22. Research in Progress  Scoping exercise (current)  Giving voice to key stakeholders including children and adolescents (in development for 2010)
  • 23. What will be asked of the children and young people?  Structured instruments – administered to 100 children and young people  Focus groups: 10x10=100 children and adolescents  Individual conversations at three points over one year – twenty children and young people
  • 24. Marr P and Maloney K (2007) University of Wollongong What about me?: Engaging children as co-researchers. www.googlescholar acessed 27/10/09
  • 25. OPPORTUNITIES and CHALLENGES of LONGITUDINAL NARRATIVE RESEARCH with CHILDREN
  • 26.  Ideology  Ethics  Recruitment  Trust  Participation  Development  Culture  Gender  Logistics  Dissemination
  • 27. Ideology Opportunities  Participant collaboration  Co-evolution  Empowering  Anti-oppressive  Making a difference – for individual young people and for groups and populations Challenges  Embedded power differentials  Participant narratives of disempowerment and marginalisation  Generalising knowledge through voices of young people
  • 28. Ethics Opportunities  ARC/NHMRC and Ethics Committees are more supportive of child engagement in research  Advice and guidance is now available to researchers facilitating more ethically defensible proposals relating to research with children Challenges  Over-zealous gate-keeping can silence children and young people  Under-vigilance can result in both failure to protect children’s rights to privacy and direct harm  Can be expected to confront past or current abuse/ neglect/emotional problems/painful relationships  Can feel pathologised/trapped by invitations to re-visit again (and sometimes yet again) in longitudinal research McNamara P (2005) Ethical guidance. in Directions in Education 14 (7): 2-3
  • 29. Recruitment as co- investigators Opportunities  Recruitment of children and young people as “research collaborators”/”experts in their own lives” can empower them to have more control over how research is conducted, what is explored and how knowledge is disseminated  More likely to identify with and feel part of investigations  Empowered to participate in the search for knowledge that often impacts most on them Challenges  Children and young people are often given little choice about their involvement in research if those entrusted to make decisions on their behalf consider it desirable that they participate  Children and young people may find it hard to withdraw
  • 30. Trust Opportunities  Travel part of life’s journey with young people  Stories deepen over time as relationships with young people become develop continuity and become more intimate  Partnerships and collaborative approaches  Chances to facilitate advocacy/challenge emerge  Challenges  Confidentiality (de-identification issues)  Duty of care with growing intimacy (protective issues, mental health issues etc)  Vicarious trauma, compassion fatigue
  • 31. Participation Opportunities  Positive affect (Morrison, 2007)  Sharing airspace  Brainstorming  Idea development  Problem solving  Conflict resolution Challenges  Negativity reinforcing past/present pain  Accepting withdrawal/disengagement  Re-visiting blame and shame experiences  Over-extension of children’s capacity to concentrate remain active and responsive (UN - CORC)
  • 32. Marr P and Maloney K (2007) University of Wollongong What about me?: Engaging children as co-researchers. www.googlescholar acessed 27/10/09
  • 33. Development Opportunities  Opportunity to explore impact of growth and change over time  Children and young people often taking greater command of the methods (tools, techniques etc) as they grow more confident, mature Challenges  Different methods required as children grow and change  Children becoming adults and having their own children..can/should the next generation be invited to enter the study
  • 34. Culture and language Opportunities  Engage with children and young people from CALD backgrounds whose voices are rarely heard  Can empower young people from CALD backgrounds to agitate for resources  Learn more diverse ways of knowing and of “finding out” Challenges  Interpreting  Cultural competency  Building trust with child participants and gatekeepers
  • 35. Gender Opportunities  Giving girls and young women voice  Improving our understanding of gender diversity, sexual expression, preferences etc  Empowerment/inclusivity of difference eg same sex attraction, cross- gender identity issues, body image  Use of online research to engage young people less directly Challenges  Girls and young women can be silenced in groups – especially in presence of males  Ensuring duty of care obligations (eg re offering counselling access) are met during and following research around highly sensitive and confronting issues  Remaining tentative and neutral in drawing interferences and making interpretations McNamara P (2009) Feminist ethnography: Storytelling that makes a difference. Qualitative Social Work 8(2):161-177 McNamara P (2008) Changed forever: a victim’s friends reflect on intimate partner homicide Special Issue Journal of Family Studies 14(2-3):198-217
  • 36. Logistics Opportunities  Creativity in data collection methods – art, play, drama, journaling, movie-making, web design etc  Flexible approaches and locations ( individual, group, family, home, park, school, coffee shop, car etc)  Accessible by mediated means of communication Challenges  Children young people and families moving about, becoming lost to the researcher  Adolescents busy lives and pull to the peer group
  • 37. Dissemination Opportunities  Hearing from young people through their own voices  Use the web and other multimedia creatively and effectively Challenges  Confidentiality  De-identification  Social protection?  Duty of care
  • 38. EXPLORING NARRATIVES WITH CHILDREN AND YOUNG PEOPLE OVER TIME PATRICIA M MCNAMARA PHD Exploring narratives with children and young people over substantial periods of time presents special opportunities and challenges for the researcher. This paper draws upon the author's research experience in mental health and child and family welfare to illustrate opportunities for co-creation of knowledge about young people's lives using qualitative longitudinal approaches. Methodological challenges met during these research journeys will also be shared. Ethical dilemmas, developmental issues and logistical challenges will be specifically addressed. The author firstly draws illustrative methodological examples from a fifteen year follow-up with former residents of an adolescent psychiatric milieu. Another relevant study involves the exploration of proximal outcomes with adolescents using the services of a community based child and family agency. The challenges and opportunities already evident within a research project currently in development will also be considered; this study involves children and young people using respite care. In recent years the author has developed a preference for engaging actively with children and young people in the development and implementation of research; she has also been engaging with them more directly in dissemination of findings. Some of the complexities associated with this shift will be discussed.

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