Biotechnology Bell Ringers
September 27th, 2010
1. What are some differences between plant cells and
animal cells?
2. What...
Biotechnology Objectives
September 27th, 2010 (EB04.03)
 We will explore the structure of DNA
 We will explore DNA’s rel...
Genetics and DNA
 1860s, Gregor Mendel
discovered that “factors”
determine inheritance in
pea plants
 He observed that m...
Genetics and DNA
 1903, researcher William
Sutton made connection
between Mendel’s
“factors” and
chromosomes-
microscopic...
Genetics and DNA
 The genetic material
itself, known as DNA,
was discovered by
Johann Miescher in
Switzerland in 1869
Genetics and DNA
 Yet, it wasn’t until two
researchers, Francis
Crick and James Watson,
proposed a double-helix
structure...
Early drawing by Watson and Crick
of the DNA Double-helix
Genetics and DNA
 A gene is a unit of
information that can be
passed on to offspring
 They are a power influence
on phys...
Genetics and DNA
 As powerful as genes are,
however, it’s important
to remember that
environment also helps
shape organis...
Domineering Genes
 With few exceptions,
every organism has two
of each kind of gene
 Genes are usually either
dominant o...
Domineering Genes
 A dominant gene is
expressed in the offspring
no matter what gene the
other parent contributes
 A rec...
Domineering Genes
BROWN/BROWN BROWN/blue
blue/BROWN blue/blue
Mutations Rule
 Over billions of years the
earth has been around,
plants, animals, and
other living things have
evolved t...
Mutations Rule
 Mutation has produced the
countless variations of
living things we see around
us
 Many mutations are
neu...
Mutations Rule
Secret Codes
 DNA holds the secret code
to make and maintain
proteins (long chains of
molecules that help living
things g...
Secret Codes
 Rather than move the
DNA out of the nucleus,
the cell makes a copy of
the gene(s) and sends it
to the prote...
Secret Codes
 RNA is a single-stranded
copy of a single cell of a
single gene
 It carries codes from the
DNA to the prot...
Genes Across the Ages
 In nature, genes generally
are transferred between
members of the same
species
 Some new studies,...
Genes Across Ages
 Today, horizontal gene
transfer also can occur
through genetic engineering
 DNA can be transferred vi...
Genes Across Ages
 Characteristics coded for
by more than one gene
are much harder to
transfer, since the
contributing ge...
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Biotechnology Bell Ringers for September 24th, 2010

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Biotechnology Bell Ringers for September 24th, 2010

  1. 1. Biotechnology Bell Ringers September 27th, 2010 1. What are some differences between plant cells and animal cells? 2. What two resources were used to examine different examples of cells? 3. Bacteria are prokaryotes. What is a prokaryote?
  2. 2. Biotechnology Objectives September 27th, 2010 (EB04.03)  We will explore the structure of DNA  We will explore DNA’s relationship to the cell  We will Extract DNA from a Strawberry  Time permitting, we will go over some Biotechnology current events
  3. 3. Genetics and DNA  1860s, Gregor Mendel discovered that “factors” determine inheritance in pea plants  He observed that many traits control these factors
  4. 4. Genetics and DNA  1903, researcher William Sutton made connection between Mendel’s “factors” and chromosomes- microscopic structures in the cell nucleus that carry genetic material
  5. 5. Genetics and DNA  The genetic material itself, known as DNA, was discovered by Johann Miescher in Switzerland in 1869
  6. 6. Genetics and DNA  Yet, it wasn’t until two researchers, Francis Crick and James Watson, proposed a double-helix structure for the molecule that we began to understand how this material carries the genetic code of life
  7. 7. Early drawing by Watson and Crick of the DNA Double-helix
  8. 8. Genetics and DNA  A gene is a unit of information that can be passed on to offspring  They are a power influence on physical and mental characteristics  They aren’t just found in people, they are found in all living things
  9. 9. Genetics and DNA  As powerful as genes are, however, it’s important to remember that environment also helps shape organisms  The interactions between a living thing and its environment affect how it will turn out
  10. 10. Domineering Genes  With few exceptions, every organism has two of each kind of gene  Genes are usually either dominant or recessive
  11. 11. Domineering Genes  A dominant gene is expressed in the offspring no matter what gene the other parent contributes  A recessive gene is expressed in the offspring only if both parents contribute recessive genes
  12. 12. Domineering Genes BROWN/BROWN BROWN/blue blue/BROWN blue/blue
  13. 13. Mutations Rule  Over billions of years the earth has been around, plants, animals, and other living things have evolved through the changing of genes  Genes have been transferred, deleted, and mutated between generations
  14. 14. Mutations Rule  Mutation has produced the countless variations of living things we see around us  Many mutations are neutral and have no effect at all  Some mutations place a living thing at a disadvantage  Some mutations, however, give an individual a better chance of survival  This makes them more likely to survive to have offspring  Over time, this mutant gene will likely become established in the gene pool (the genes of a breeding population
  15. 15. Mutations Rule
  16. 16. Secret Codes  DNA holds the secret code to make and maintain proteins (long chains of molecules that help living things grow and function  But how does this secret code move from the nucleus to the protein- making factories in the cells?
  17. 17. Secret Codes  Rather than move the DNA out of the nucleus, the cell makes a copy of the gene(s) and sends it to the protein assembly site outside the cell nucleus  The copy is messenger RNA (ribonucleic Acid)
  18. 18. Secret Codes  RNA is a single-stranded copy of a single cell of a single gene  It carries codes from the DNA to the protein assembly sites outside the nucleus
  19. 19. Genes Across the Ages  In nature, genes generally are transferred between members of the same species  Some new studies, however, suggest that genes also move between unrelated organisms  For the most part, such “horizontal” gene transfer takes place among bacteria and viruses
  20. 20. Genes Across Ages  Today, horizontal gene transfer also can occur through genetic engineering  DNA can be transferred via direct injection or by inserting the DNA into bacteria or viruses that carry it into the cells they infect  This means that traits determined by single genes can be transferred from one kind of organism to another
  21. 21. Genes Across Ages  Characteristics coded for by more than one gene are much harder to transfer, since the contributing genes must all first be identified, found, and isolated  Many human diseases are thought to result from interactions of multiple genes
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