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Medicine Public Health Focus on individuals Diagnosis & treatment Clinical interventions Well-established profession, standardized education & certification Clinical sciences integral; social sciences less emphasized Experimental studies with control groups: RCTs. Focus on populations Prevention & health promotion Environment & human behavior interventions Diverse workforce, variable education & certifications Social sciences integral; clinical sciences peripheral to education Observational studies: case control & cohort studies
10 Essential Services of Public Health Public Health Functions Project, U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services
The Knowledge Domains of Public Health Biostatistics Chronic Diseases Communicable Diseases Community Health Disaster Control & Emergency Services Environmental Health Epidemiology General Public Health Global Health Health Promotion & Education Health Services Administration HIV/AIDS Maternal & Child Health Nutrition Occupational Health Public Health Informatics Public Health Laboratory Sciences Public Health Nursing Social & Behavioral Sciences Vital Statistics & Surveillance 7
Public Health has a diverse workforce Epidemiologists Statisticians Environmental Engineers Animal Control Officers Sanitarians Food Scientists Industrial Hygienists Health Care Administrators Health Economists Politicians Social Workers Mental Health Workers Substance Abuse Counselors Doctors Nurses Teachers Disaster Relief Workers Nutritionists Lab Technicians Librarians Communication Security & Enforcement / Health Police
Web 2.0 today “‘Web 2.0’ describes a change in the way people interact with information online, moving from passive consumption to active creation of content.” Scanfeld, D., Scanfeld, V., Larson, E.L. “Dissemination of health information through social networks: Twitter and antibiotics.” American Journal of Infection Control. April 2010; 38(3),182-188. Available from: Scopus, New York, NY, April 26, 2010.
Web 1.0 vs. 2.0 Web 1.0 was about reading Web 1.0 was about companies Web 1.0 was about home pages Web 1.0 was about portals Web 1.0 was about taxonomy Web 1.0 was about wires Web 1.0 was about owning Web 1.0 was about Netscape Web 1.0 was about web forms Web 1.0 was about dialup Web 1.0 was about hardware costs Web 2.0 is about writing Web 2.0 is about communities Web 2.0 is about blogs Web 2.0 is about RSS Web 2.0 is about tags Web 2.0 is about wireless Web 2.0 is about sharing Web 2.0 is about Google Web 2.0 is about web applications Web 2.0 is about broadband Web 2.0 is about bandwidth costs Joe Drumgoole, http://joedrumgoole.com/blog/2006/05/29/web-20-vs-web-10/
Popular: Twitter experienced a “1460% increase in global audience between June 2008 and June 2009.”
Open“space[s] for the informal sharing of health information and advice”
And provide the opportunity to:
Connect to the public: Organizations are maximizing quick messages to get their news and info out to highly targeted audiences.
Correct inaccurate information: Twitter “demonstrate[s] the potential reach of this medium for the dissemination of both valid and invalid information. It is therefore important for health care professionals to have a basic understanding of such services and the nature of the health-related information that is shared on them.”
Scanfeld, D., Scanfeld, V., Larson, E.L. “Dissemination of health information through social networks: Twitter and antibiotics.” American Journal of Infection Control. April 2010; 38(3),182-188. Available from: Scopus, New York, NY, April 26, 2010.
Why Public Health 2.0? “Although troubling to many in public health, the use of theInternet for these purposes simply cannot be ignored. Web 2.0is here to stay and will almost certainly influence health behaviors.Health is a logical area in which individuals will want to seekopinions from others and communicate their experiences. In thisnew era, public health officials need to learn how to more effectivelylisten to these messages and, simultaneously, develop more livelyand engaging messages themselves to communicate with the public.” Kumanan Wilson, MD MSC and Jennifer Keelan, PhD Coping with Public Health 2.0, http://www.cmaj.ca/cgi/content/full/180/10/1080
Wikis Pros Fantastic for grp or internal documents, Ex. incl grants, manuals Free clients pretty good Everyone contributes WYSIWYG Cons Some users have trouble adjusting to new work environment Creating file structure, naming in groupthink is v hard Everyone contributes WYSIWYG
Wetpaint: Origins “The founders of Wetpaint saw how their friend was having great difficulty finding information about the type of cancer he had. He did find quite a bit of useful facts and information, but he also found a lot of information that he did not need or want. That is when the idea for Wetpaint was sprung. The founders had thought that setting up a company that could connect like minded people or people that share like interests.” Venture Capital Firms,”Wetpaint, An Internet Company Coming Out of an Individual’s Battle with Cancer” http://vcgate.com/Wetpaint-An-Internet-Company-Coming-Out-of-an-Individual-s-Battle-With-Cancer.asp, April 27, 2009. Accessed May 3, 2010.
Collaborative writing Pros Eliminates need for sending attachments to email, vpn Excellent for groups Biased opinion: best thing since sliced bread! No more track changes Lives in the cloud One copy Cons Some users have trouble adjusting to new work environment Content owned by company No more track changes Must have internet access
Medium between the map and the user generated content
“The impact of the new Web 2.0 mapping….is that it marks a shift from the academic and commercial domination of GIS to public and community participation.” Hardey, Michael. “Public Health and Web 2.0.” The Journal of The Royal Society for the Promotion of Health. 2008;128(4),181-189.
GIS Pros A picture’s worth a thousand words Visualizing health information is intensely powerful. Cons Req. coding exp to develop app Steep learning curve w programs like ArcGIS Lying with maps (intentionally or not) is very easy. Collaborative apps rely on collaborators
Photo/Video Sharing Pros Easy to share important moments with far flung friends and family Previously $$$$$$ now cheap Environmental impact of photo developing minimized Cons What is private? Personal photos owned by companies Industries put out of business
Social bookmarking Pros Releases you from chains of one computer Collaboratively creating consumer guides / websites with “best of” easy Highlighting websites Cons Slow adoption so app only as strong as community who joins Somewhat of a learning curve
Social networking Pros Crowdsource an issue Widespread adoption of technology Unparalleled conxn of users, issues, events Market forces will make interfaces/apps better and easier Cons Crowdsource an issue Not always evidence based, credible, nor authoritative
Virtual communities primarily focused on professional and business interactions rather than social interactions
“According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 70 percent of all jobs are found through networking” (Cornell University) http://as.cornell.edu/academics/careers/connect-with-employers/networking.cfm Examples
Virtual worlds Pros Works really well for gaming cultures/ anonymity / debilitating diseases 1st step to adoption of new technology is to make it look like the existing technology Market forces will make interfaces/apps better and easier Cons On the internet, no one knows you’re a dog. Please stop doing (XXX) to the dog. Steep learning curve Extreme high costs (time, computing, learning) to participate
Second Life: Health and Nutrition Game Increases awareness about the health effects and consequences of eating fast food
Difficulties with 2.0 “Web 2.0 facilitates both expert and general public communicationof health-related knowledge, which can be particularly problematicfor public health authorities. De facto, it juxtaposes vettedscientific opinion against information from critics, crusadersand conspiracy theorists, which undermines the critical foundationof trust between public health officials and the public. Thistrust is necessary for activities that sometimes require restrictionson individual liberties or impositions on individuals for thebenefits of the population.” Kumanan Wilson, MD MSC and Jennifer Keelan, PhD. Coping with Public Health 2.0, http://www.cmaj.ca/cgi/content/full/180/10/1080
Survey results 25 participants Made using google forms Best thing since sliced bread Participants checked more than one box, so percentages > 100
1. Google yourself Two groups “I didn’t find me.” “I found myself right away.” Lots of FB-related results How many of you who found FB results in google have private pages? What surprised you? What didn’t surprise you? Did you change (or want to change) your online presence as a result of the search?
2. Which of the following social media/web 2.0 sites do you use?
3) In which of the following social media/web 2.0 sites do you have more than one profile/account?
4) In which of the following social media/web 2.0 sites do you manage an account for an organization or group?
5) Which of the following social media/web 2.0 sites would you like to learn more about?
6) Do you use or intend to use social media/web 2.0 sites to…
7) Based on your responses above, briefly describe your online presence. Synopsis: “Most of my posts are on FB.” “Just to keep up with family/friends” “Harmless, but…” “Some personal, but I’m okay with that.” “None. I keep my life private.”
8) What would you like to learn from the Public Health 2.0 workshop concerning web presences and the use of social media sites? Synopsis: Privacy/censorship Professional networking Be more effective at searching Google docs, Linked In Personal/professional divide
Activity: Expand your online presence Why? Best way to find new uses is to get acquainted with tool for yourself first. Think about what/how an organization might use. What? Create accounts for yourselves (dummy accts. ok) Form communities Learn and talk about the features of each app Start using these accounts to manage, promote, discover, etc. Find web articles discussing how to use 2.0 for business We’ll discuss on Friday am.
Activity: Find and form online communities What’s your (health) passion? Find it in the 2.0 tools. There will likely be many examples. Be in them. Friend it; watch it; contribute to it. Compare and contrast the scene. Be prepared to report to the group.
Contact information Mellanye Lackey email@example.com Public Health Liaison Librarian; Director of Global Initiatives for the Health Sciences Library @ UNC Chapel Hill