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An Examination of Integration, Inclusion, Exclusion and Bullying ...

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    An Examination of Integration, Inclusion, Exclusion and Bullying ... An Examination of Integration, Inclusion, Exclusion and Bullying ... Presentation Transcript

    • Health and Social Integration of Newcomer Youth: Results from a National Longitudinal Study
      John P. Anchan, Esther Blum, Bong-Hwan Kim, Joyce Cabigting Fernandes & Lori Wilkinson
      Prairie Metropolis Node Meeting, September 29, 2009
      Winnipeg
    • Project Overview
      Longitudinal study of close to 4,900 immigrant and refugee children living in six Canadian cities
      Wave One national sample includes children aged 4-6 & 11-13 from 17 different ethnocultural communities in Canadian 6 cities
      Wave Two follow-up, children now aged 6-10 and 13-17 years
      Children born outside of Canada, arrived within last 10 years; OR children born of parents who arrived within the last 10 years
      A broad range of factors investigated including child growth and development plus those specific to the migration and resettlement process
    • SamplingFramework
      Note: ethnocultural communities in red text were interviewed in Winnipeg
    • Selected Indicators of Social Integration for Newcomer Families
      Integration is a multifaceted, long-term process for all newcomers and includes several aspects related to acceptance by the host society and settlement conditions
      Social supports: does my family have help from others when needed?
      Homeownership: an indication of economic integration and attachment
      Living conditions since last move: has moving to Canada been a benefit or a detriment to my family’s livelihood?
    • Social Supports by Ethnocultural Group, Calgary, Edmonton and Winnipeg
    • Homeownership by Ethnocultural Group, Prairies
      Just over two-thirds (68.4%) of Canadians own their home (Statistics Canada, 2008).
    • Assessment of Living Conditions in Canada by Ethnocultural Group
    • Physical Health
      The “Healthy Immigrant Effect” suggests that newcomer youth are significantly more healthy than Canadian-born youth due to government and self-selection processes
      After about 10 years, the health practices and behaviours of newcomers begins to mimic that of the native-born
      Second-generation youth have poorer health and exhibit more risk behaviours than immigrant youth
      Rates of obesity, asthma, and diabetes are significantly higher among Canadian-born youth
      Newcomer youth are significantly more likely to have no significant health problems as children and adolescents
      Statistics Canada, 2006, 2007; Mullins Harris, 1999; Yu et al., 2003
    • General Health of Child, Prairie Groups
      Poor
    • General Health by Immigrant Category, Prairies Only
    • Health Risk Behaviors
      9% of 11-13 year olds knew of a friend who drank alcohol without their parents’ knowledge
      11% of 11-13 year olds regularly smoke cigarettes
      None of the children we studied in Wave 1 reported illegal drug use, though some participants in Vancouver, Toronto and Montreal admitted to illegal drug use
      1.4% of youth aged 11-13 in our study reported they were active members of gangs
      A very small number of youth indicated they gambled for money
    • Physical Activity (compared to others of same sex and age) Prairie Groups
      P<0.01
    • Participation in Organized Sports (11-13 year olds only)
      P<0.05
    • Mental Health
      Over 80% of mental health issues arise in adolescence. If left untreated, they can manifest as severe illness as adults
      Among Canadian-born youth, anxiety disorders are most predominant, ranging from 2.1-22.2% incidence rates among youth as young a age 5 years
      Mental health of newcomer youth has been a topic of sustained interest
      Refugee youth have higher rates of PTSD
      Refugee youth have slightly higher rates of other illnesses
      Immigrant youth have good mental health though some may struggle with the transition to a new country
      Flannery-Schroeder, 2004; Costello et al., 2004, 2005; Leitch, 2007
    • Self-assessment of Current Life Stress
      P<0.05
    • Prosocial Behaviour by Integration Stage
      Mean score on prosocial behaviours index
      P<0.05
    • Hyperactivity-Inattention by Stage of Integration
      Mean score on hyperactivity-inattention index
      P<0.05
    • Tentative Conclusions
      Overall, newcomer youth are adjusting to life in Canada
      Housing & neighborhood conditions: good for some, fair for others
      Physical Health: excellent & active
      Mental Health: excellent, with few behavioural problems
      Wave 2 interviews are complete; longitudinal analysis to commence in fall
      Your ideas for specific analyses and exploration are most welcome-there are over 1300 data points needing analysis!
    • Selection of Forthcoming Papers
      Predicting Emotional Disorder/Anxiety and Physical Aggression among Hong Kong Chinese, Mainland Chinese, and Filipino Immigrant Children in Canada.
      Immigrant Families and Access to Primary Health Care for their Children
      Examining the impact of ethnic discrimination and social exclusion on visible minority immigrant children’s psychosocial development.
      Cultural Affiliation and Identification Patterns among Newcomer Immigrant Children in Canada
      School & Parental Influences on the Academic Achievements of Filipino, Hong Kong & Mainland Chinese Youth
      Neighbourhood Influences on the health of Canada’s Immigrant and Refugee Youth: A Vancouver Study
      A Snapshot of the Health & Well-being of Newcomer Children and their Families-toappear on PMC website soon!
      Mental health
      Physical health
      Discrimination
      Identity &
      Cultural Preservation
      Health &
      Neighbourhood
      Educational
      Achievements
    • Acknowledgements
      This presentation is a product of the New Canadian Children and Youth Study (Morton Beiser, Nominated Principal Applicant; Robert Armstrong, Linda Ogilvie, Jacqueline Oxman-Martinez, Joanna Anneke Rummens, Principal Applicants), a national longitudinal survey of the health and well being of more than 4,000 newcomer immigrant and refugee children living in Montreal, Toronto, Winnipeg, Edmonton, Calgary and Vancouver. The NCCYS is a collaboration between a large team of more than 25 investigators, two national coordinators, other research staff, community advisors, and trainees affiliated with four Canadian Metropolis Centres of Excellence for research on immigration and settlement, and community organizations representing sixteen different immigrant/refugee populations across Canada.
      The Winnipeg Research Team wishes to acknowledge the assistance of Alison Kalischuk, Swati Mandal
      University of Manitoba
      Sara Deane, University of Winnipeg
      and the cooperation of newcomer families, the assistance of our Local Advisory Committee and 7 Community Consultation Groups
    • Funding Sources
      Prairie Site: PCERII, AHFMR, CIHR, Canadian Heritage, Health Canada, Citizenship and Immigration Canada, Manitoba Labour and Immigration, Winnipeg Foundation, and Alberta Learning.
      National:Canadian Institutes for Health Research
      Site Specific Funding: Federal departments of Canadian Heritage, Citizenship and Immigration Canada, Health Canada, Justice Canada; Alberta Heritage Foundation for Medical Research, Alberta Learning, B.C. Ministry of Social Development and Economic Security, B.C. Ministry of Multiculturalism and Immigration, Conseil Quebecois de la Recherche Sociale, OASIS (CIC); and the Montreal, Prairies, and Toronto Metropolis Centres of Excellence for Research on Immigration and Integration.
      Universities In-Kind Support:Universities: Alberta, British Columbia, Calgary, Manitoba, McGill, Montreal, Toronto, Winnipeg, Metropolis Centres of Excellence: Toronto, Montreal, Prairies, Vancouver, Statistics Canada, Citizenship and Immigration Canada.