Biotechnology
Biotechnology
• Any process that uses our understanding
of living things to create a product
Genetic Engineering
The process of making changes in the
DNA code of living organisms
Genetic engineering can be accomplished
through transformation.
Transformation is when a cell takes in DNA
from outside th...
Bacterial
Transformation
The changing of one strain of bacteria into
another strain
Plasmid: a circular
piece of DNA found in
bacteria
F+ bacterium contains a
plasmid
F- bacterium does not
contain a plasmid
Steps of Bacterial
Transformation
1-Remove the plasmid from the bacterium.
Steps of Bacterial
Transformation
2-Isolate the gene of interest.
A gene of interest is a piece of DNA that
codes for a pr...
Steps of Bacterial
Transformation
3-Open the plasmid by cutting it with a
restriction enzyme
This leaves “sticky ends”
Whi...
Sticky Ends
Sticky Ends
The restriction enzyme EcoR1 cuts the DNA
at the sequence GAATTC, between the G
and the A
Sticky Ends
Sticky Ends
Steps of Bacterial Transformation
4-Insert the gene of interest
Steps of Bacterial Transformation
5-Insert the plasmid
with recombinant
DNA into a new
bacterium.
Recombinant DNA:
DNA pro...
Steps of Bacterial Transformation
6-The bacteria reproduces itself and the
plasmid. All descendants express the
inserted g...
Bacterial Transformation
Other Types of Transformation
• Plants:
-Use bacteria that insert their plasmid into
plant cells
-removing cell walls some...
Other Types of Transformation
• Animals:
-Many egg cells are large enough that
DNA can be directly injected
Genetically Engineered
Products
Production of Human Insulin
• Insulin regulates the
blood sugar level.
• The gene for human
insulin is inserted into
yeast...
Golden Rice
• Undernourished people in poorer countries may
have blindness caused by a lack of vitamin A
• Contains beta-c...
http://www.jewishworldreview.com/toons/varvel/biotech.protest.gif
http://www.bairesbiotec.org.ar/images/speake1.jpg
Golden...
http://www.healingdaily.com/detoxification-diet/rBGH.
Recombinant Bovine Growth
Hormone
• rBGH is a genetically
engineered...
Spider Silk
• Elastic, light weight fiber 5 times stronger than steel
• One method involves inserting the gene from a
weav...
Spider Silk
• To make flak jackets,
rope, textiles, sutures,
artificial tendons, and
bandages for burn
victims
Glowing Organisms
• Genes that make jellyfish glow are inserted
into other organisms
• The organism glows under UV light
h...
• Bt is a bacterium that is toxic to
some insects. In the lab, the
gene that produces the toxic
effect is inserted into th...
Transgenic Organisms : Any
organism whose genome
incorporates and expresses genes
from the same or a different
species
Gen...
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Biotechnology

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Biotechnology

  1. 1. Biotechnology
  2. 2. Biotechnology • Any process that uses our understanding of living things to create a product
  3. 3. Genetic Engineering The process of making changes in the DNA code of living organisms
  4. 4. Genetic engineering can be accomplished through transformation. Transformation is when a cell takes in DNA from outside the cell. This DNA becomes part of the cell’s DNA. This can be accomplished with the help of bacteria.
  5. 5. Bacterial Transformation The changing of one strain of bacteria into another strain
  6. 6. Plasmid: a circular piece of DNA found in bacteria F+ bacterium contains a plasmid F- bacterium does not contain a plasmid
  7. 7. Steps of Bacterial Transformation 1-Remove the plasmid from the bacterium.
  8. 8. Steps of Bacterial Transformation 2-Isolate the gene of interest. A gene of interest is a piece of DNA that codes for a protein we want more of
  9. 9. Steps of Bacterial Transformation 3-Open the plasmid by cutting it with a restriction enzyme This leaves “sticky ends” Which need to be the complement of the sticky ends left on the DNA fragment you want to insert.
  10. 10. Sticky Ends
  11. 11. Sticky Ends The restriction enzyme EcoR1 cuts the DNA at the sequence GAATTC, between the G and the A
  12. 12. Sticky Ends
  13. 13. Sticky Ends
  14. 14. Steps of Bacterial Transformation 4-Insert the gene of interest
  15. 15. Steps of Bacterial Transformation 5-Insert the plasmid with recombinant DNA into a new bacterium. Recombinant DNA: DNA produced by combining DNA from different organisms
  16. 16. Steps of Bacterial Transformation 6-The bacteria reproduces itself and the plasmid. All descendants express the inserted gene
  17. 17. Bacterial Transformation
  18. 18. Other Types of Transformation • Plants: -Use bacteria that insert their plasmid into plant cells -removing cell walls sometimes allows plant cells to take up foreign DNA on their own
  19. 19. Other Types of Transformation • Animals: -Many egg cells are large enough that DNA can be directly injected
  20. 20. Genetically Engineered Products
  21. 21. Production of Human Insulin • Insulin regulates the blood sugar level. • The gene for human insulin is inserted into yeast or bacteria, from which large quantities of the human insulin are manufactured http://publications.nigms.nih.gov/genetics/images/ch1_diagram.gif http://www.ingenious.org.uk/media/4.0_SAC/webimages/1032/1/10321271_3.jpg
  22. 22. Golden Rice • Undernourished people in poorer countries may have blindness caused by a lack of vitamin A • Contains beta-carotene, which forms Vitamin A
  23. 23. http://www.jewishworldreview.com/toons/varvel/biotech.protest.gif http://www.bairesbiotec.org.ar/images/speake1.jpg Golden Rice • Genes for making beta-carotene are taken from daffodils and inserted into the genome of rice
  24. 24. http://www.healingdaily.com/detoxification-diet/rBGH. Recombinant Bovine Growth Hormone • rBGH is a genetically engineered version of a hormone, which is found in the pituitary gland of cows and controls milk production • rBGH can increase cows’ milk production by as much as 20-30% http://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Milk_glass.jpg
  25. 25. Spider Silk • Elastic, light weight fiber 5 times stronger than steel • One method involves inserting the gene from a weaving spider into a fertilized goat egg. The resultant “spider-goat” produces milk that can be manufactured into strong fibers. http://www.chm.bris.ac.uk/motm/spider/goat.jpg
  26. 26. Spider Silk • To make flak jackets, rope, textiles, sutures, artificial tendons, and bandages for burn victims
  27. 27. Glowing Organisms • Genes that make jellyfish glow are inserted into other organisms • The organism glows under UV light http://www.fluorescentpets.com/prod31.jpg
  28. 28. • Bt is a bacterium that is toxic to some insects. In the lab, the gene that produces the toxic effect is inserted into the DNA of plants • Bt crops produce an insecticide protein thousands of times more powerful than the chemical spray insecticides Bt Crops
  29. 29. Transgenic Organisms : Any organism whose genome incorporates and expresses genes from the same or a different species Genetically modified products: Altering the DNA of an organism to get it to express different traits.

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