Biotechnology Any process that uses our understanding of living things to create a product
Genetic Engineering The process of making changes in the DNA code of living organisms
Genetic engineering can be accomplished through transformation. Transformation is when a cell takes in DNA from outside the cell. This DNA becomes part of the cell’s DNA. This can be accomplished with the help of bacteria.
Bacterial Transformation The changing of one strain of bacteria into another strain
Plasmid: a circular piece of DNA found in bacteria F+ bacterium contains a plasmid F- bacterium does not contain a plasmid
Steps of Bacterial Transformation 1-Remove the plasmid from the bacterium.
Steps of Bacterial Transformation 2-Isolate the gene of interest. A gene of interest is a piece of DNA that codes for a protein we want more of
Steps of Bacterial Transformation 3-Open the plasmid by cutting it with a restriction enzyme This leaves “sticky ends”
Sticky Ends The restriction enzyme EcoR1 cuts the DNA at the sequence GAATTC, between the G and the A
Steps of Bacterial Transformation 4-Insert the gene of interest
Steps of Bacterial Transformation 5-Insert the plasmid with recombinant DNA into a new bacterium. Recombinant DNA: DNA produced by combining DNA from different organisms
Steps of Bacterial Transformation 6-The bacteria reproduces itself and the plasmid. All descendants express the inserted gene
Other Types of Transformation Plants: -Use bacteria that insert their plasmid into plant cells -removing cell walls sometimes allows plant cells to take up foreign DNA on their own
Other Types of Transformation Animals: -Many egg cells are large enough that DNA can be directly injected
Genetically Engineered Products
Production of Human Insulin Insulin regulates the blood sugar level. The gene for human insulin is inserted into yeast or bacteria, from which large quantities of the human insulin are manufactured http://publications.nigms.nih.gov/genetics/images/ch1_diagram.gif http://www.ingenious.org.uk/media/4.0_SAC/webimages/1032/1/10321271_3.jpg
Golden Rice Undernourished people in poorer countries may have blindness caused by a lack of vitamin A Contains beta-carotene, which forms Vitamin A
Genes for making beta-carotene are taken from daffodils and inserted into the genome of rice http://www.bairesbiotec.org.ar/images/speake1.jpg http://www.jewishworldreview.com/toons/varvel/biotech.protest.gif Golden Rice
http://www.healingdaily.com/detoxification-diet/rBGH.jpg Recombinant Bovine Growth Hormone rBGH is a genetically engineered version of a hormone, which is found in the pituitary gland of cows and controls milk production rBGH can increase cows’ milk production by as much as 20-30% http://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Milk_glass.jpg
Spider Silk Elastic, light weight fiber 5 times stronger than steel One method involves inserting the gene from a weaving spider into a fertilized goat egg. The resultant “spider-goat” produces milk that can be manufactured into strong fibers. http://www.chm.bris.ac.uk/motm/spider/goat.jpg
Spider Silk To make flak jackets, rope, textiles, sutures, artificial tendons, and bandages for burn victims
Glowing Organisms Genes that make jellyfish glow are inserted into other organisms The organism glows under UV light http://www.fluorescentpets.com/prod31.jpg
Bt is a bacterium that is toxic to some insects. In the lab, the gene that produces the toxic effect is inserted into the DNA of plants Bt crops produce an insecticide protein thousands of times more powerful than the chemical spray insecticides Bt Crops
Transgenic Organisms : Any organism whose genome incorporates and expresses genes from the same or a different species Genetically modified products: Altering the DNA of an organism to get it to express different traits.