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  • 1. Public Health 2.0
    Mellanye Lackey, MSI
    Health Sciences Library
    University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
    SPH Fellows Program, Chapel Hill, NC
    June 11th -July 20th , 2010
  • 2. Agenda
  • 3. Objectives
  • 4. What is Public Health?
  • 5. Medicine
    Public Health
    Focus on individuals
    Diagnosis & treatment
    Clinical interventions
    Well-established profession, standardized education & certification
    Clinical sciences integral; social sciences less emphasized
    Experimental studies with control groups: RCTs.
    Focus on populations
    Prevention & health promotion
    Environment & human behavior interventions
    Diverse workforce, variable education & certifications
    Social sciences integral; clinical sciences peripheral to education
    Observational studies: case control & cohort studies
  • 6. 10 Essential Services of Public Health
    Public Health Functions Project, U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services
  • 7. The Knowledge Domains of Public Health
    Chronic Diseases
    Communicable Diseases
    Community Health
    Disaster Control & Emergency Services
    Environmental Health
    General Public Health
    Global Health
    Health Promotion & Education
    Health Services Administration
    Maternal & Child Health
    Occupational Health
    Public Health Informatics
    Public Health Laboratory Sciences
    Public Health Nursing
    Social & Behavioral Sciences
    Vital Statistics & Surveillance
  • 8. Public Health has a diverse workforce
    Environmental Engineers
    Animal Control Officers
    Food Scientists
    Industrial Hygienists
    Health Care Administrators
    Health Economists
    Social Workers
    Mental Health Workers
    Substance Abuse Counselors
    Disaster Relief Workers
    Lab Technicians
    Security & Enforcement / Health Police
  • 9. What is 2.0?
  • 10. Web 2.0 today
    “‘Web 2.0’ describes a change in the way people interact with information online, moving from passive consumption to active creation of content.”
    Scanfeld, D., Scanfeld, V., Larson, E.L. “Dissemination of health information through social networks: Twitter and antibiotics.” American Journal of Infection Control. April 2010; 38(3),182-188. Available from: Scopus, New York, NY, April 26, 2010.
  • 11. Web 1.0 vs. 2.0
    Web 1.0 was about reading
    Web 1.0 was about companies
    Web 1.0 was about home pages
    Web 1.0 was about portals
    Web 1.0 was about taxonomy
    Web 1.0 was about wires
    Web 1.0 was about owning
    Web 1.0 was about Netscape
    Web 1.0 was about web forms
    Web 1.0 was about dialup
    Web 1.0 was about hardware costs
    Web 2.0 is about writing
    Web 2.0 is about communities
    Web 2.0 is about blogs
    Web 2.0 is about RSS
    Web 2.0 is about tags
    Web 2.0 is about wireless
    Web 2.0 is about sharing
    Web 2.0 is about Google
    Web 2.0 is about web applications
    Web 2.0 is about broadband
    Web 2.0 is about bandwidth costs
    Joe Drumgoole, http://joedrumgoole.com/blog/2006/05/29/web-20-vs-web-10/
  • 12. 2.0 definition/characteristics/themes/mindset
  • 13. Why 2.0?
    Web 2.0 applications are:
    • Popular: Twitter experienced a “1460% increase in global audience between June 2008 and June 2009.”
    • 14. Open“space[s] for the informal sharing of health information and advice”
    And provide the opportunity to:
    • Connect to the public: Organizations are maximizing quick messages to get their news and info out to highly targeted audiences.
    • 15. Correct inaccurate information: Twitter “demonstrate[s] the potential reach of this medium for the dissemination of both valid and invalid information. It is therefore important for health care professionals to have a basic understanding of such services and the nature of the health-related information that is shared on them.”
    Scanfeld, D., Scanfeld, V., Larson, E.L. “Dissemination of health information through social networks: Twitter and antibiotics.” American Journal of Infection Control. April 2010; 38(3),182-188. Available from: Scopus, New York, NY, April 26, 2010.
  • 16. Why Public Health 2.0?
    “Although troubling to many in public health, the use of theInternet for these purposes simply cannot be ignored. Web 2.0is here to stay and will almost certainly influence health behaviors.Health is a logical area in which individuals will want to seekopinions from others and communicate their experiences. In thisnew era, public health officials need to learn how to more effectivelylisten to these messages and, simultaneously, develop more livelyand engaging messages themselves to communicate with the public.”
    Kumanan Wilson, MD MSC and Jennifer Keelan, PhD Coping with Public Health 2.0, http://www.cmaj.ca/cgi/content/full/180/10/1080
  • 17. Web 2.0 Applications & Resources
  • 18. 2.0 technologies: the power of 10
  • 19. 1. Blogs
    • “web log”
    • 20. individual commentary
    • 21. interactive
    • 22. regular entries
  • Blogs
    Tech to Know
    Google reader
    RSS feeds
    Health examples
    • The Pump Handle
    Effect Measure
    • WebMD Blogs
    • 26. HealthNews Blog
    • 27. Public Health/Health Administration Blog
    • 28. Diabetes Mine
    Huffington Post
  • 29. Blogs
    Equal opportunity publishing
    Easy, approachable, popular, captures narrative
    Some reputable, others not
    Must continually update to sustain interest
  • 30. The Pump Handle
  • 31. WebMD Blogs
  • 32. Diabetes Mine
  • 33. 2. Wikis
    • Website featuring co-created user content
    • 34. Collaborative knowledge management system
    • 35. Tidbit: “wiki wiki” means “fast” in Hawaiian
  • Wikis
    Tech to Know
    • Locally hosted vs cloud computing
    • 37. Vary from free to expensive
    Health Examples
    • Medpedia
    • 38. Wikipedia Health: Ask Dr. Wiki
    • 39. WikiSurgery
  • Wikis
    Fantastic for grp or internal documents,
    Ex. incl grants, manuals
    Free clients pretty good
    Everyone contributes
    Some users have trouble adjusting to new work environment
    Creating file structure, naming in groupthink is v hard
    Everyone contributes
  • 40. Wetpaint: Origins
    “The founders of Wetpaint saw how their friend was having great difficulty finding information about the type of cancer he had.  He did find quite a bit of useful facts and information, but he also found a lot of information that he did not need or want.  That is when the idea for Wetpaint was sprung.  The founders had thought that setting up a company that could connect like minded people or people that share like interests.”
    Venture Capital Firms,”Wetpaint, An Internet Company Coming Out of an Individual’s Battle with Cancer”
    April 27, 2009. Accessed May 3, 2010.
  • 41. Medpedia
  • 42. Using Wetpaint for Cancer Info
  • 43. 3. Collaborative writing
    • Written works/projects/documents created by multiple authors
    • 44. How does this differ from a wiki?
  • Collaborative writing
    Eliminates need for sending attachments to email, vpn
    Excellent for groups
    Biased opinion: best thing since sliced bread!
    No more track changes
    Lives in the cloud
    One copy
    Some users have trouble adjusting to new work environment
    Content owned by company
    No more track changes
    Must have internet access
  • 49. Google docs
  • 50. Dropbox
  • 51. 4. User Reviews
    • Opinions/comments posted by users
    • 52. Variety of topics: places of interest (ie: restaurants, shopping) and people (ie: doctors, lawyers)
  • User Reviews
    Health Examples
  • User Reviews
    Very approachable, easy, truly democratic
    Positive reviews really drive traffic
    On the internet, no one knows you’re a dog.
    Negatives more likely to review
  • 57. Yelp
  • 58. Rate MDs.com
  • 59. 5. Geographic Information Systems (GIS)
    • Online mapping of data
    • 60. Mashups: ability of users to add their own content “layers” to online mapping.
    • 61. Application Programming Interface (API):
    • 62. Freely available applications
    • 63. Medium between the map and the user generated content
    “The impact of the new Web 2.0 mapping….is that it marks a shift from the academic and commercial domination of GIS to public and community participation.”
    Hardey, Michael. “Public Health and Web 2.0.” The Journal of The Royal Society
    for the Promotion of Health. 2008;128(4),181-189.
  • 64. GIS
    • Google Maps
    • Yahoo! Maps
    • 65. Microsoft Virtual Earth
    • 66. www.mashable.com
    GIS Library at UNC
    Health Examples
    • Health Map
    • 67. Who is Sick?
    • 68. Ifitwasmyhome.com
  • GIS
    A picture’s worth a thousand words
    Visualizing health information is intensely powerful.
    Req. coding exp to develop app
    Steep learning curve w programs like ArcGIS
    Lying with maps (intentionally or not) is very easy.
    Collaborative apps rely on collaborators
  • 69.
  • 70. Google Mashup shows current H1N1 Victims
  • 71. Find others with your symptoms
  • 72.
  • 73.
  • 74. 6. Microblogs
    • Shorter form of blogging
    • 75. Frequent, brief updates
    • 76. Uses text messaging, IM, email, Web etc.
    • 77. Highly selective audience that wants specific info
    • 78. Three levels of conversation: tweets, responses, back room chatter
  • Microblogs
    Health Examples
    • Twitter Health
    • 81. Duke Global Health Institute
    • 82. UNC Institute for Global Health Infectious Disease
    • 83. Intrahealth
  • Microblogs
    Forces us to write “essentially”
    Adoption has been really quick
    We made it our own
    Attend conferences virtually
    What is private?
    Academic use unclear
  • 84. Twitter health
  • 85. Microblogging on Mobile Devices
  • 86. 7. Photo/Video Sharing
    • Websites for storing, organizing, and sharing photos and videos
    • 87. Feature user-created content
    • 88. Info exists in the cloud
  • Photo/Video Sharing
    Photo Sharing
    • Slideshare
    Video Sharing
  • Photo/Video Sharing
    Easy to share important moments with far flung friends and family
    Previously $$$$$$ now cheap
    Environmental impact of photo developing minimized
    What is private?
    Personal photos owned by companies
    Industries put out of business
  • 93. SlideShare
  • 94. Nova: Flu 1918
  • 95. YouTube
  • 96. 8. Social bookmarking
    • System for storing, organizing, searching, & managing online bookmarks
    • 97. Publicly accessible
    • 98. Tag-based classification
    • 99. Like favorites on your pc, translated to the cloud
  • Social bookmarking platforms
  • Social bookmarking
    Releases you from chains of one computer
    Collaboratively creating consumer guides / websites with “best of” easy
    Highlighting websites
    Slow adoption so app only as strong as community who joins
    Somewhat of a learning curve
  • 103. Delicious
  • 104. Diigo
  • 105. 9. Social networking
    • Online communities of people with similar interests
    • 106. Communities of practice
  • Social networking
    Crowdsource an issue
    Widespread adoption of technology
    Unparalleled conxn of users, issues, events
    Market forces will make interfaces/apps better and easier
    Crowdsource an issue
    Not always evidence based, credible, nor authoritative
  • 110. Facebook
  • 111. Google Buzz
    Watch this video to see the Google’s version of social networking: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yi50KlsCBio&hl=en_US&fs=1&rel=0&hd=1
  • 112. Ning
  • 113. TuDiabetes
  • 114. 9.5 Professional Networking
    • Virtual communities primarily focused on professional and business interactions rather than social interactions
    “According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 70 percent of all jobs are found through networking” (Cornell University)
  • LinkedIn
  • 117. 10.Virtual Worlds
    • Computer-simulated environments
    • 118. Interaction via avatars
    • 119. Communication is typically textual
    • 120. Everything is user generated
  • Virtual worlds: examples
  • Virtual worlds
    Works really well for gaming cultures/ anonymity / debilitating diseases
    1st step to adoption of new technology is to make it look like the existing technology
    Market forces will make interfaces/apps better and easier
    On the internet, no one knows you’re a dog.
    Please stop doing (XXX) to the dog.
    Steep learning curve
    Extreme high costs (time, computing, learning) to participate
  • 124. Second Life: Health and Nutrition Game
    Increases awareness about the health effects and consequences of eating fast food
  • 125. CDC in Second Life
  • 126. Public health in Second Life video
  • 127. Recap: Web 2.0 Technologies
    The Power of 10
    Virtual Worlds
    User Reviews
    Geographical Information Systems (GIS)
  • 128. Privacy, Security, & Barriers to Using Web 2.0
  • 129. Common Difficulties with 2.0
  • 130. Difficulties with 2.0
    “Web 2.0 facilitates both expert and general public communicationof health-related knowledge, which can be particularly problematicfor public health authorities. De facto, it juxtaposes vettedscientific opinion against information from critics, crusadersand conspiracy theorists, which undermines the critical foundationof trust between public health officials and the public. Thistrust is necessary for activities that sometimes require restrictionson individual liberties or impositions on individuals for thebenefits of the population.”
    Kumanan Wilson, MD MSC and Jennifer Keelan, PhD. Coping with Public Health 2.0, http://www.cmaj.ca/cgi/content/full/180/10/1080
  • 131. Methods for Overcoming Web 2.0 Barriers
    • Comply with HIPAA, confidentiality & ethics
    • 132. Should patients be FB friends with their doctors?
    • 133. Make policies for what info will be shared before starting.
    • 134. Establish authority online
    • 135. Consult professional organization literature
    • 136. Scholarly articles
    • 137. Online certification
    • 138. Teach evaluation skills
    • 139. Current awareness
    • 140. Get to know IT staff for knowledge and firewalls both
  • TeachEvaluation Skills
  • 141. Teach Evaluation Skills
  • 142. Current Awareness:Sites to help you keep up
    • Emerging Internet Technologies for Education http://www.emergingedtech.com/
    • 143. Mashablehttp://mashable.com/
    • 144. Listio-Web 2.0 http://www.listio.com/web20/
    • 145. Technoratihttp://technorati.com/
    • 146. iLibrarianhttp://oedb.org/blogs/ilibrarian/
  • 2010 Top Emerging Technologies
    Tech Talk by Enriching Scholarship:
  • 153.
  • 154. Current Awareness
  • 155. Break
  • 156. Next steps
  • 157. Information Literacy
  • Evaluating Information
    Is the information accurate?
    • Can you verify the information elsewhere? 
    • 167. Are there spelling/grammar errors?
    • 168. What's missing in the coverage of a topic?
    • 169. Does the work cite other sources appropriately?
    Is the information current?
    • When was the piece written?
    • 170. Does it list a date? 
    • 171. Have important changes in the state of the art occured since then?
    • 172. Have comments or redactions surfaced?
  • Evaluating Information
    What is the author(s) bias?
    • Where does the author work? 
    • 173. Who funded the research?
    • 174. What is the author affiliation?
    • 175. Does the work recognize opposing viewpoints?
    • 176. Does the author recognize the weak points of the study?
    Is the information source credible?
    • Who wrote the article? 
    • 177. How can you know if you can trust their work?
    • 178. Is the journal peer reviewed? 
    • 179. Is the journal indexed in PubMed or other quality databases?
    • 180. Who advertises in the journal?
  • Evaluating Information
    What is the intended audience?
    • What will the final format be?
    • 181. Who will read the piece?
    • 182. What impact will it have on readers?
    • 183. At what education level is the piece written?
    What is the source?
    • What are the publication date, purpose, and intended audience?
    • 184. Does the piece include other sources of information such as research methodology, bibliography or footnotes?
    • 185. What about the context of the material - cultural, physical, other?
  • Evaluating Information
    Is the information relevant or significant to my question?
    • Is the study primary or secondary research? 
    • 186. Do I need a review article?
    • 187. Does the piece offer in-depth coverage? or is a synopsis enough?
    • 188. Does the study answer my research question?
    How does the author evaluate information?
    • Does the author offer statistics, charts and tables? 
    • 189. Are those items cited?
    • 190. Does the author synthesize his arguments throughout the article?
    • 191. Does the author make an overall synthesis? 
    • 192. Are conclusions concise, clear and logical?
  •  Which Do You Think is Most Important?
    5.Intended Audience
  • 193. Survey results
    25 participants
    Made using google forms
    Best thing since sliced bread
    Participants checked more than one box, so percentages > 100
  • 194. 1. Google yourself
    Two groups
    “I didn’t find me.”
    “I found myself right away.”
    Lots of FB-related results
    How many of you who found FB results in google have private pages?
    What surprised you?
    What didn’t surprise you?
    Did you change (or want to change) your online presence as a result of the search?
  • 195. 2. Which of the following social media/web 2.0 sites do you use?
  • 196. 3) In which of the following social media/web 2.0 sites do you have more than one profile/account?
  • 197. 4) In which of the following social media/web 2.0 sites do you manage an account for an organization or group?
  • 198. 5) Which of the following social media/web 2.0 sites would you like to learn more about?
  • 199. 6) Do you use or intend to use social media/web 2.0 sites to…
  • 200. 7) Based on your responses above, briefly describe your online presence.
    “Most of my posts are on FB.”
    “Just to keep up with family/friends”
    “Harmless, but…”
    “Some personal, but I’m okay with that.”
    “None. I keep my life private.”
  • 201. 8) What would you like to learn from the Public Health 2.0 workshop concerning web presences and the use of social media sites?
    Professional networking
    Be more effective at searching
    Google docs, Linked In
    Personal/professional divide
  • 202. Activity: Expand your online presence
    Best way to find new uses is to get acquainted with tool for yourself first.
    Think about what/how an organization might use.
    Create accounts for yourselves (dummy accts. ok)
    Form communities
    Learn and talk about the features of each app
    Start using these accounts to manage, promote, discover, etc.
    Find web articles discussing how to use 2.0 for business
    We’ll discuss on Friday am.
  • 203. Activity: Find and form online communities
    What’s your (health) passion?
    Find it in the 2.0 tools.
    There will likely be many examples. Be in them.
    Friend it; watch it; contribute to it.
    Compare and contrast the scene.
    Be prepared to report to the group.
  • 204. Contact information
    Mellanye Lackey mjlackey@unc.edu
    Public Health Liaison Librarian;
    Director of Global Initiatives for the Health Sciences Library @ UNC Chapel Hill