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PowerPoint Presentation - Biotechnology and Recombinant DNA

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PowerPoint Presentation - Biotechnology and Recombinant DNA PowerPoint Presentation - Biotechnology and Recombinant DNA Presentation Transcript

  • Biotechnology and Recombinant DNA
  • Biotechnology
    • The use of microorganisms, cells, or cell components to make a product
      • Foods
      • Vaccines
      • Antibiotics
      • Vitamins
      • Biodegradation
    • Selective breeding
  • Genetic Engineering
    • Manipulating an organism’s genome to
      • alter microbes, plants, and animals for our benefit
      • correct genetic defects in humans
  • Other Uses of Genetic Technology
    • Genetic technologies also used to identify individuals - UA part of Shoah Project to ID Holocaust victims (Wildcat, October 4, 2006)
    • UA project to trace ancestry
    • Diagnosis and epidemiology of disease
  • Useful Properties of DNA
    • DNA sequences specify gene locations and protein amino acid sequence
    • Restriction endonucleases cut at specific nucleotides; size of pieces gives us information about DNA sequence
    • Nucleotides hydrogen bond with complementary nucleotides
    • DNA hybridization allows recognition of specific genes
  • A probe is a piece of complementary DNA of known sequence, labeled with radioactivity so it can be detected
  • DNA Fingerprinting: Forensics
  • DNA Fingerprinting: Epidemiology
    • Comparison of DNA from
      • patients
      • food
  • Useful Properties of DNA
    • The complementary strands of DNA can be separated and re-associated by heating and cooling
    • One strand of DNA specifies the sequence of the other strand
      • mRNA specifies the sequence of the gene (DNA)
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction ( PCR ) Amplifies DNA
    • Primers specify what DNA is copied
  • PCR Amplifies DNA
    • Diagnosis
    • Epidemiology
    • Genetic engineering
  • Recombinant DNA
    • Combining DNA from two different organisms
  • Useful Properties of DNA
    • Restriction endonucleases can cut DNA at specific sites, leaving sticky ends for insertion of new DNA
  • Selection of Altered Cells
    • Antibiotic resistance gene used to identify recombinant cells
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  • Genetically Modified Organisms
    • Herbicide-resistant plants
    • Bt cotton/corn (toxin gene from Bacillus thuringiensis that kills insects)
    • Flavr-Savr tomatoes
    • Golden rice (beta-carotene)
    • Plant-based vaccines
  • Transgenic Animals
    • “Knock-out” and transgenic mice: used to study immune system and genetic diseases
    • Pigs: blood clotting Factor VIII, organs for transplantation
    • Others: Human IL-2 (cancer), albumin (blood volume), growth hormone, tPA (dissolves clots)
  • Genetically Engineering Humans
    • Bone marrow supplies stem cells
    • Successful replacement of gene for enzyme needed for lymphocyte development
  • Difficulties in Genetically Engineering Humans
    • Inserting gene in correct cells
    • Inserting gene so it is expressed correctly
      • Orientation
      • Regulation
    • Controlling virus vector
    • Ethical issues
  • Other Issues
    • How will genetically engineered organisms affect environment?
    • Spread of genes to other organisms?
    • Who will decide?
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