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PowerPoint Presentation - Biotechnology and Recombinant DNA

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  • 1. Biotechnology and Recombinant DNA
  • 2. Biotechnology
    • The use of microorganisms, cells, or cell components to make a product
      • Foods
      • Vaccines
      • Antibiotics
      • Vitamins
      • Biodegradation
    • Selective breeding
  • 3. Genetic Engineering
    • Manipulating an organism’s genome to
      • alter microbes, plants, and animals for our benefit
      • correct genetic defects in humans
  • 4. Other Uses of Genetic Technology
    • Genetic technologies also used to identify individuals - UA part of Shoah Project to ID Holocaust victims (Wildcat, October 4, 2006)
    • UA project to trace ancestry
    • Diagnosis and epidemiology of disease
  • 5. Useful Properties of DNA
    • DNA sequences specify gene locations and protein amino acid sequence
    • Restriction endonucleases cut at specific nucleotides; size of pieces gives us information about DNA sequence
    • Nucleotides hydrogen bond with complementary nucleotides
    • DNA hybridization allows recognition of specific genes
  • 6. A probe is a piece of complementary DNA of known sequence, labeled with radioactivity so it can be detected
  • 7. DNA Fingerprinting: Forensics
  • 8. DNA Fingerprinting: Epidemiology
    • Comparison of DNA from
      • patients
      • food
  • 9. Useful Properties of DNA
    • The complementary strands of DNA can be separated and re-associated by heating and cooling
    • One strand of DNA specifies the sequence of the other strand
      • mRNA specifies the sequence of the gene (DNA)
  • 10. Polymerase Chain Reaction ( PCR ) Amplifies DNA
    • Primers specify what DNA is copied
  • 11. PCR Amplifies DNA
    • Diagnosis
    • Epidemiology
    • Genetic engineering
  • 12. Recombinant DNA
    • Combining DNA from two different organisms
  • 13. Useful Properties of DNA
    • Restriction endonucleases can cut DNA at specific sites, leaving sticky ends for insertion of new DNA
  • 14. Selection of Altered Cells
    • Antibiotic resistance gene used to identify recombinant cells
  • 15.  
  • 16.  
  • 17.  
  • 18. Genetically Modified Organisms
    • Herbicide-resistant plants
    • Bt cotton/corn (toxin gene from Bacillus thuringiensis that kills insects)
    • Flavr-Savr tomatoes
    • Golden rice (beta-carotene)
    • Plant-based vaccines
  • 19. Transgenic Animals
    • “Knock-out” and transgenic mice: used to study immune system and genetic diseases
    • Pigs: blood clotting Factor VIII, organs for transplantation
    • Others: Human IL-2 (cancer), albumin (blood volume), growth hormone, tPA (dissolves clots)
  • 20. Genetically Engineering Humans
    • Bone marrow supplies stem cells
    • Successful replacement of gene for enzyme needed for lymphocyte development
  • 21. Difficulties in Genetically Engineering Humans
    • Inserting gene in correct cells
    • Inserting gene so it is expressed correctly
      • Orientation
      • Regulation
    • Controlling virus vector
    • Ethical issues
  • 22. Other Issues
    • How will genetically engineered organisms affect environment?
    • Spread of genes to other organisms?
    • Who will decide?
  • 23.