You may want to repeat the experiment by dissolving one Lactaid® tablet in hot or cold water before adding it to the milk. You may want to repeat the experiment by dissolving one Lactaid® tablet in an acid or basic pH before adding it to milk.
Genetic Application: Lactose intolerance is a genetic trait located on chromosome 2. Discussion of natural selection and lactose intolerance allele.
Human Anatomy and Physiology – Discussion of digestion, tests for lactose intolerance.
How Enzymes Work Student Worksheet: Lactose Intolerance<br />Name __________________________________________________<br />Hypothesis: Predict what you think will happen. (HINT: Read background information)_________________________________________________________________________________________________________<br />Materials and Procedures: Summarize materials and procedures in one paragraph.<br />_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________<br />Results: Summarize results in one paragraph. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________<br />Table 1 <br />Glucose test strip results<br />ProductGlucose test strip color and number before adding Lactaid®Glucose test strip color and number after adding Lactaid®Whole milkSoy MilkOther: <br />Discussion: What did you learn? Why are enzymes important? Any problems encountered in doing the experiment? Are there any other experiments you would like to perform?<br />____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________<br />Experiment Option 2: Beans the Magic Food<br />What is Beano®?<br />Beano® is an enzyme supplement produced through biotechnology processing that helps you break down complex carbohydrates in the digestive tract and reduce gas produced by eating foods like beans, peanuts, cauliflower, broccoli, and brussels sprouts. It is naturally made by a fungus called Aspergillus niger. The enzyme that breaks down complex carbohydrates is called alpha galactosidase. <br />Materials<br />Liquid Beano® - <br />Beans – refried beans, black beans, other types of beans<br />Beakers or cups<br />Glucose reagent strips for urinalysis can be ordered from most pharmacies <br />(i.e., Diastix®)<br />Mortar and pestle<br />Optional: pH buffers (acid and base)<br />Procedure<br />Place approximately 1 teaspoon of beans in a beaker or cup and add 1-2 tablespoons of water.<br />Mix water and beans to form a liquid paste. You may need to add more water. <br />Dip a glucose test strip. Compare the test strip with the key outside the bottle and record any color changes. Color the box with the color indicated on the bottle. Color changes indicate amount of glucose present.<br />Add 5-10 drops of liquid Beano®.<br />After 5 minutes, dip a glucose test strip and record color change. Color the box with the color indicated on the bottle.<br />Before Beano®After Beano®<br />Color boxColor box<br />Teacher Notes: Additional Extension: Factors Affecting Enzyme Function<br />You may want to repeat the experiment by placing liquid Beano® enzyme in a hot or cold water bath before adding it to your bean and water mixture. You may want to repeat the experiment by placing liquid Beano® enzyme in an acid or basic pH before adding it to your bean and water mixture. <br />Activity 6: Recombinant DNA Technology<br /> <br />Adapted from Montgomery College- Germantown Introduction to Biotechnology for Middle School Teachers<br />543941053975<br />Materials<br />pAMPRestriction enzyme teacher background information<br />Bacteria plasmid, jellyfish DNA templates<br />Scissors, tape, and color pencils<br />Procedures<br />Examine the sheet labeled Bacteria Plasmid DNA. Notice the ampicillin resistance gene (marker gene) which is used for selection. Color it BLUE.<br />Construct the plasmid. Cut the plasmid DNA strips along the solid black lines and tape them together in RANDOM order to form a circle. A plasmid is a small double- stranded circular piece of DNA that is found in bacteria. It carries fewer genes than the bacteria chromosome. Plasmids are sometimes called vectors because they can transfer DNA from one cell to another. <br />Construct the jellyfish DNA. Notice the gene that produces green fluorescent protein (GFP). Color it GREEN.<br />Cut the jellyfish DNA strips along the solid black lines and tape strips together in order - strip 1 to strip 6 (do not form a circle). This section of DNA represents only a miniscule part of the entire jellyfish genome. <br />Locate the restriction enzyme site. Look for the following sequences on both the plasmid DNA and jellyfish DNA. Use a color pencil and mark the location as indicated below. <br />AAGCTTRestriction site for HindIII<br />TTCGAA<br />Cut along the line in both the bacteria plasmid and jellyfish DNA. The ends created are known as “sticky ends.” <br />Insert the jellyfish gene by matching the sticky ends of the jellyfish gene with the sticky ends of the bacteria plasmid and tape them together (ligase).<br />You now have recombined the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene from the jellyfish with the bacteria plasmid. <br />Combining genes from different organisms is called recombinant DNA.<br />Cloning the gene. This engineered recombinant DNA plasmid is now ready to be inserted into E. coli bacteria for cloning. This process is called transformation. Many copies of the GFP gene will be made as the bacteria reproduce. The bacteria will begin to glow green when they produce enough GFP. <br />(Requires Handouts Excel file, download at www.tccbiotech.org – Module 1<br />Teacher Extension: Why make bacteria or fish glow green?<br />
Detection of drug resistant TB strains of bacteria, pollution or toxins in water, tracking protein in cells.
Nobel Prize 2008 (Chemistry) awarded to three scientists for work with the green fluorescent protein (GFP).
NY Times article about the scientists’ work. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/10/08/science/09nobel.html
GloFish – Genetically Engineered zebrafish - A very interesting article from Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GloFish and Glofish website www.glofish.com<br /> Photo: Permission to use www.glofish.com References/Websites <br />Cells http://sun.menloschool.org/~birchler/cells/<br />Cells Alive http://www.cellsalive.com/<br />The University of Arizona Biology Project http://www.biology.arizona.edu/<br />Stem Cells and Cloning -Learn Genetics University of Utah http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/<br />DNAi (Go to Manipulation) http://www.dnai.org/<br />Dolan DNA Learning Center Biology Animation Library http://www.dnalc.org/ddnalc/resources/animations.html<br />Life Sciences at Michigan – Stem Cells http://www.lifesciences.umich.edu/<br />Access Excellence http://www.accessexcellence.org/<br />Lock and Key clip art<br /> http://classroomclipart.com/cgi-bin/kids/imageFolio.cgi?search=lock&img=0&cat=&bool=<br />AllRefer.com reference <br />Recombinant DNA http://www.allrefer.com/pictures/s4/p0013051-genetic-engineering<br />Teacher Domain – Tay Sachs - http://www.teachersdomain.org/resources/tdc02/sci/life/gen/onewrong/index.html<br />Booth,Denise et al. Montgomery College – Germantown Introduction to Biotechnology for Middle School Teachers (301) 353-7722<br />Cells Alive http://www.cellsalive.com/mitosis.htm <br />Cellupedia http://library.thinkquest.org/C004535/cell_anatomy.html<br />Genetics Home Reference http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/basics/cell<br />National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) – A Science Primer http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/About/primer/genetics_cell<br />Virtual Cell Page http://www.ibiblio.org/virtualcell/index.htm<br />Cellupedia http://library.thinkquest.org/C004535/cell_anatomy.html<br />Rennet for Cheese Making http://biology.clc.uc.edu/fankhauser/Cheese/Rennet/Rennet.html<br />