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Abbreviations for Medical Journal Titles

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    Abbreviations for Medical Journal Titles Abbreviations for Medical Journal Titles Document Transcript

    • Abbreviations for Medical Journal Titles BY FRANK B. ROGERS, M. D., Director THELMA CHAREN, Indexing Reviser National Library of Medicine Bethesda, Maryland INTRODUCTION T HE drive for standardization is a hallmark of technology; the need for standardization increases with the growth of technology. Activity toward standardization of bibliographic practices has been stirring throughout the past century, and during the past decade this movement has received added impetus from the advent of mechanization on the publication (secondary publication) scene. Various standards bodies have concerned themselves at organizational, national, and international levels with bibliographical problems such as uniformity of publication methods, journal format, trans- literation systems, classification, computer codes, and so forth. It is not sur- prising that the problem of journal title abbreviation looms prominently. As the body of scientific literature grows, so the need for uniformity of citations grows. In this article we are not concerned with the form and style of the citation revolving about the author name, volume designation, pagination, or year of publication, although there is ample evidence of vari- ety in these matters. Here we are concerned with the problem of the journal title abbreviation; we consider as in scope only conventional systems, and do not treat the four-letter codes of G. E. McCasland (1), the coden of Charles Bishop (2), the sigils of J. B. Reid (3), and the like. Journal titles are repetitively recurring elements in lists of references ap- pended to primary works, in citations of original sources of abstracts, and, overwhelmingly, in bibliographies and indexes to periodical literature. The need to abbreviate stems from the need to save space and, therefore, costs of publication, and the need to save time, as in compilation. The need for uniformity stems from the indistinct boundaries of the various scientific fields, the existence of multiple secondary publications which are consulted during the course of even a routine bibliographical search, and the con- venience of editors and authors concerned with the stylistic practices of many different primary journals. The ideal journal title abbreviation is first of all brief; then it is clear, unique, informative as to the language of the original, indicative as to scope of the publication, easily remembered and used, and universally applicable. The actual must often fall considerably short of the ideal; the various ele- 311
    • 312 FRANK B. ROGERS AND THELMA CHAREN ments are at war with each other. The ideal of brevity must often conflict with the need for some minimum redundancy to accommodate the other objectives. In practice, we must try to find abbreviations which combine the greatest number of desirable qualities with the least sacrifice or com- promise of other desiderata. Brevity is an obviously desirable attribute, but mere economy in word length should not be achieved at the expense of clarity. The abbreviation should be "self explanatory either alone or in its relations" (says the Index- Catalogue Synopsis of Style, 1937, p. [5]). It need not, however, be in a form which can serve as a base for verbatim reconstruction of the title; on the contrary, it need in this regard serve only as an identification tag-a short label allowing one to locate the particular title unequivocally. Any code should eschew "l'arbitraire, l'empirisme et une certaine fan- taisie," which Gabrielle Odend'hal (4) deplores as the basis of too many lists of title abbreviations. Place (5) gives his "rules of three C's" in formulat- ing abbreviations: conciseness, completeness, and correctness. We would add a fourth: consistency. Periodica Medica (1952) says: "All title abbreviations must be a compromise between the desirable and the achievable." This "compromise" could be entertained as a fifth "C." The characteristic most difficult to attain is that of universality of applica- tion. A great obstacle to universality is the multiplicity of systems existing today-systems used by individual journals, major publishing houses, great indexes, special disciplines, national bodies, and those proposed for inter- national adoption. But what we are here chiefly concerned with in regard to universality is the ability of the system to cross disciplines, embrace the entire scientific field, and be applicable to the products of many countries and languages. It is not satisfactory to have one system for chemistry and another for the biomedical sciences; in this case, what happens to the bio- chemical titles? And we are not interested in limited schemes. If a particular bibliography lists articles from only seventeen journals, then those journal titles may have simple arbitrary abbreviations, even single letters of the alphabet, but this lack of compatibility with wide schemes is, under most circumstances and for most major purposes, to be deplored. We are here necessarily concerned with medical journal titles; our arguments and history and examples bear predominantly on this field, but we insist that any scheme, to be really meaningful and useful, must be susceptible to incor- poration into a larger, total scheme, even though that scheme be emergent, rather than actual. Just as any reasonable system must consider all of science in relation to a particular specialized segment, so any system must consider historical per- spective in relation to the present and, indeed, the effect of common pat- terns on future creations. Many journals existing in the past are defunct;
    • ABBREVIATIONS FOR MEDICAL JOURNAL TITLES 313 many have been resurrected under the original title; many reappear under new titles. Many new journals have been created which, though having no historical continuity with the first journal of the name, bear titles resembling the original. Any reasonable system must try to avert major confusions re- sulting from conditions such as these, but it would be absurd to insist that all journal title abbreviations must be unique throughout all time; after all, volume numbering and dates also have prominent distinguishing functions. Many systems are proposed, but few are chosen. Each successive system is declared imperfect and unsuitable; lamentations arise; there are pleas for an Ariadne's thread to lead us out of the labyrinth of variations. But each thread is acceptable only to a particular Theseus of bibliography; the cries and lamentations are renewed, and new systems arise. While there is almost unanimous agreement on the need for standardization, there is continuing internecine controversy regarding the right system, and the suitability and authority of the standardizing agencies. Kent (6) feels that standardization should be based on compilations by librarians; Brode (7) decries the activities of "professional abbreviators"; more temperately, Sheppard (8) (in his criticism of the World List) cites as the desideratum of any list of abbrevia- tions "title contractions free from ambiguities, indicative of the language of the originals, and full enough for a reader of any nationality to reconstruct the title sufficiently to enable him to find the title-entry easily in an alpha- betically arranged catalogue of periodicals." (We may merely note, perhaps, the opinion of Lorph&vre (9) to the effect that "I am against all abbrevia- tions. They let the bibliographer save a little time, but make the poor researchers, who have to reconstruct an array of letters sometimes having no apparent meaning, lose 10 or 100 times more. ..") The discussion which follows is divided for convenience into several sec- tions: first, a brief historical survey by country, and a look at developments on the international scene; next, a look at the major medical and paramedical systems; finally, an exposition of the National Library of Medicine position and its rationale, as exemplified in the Index Medicus. I NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENTS United States The Index Medicus, compiled under the supervision of John Shaw Billings and Robert Fletcher, appeared in 1879; it listed 737 journal titles and their abbreviations. In the next year the Index-Catalogue of the Library of the Sur- geon General's Office was published; its rules for abbreviation and its list of 2,342 abbreviations with corresponding titles were succinct and clear. Of this 1880 list, Dr. Walter Artelt comments: "Had these well thought out
    • 314 FRANK B. ROGERS AND THELMA CHAREN rules become general practice at that time, the many discussions which have been going on for over 40 years as to the most useful method of ab- breviating periodical titles would not have been necessary" (10). When, in 1950, the Current List of Medical Literature superseded the Index-Catalogue, this system of abbreviations was retained (11). In 1916 the American Medical Association began publication of its Quarterly Cumulative 'Index, listing 157 journal titles and their abbreviations. In 1927 this became the Quarterly Cumulative Index Medicus; in its first volume, as in its last (Volume 60, 1956), it listed 926 journal titles and their abbrevia- tions, but no statement of principles accompanied the lists. In 1922 the American Chemical Society published a list of 1,010 jour- nal titles and their abbreviations as used in Chemical Abstracts; a 1960 list brought the list of titles and abbreviations to more than 13,000. The latest edition of the Chemical Abstracts list states that the journal title abbreviations are those "adopted years ago as an international standard for chemistry by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. They have also been adopted for its journals by the American Institute of Physics and by many individual writers, editors, and publishers in their work" (12). In 1954 Biological Abstracts (Volume 28) published its list of periodical title abbreviations, containing 2,416 entries; no statement is offered to explain the rules followed. In 1960 the Conference of Biological Editors published its Style Manual for Biological Journals. This manual treats the problem of journal title abbreviations, lists 228 abbreviations of words used in citations, and follows this with 110 sample journal titles using these words. The manual instructs the user to "Follow the abbreviations listed by The Chemical Abstracts Services (1956-1960).. .. If no abbreviation is found, use the following rules from the International Code for the Abbreviation of Titles of Periodicals (ISO/R4- 1953)" (13). In dentistry interest in the problem was aroused when, in 1931, Bernhard W. Weinberger submitted for the approval of the International Dental Fed- eration a scheme for dental periodicals. Dr. Weinberger published his spe- cific recommendations in the form of lists of words and examples of ab- breviations for American and British titles of dental journals in the BULLETIN of the Medical Library Association (14) and in Dental Survey (15) in 1936, in revised form. Despite the early enthusiasm for standardization, the ab- breviations used by two major dental indexing services, the Index to Dental Literature and Dental Abstracts, differ from most others. In 1940 the American Standards Association formed its Committee Z39 on Library Work and Documentation. The Committee is at present spon- sored by the Council of National Library Associations. Since the American Standards Association is the national standards body and, as such, a partici- pating member of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO),
    • ABBREVIATIONS FOR MEDICAL JOURNAL TITLES 315 it is to be hoped that Z39 co-ordinates its work with the ISO Technical Committee 46, which deals with documentation standards. One of Z39's plans for the 1960's is the collection and correlation of rules for abbreviations used by major American indexing and abstracting services. Great Britain The impetus for standard journal title abbreviations began early in the publication of the International Catalogue of Scientific Literature, and culminated in the first edition of the World List of Scientific Periodicals of 1927, which covered over 24,000 titles and included a set of rules drawn up by its editors, A. W. Pollard and WV. A. Smith. An enlarged second edition of the World List appeared in 1934 with only slight differences in abbreviations which were "necessitated in order to comply with the system recommended by the International Meeting held by the International Institute of Intellectual Co-operation, a system which is practically the old World List system, with slight modifications to suit foreign requirements" (16). The third edition of the World List in 1952 ("of the order of 50,000 entries"), under the editorship of W. A. Smith, F. L. Kent, and G. B. Stratton, followed. The British Standards Institution, with its committee formed of the Library Association, ASLIB, and other interests, constitutes the national representa- tive of ISO TC 46. This BSI committee undertook in 1948, with Francis L. Kent, co-editor of the World List, to examine the question of title abbrevia- tions. Mr. Kent subsequently represented both the BSI Committee and the World List at the 1948 meeting of ISO at The Hague. In that year, also, the Royal Society Scientific Information Conference urged the use of the World List system of abbreviations and recommended the incorporation in later editions of "minor changes of rule internationally agreed upon" (17). As it turned out, the ISO draft recommendation of 1952, approved by a majority of the member bodies, was issued too late for application to the third edition of the World List, whose abbreviations were still based on the League of Nations' Code international d"abre'viations des titres de periodiques. In 1946 a convention of editors of British biological journals had met under the auspices of the Biological Council and voted in favor of a standard list of abbreviations. A composite list of numerous private and public lists in use in the field appeared in 1949, issued by the Biological Council, in the form of A List of Abbreviations of the Titles of Biological Journals, and in the main was based on the second edition of the World List (17). Germany In 1912, following a proposal regarding uniformity in journal abbrevia- tions made by Heinrich Joachim (translator of the Ebers Papyrus) at the annual meeting of the Vereinigung der Deutschen Medizinischen Fachpresse,
    • 316 FRANK B. ROGERS AND THELMA CHAREN a commission was set up to standardize title abbreviations. The commission, under the chairmanship of Julius Schwalbe, editor of the Deutsche Medizi- nische Wochenschrift, drafted a list based on Index-Catalogue forms which appeared in 1914 (18). There was a revision in 1920, followed by a second revision sponsored by the pathologist Ludwig Aschoff and furthered by Max Kunst, director of the Deutsche Arztebiucherei, which appeared in 1928 as the first edition of Periodica Medica, containing 1,719 titles. The fourth edition of Periodica Medica, covering 12,624 titles, edited by Walter Artelt, Edith Heischkel, and Carl Wehmer, was published by Georg Thieme Verlag in 1952. The introduction to the fourth edition details the history of the various editions, gives the rules followed, and states that it tries "to find a middle road between the old citation practices of Periodica Medica and the interna- tional rules, and also to observe more carefully the national practice, es- pecially in the United States, than was done in previous editions" (19). In 1927, the year before the publication of Periodica Medica, Werner Rust, Librarian of the University of Berlin, published his Verzeichnis von unklaren Titelkarzungen deutschen und ausldndischen Zeitschriften. In addition to identi- fying the "unclear" titles, Rust proposed for each his abbreviations as approved by the librarians Blass, Keydell, Figulla, and Prinzhorn; these he submitted to the 1927 library congress at Dortmund (20). In 1928 the Deutsche Norm-Ausschuss incorporated World List principles into the draft standard DIN Vornorm 1502: Zitiertitel; Grundsatze fur das Zitieren wissenschaftlicher Zeitschriften. In 1929, at the First World Con- gress of Libraries and Bibliography, Prinzhorn found that German editors were able to adapt World List forms to their needs (21). When the Code international appeared in 1930 and its supplement in 1932, Germany adopted them in its standard DIN 1502: Zeitschriftkurztitel. In 1960 the Deutsche Staatsbibliothek of the East German Republic published a list of about 1,800 medical journals, entitled Wo sind Welche? Medizinische Zeitschriften in der DDR (22). The list gives full titles and ab- breviations which are somewhat inconsistent in pattern; capitalization is erratic and abbreviation of individual words is cavalier. France As early as 1897 Charles Richet, in his Dictionnaire de physiologie, discussed at length the problem of journal title abbreviations. He had presented to the 1895 International Congress of Physiology at Bern, in the names of Bowditch, Kronecker, and Mosso, a proposal regarding abbreviations, which was adopted. It concerned a brief code for 15 of the more frequently cited journals in physiology literature. By the standards to which we have become ac- customed they are most unsatisfactory, even though the titles recur, as Richet says, "sans cesse"; J. P. for Journal of Physiology, Z. B. for Zeitschrift
    • ABBREVIATIONS FOR MEDICAL JOURNAL TITLES 317 fur Biologie (23). One wonders what compromise would have been made for the Journal de physiologie, which was not founded until 1899, and of which Richet was one of the editors from 1917 to 1935. In 1944 the Association Francaise de Normalisation published its Code d'abre'viations et titres de pe'riodiques en langueframjaise (24). In 1948 the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique published in its Bulletin analytique a list of journal abbreviations (25). Its most marked difference from other systems is its treatment of the place of publication of journals. Switzerland The Association Suisse de Documentation prepared for the Association Suisse de Normalisation its Titres de pe'riodiques: Code d'abre'viations which serves as standard SNV. 90 100 (26). The Swiss code differs from the ISO/R4 in only a few points. For example, the Swiss code indicates plural forms by the use of a double apostrophe ("), and in titles beginning with personal names the given name may be disregarded although the family name must not be abbreviated. The Belgians once favored adoption of the Swiss code as their national standard, but both Belgium and Switzerland are signatory to ISO/R4. In 1958 S. Karger, the Swiss publishing house, published its Kurze Anleitung zur Abfassung von Manuskript und Literaturverzeichnis mit einer Liste der abgekurzten Zeitschriftentitel der meist zitierten medizinischen Periodica (27), which appeared also in English under the less exact title, Rulesfor the Preparation of Manuscripts and Bibliographies with a List of Abbreviations of Titles of Current Medical Periodicals (28). This list of 1,260 of "the most frequently cited medical periodicals" appears to correspond closely with World Medical Periodicals, with a few exceptions. As in the list of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, all adjectives are set in lower case regardless of the linguistic practice of the vernacular. The place of publication (to distinguish between journal titles) follows the title abbreviation after a comma. Scandinavia In Denmark national activity toward standardization was marked in the 1930's by the industry of A. G. Drachmann of the Copenhagen University Library. The Danish Standards Association participated in various inter- national meetings on the abbreviation of journal titles, but its dissenting opinions on the specific forms of abbreviations were overruled in the final votes. Resuming work after World War II, the Danish association solicited the help of the Swedish Standardization Association. Meeting in Gothen- burg in 1946, the Danish and Swedish bodies devised their proposals regard- ing the use of plurals and prepositions, which appeared acceptable at the
    • 318 FRANK B. ROGERS AND THELMA CHAREN International Organization for Standardization meeting at The Hague in 1948; but at Ascona in 1950 the World List rules prevailed. The 1951 Rome meeting decided against submitting to the nations for study a list of words appended to the international standard, and, since the various national com- mittees were expected to furnish their own lists, the Danish committee felt free to work on its own preferences. The Danish Standardization Association in 1953 published its Dansk Standard 909; Fortkortelse af Tidsskrifttitler; its eleven paragraphs closely followed the recommendations of the International Organization for Standardization (29). USSR In 1957 the Akademiia Nauk SSSR published a compilation of journal titles under the editorship of P. I. Nikitin, Ukazatel' Sokrashchennykh i Polnykh Nazvanii Nauchnoi i Tekhnicheskoi Literatury (30). This has been published in translation by the Liaison Office of the Technical Information Center of Wright-Patterson Air Force Base as the Index of Abbreviated and Full Titles of Scientific and Technical Periodical Literature and appeared in 1959, distributed by the Office of Technical Services, U. S. Department of Commerce (31). "The authors have taken into consideration the recommendations received from the International Federation of National Associations on Standardiza- tion, particularly its International Code of Abbreviations for Titles of Periodical Publications." While the original contained entries on 12,250 periodicals from all countries in several alphabets, the translation covers only the 1,804 Rus- sian titles and their abbreviations of the original. It gives specific rules for the treatment of Russian adjectives derived from proper nouns, names of the Soviet Republics, and use of the name of the country (rather than the city) to distinguish between similar titles. The rules on capitalization, hyphena- tion, plurals, and particles are given. Fisher's Abbreviations of Russian Scientific Serial Publications is a list of ab- breviations "compiled from bibliographies in many Russian technical journals and in the various abstract publications" (32). The 67 entries here, as might be expected, do not show a great degree of correspondence with the aforementioned Academy of Sciences Ukazatel'. The abbreviations in the Fisher list are briefer than the Ukazatel': for example, G Zh versus Gornyy zh. International Having covered in cursory fashion the endeavors within a few nations toward systematization of abbreviations, we can turn to a review of inter- national activity. Using the 1927 edition of World List of Scientific Periodicals and the German system as a base, the League of Nations' International Institute of Intellectual Co-operation in 1930 published its Code international
    • ABBREVIATIONS FOR MEDICAL JOURNAL TITLES 319 d'abre'viations des titres de pe'riodiques (33), supplemented in 1932 by a classified list of words most frequently appearing in periodical titles (34). In 1937 Technical Committee 46 of the International Federation of the National Standards Associations (ISA) was set up to deal with documentation standards. The following year it issued as its ISA Bulletin Number 23 the previously mentioned code adopted virtually without change. At later plenary sessions of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the successor to ISA as the official international co-ordinator of the various national activities toward standardization, draft recommendations for peri- odical titles were discussed. Consideration by the various national bodies at sessions at The Hague in 1948, 1950, and 1952, in Ascona in 1950, in Rome in 1951, in Copenhagen in 1952, and in Paris in 1953 resulted in the adop- tion at Geneva in 1953 of ISO Recommendation R4, International Code for the Abbreviation of Titles of Periodicals (35). International interest in standardized journal abbreviations in recent years has been continued under UNESCO sponsorship. The meeting of its Co- ordinating Committee on Abstracting and Indexing in the Medical and Biological Sciences in April 1948 listed among its agenda a discussion of a list of abbreviations used in bibliographical references and in the texts of abstracts (36). Dr. I. Leitch read a paper, "The Arrangement of Biblio- graphical Information in Abstracting Journals," at the Co-ordinating Com- mittee's meeting in June 1949, recognizing the usefulness of a standard for abbreviation of journal titles and, while openminded, preferring the forth- coming World List for its wider coverage (37). Eileen R. Cunningham, in reporting at the same session on "The Librarian's Preferences Regarding Abstracting Services," noted suggestions for the co-operation of the leading abstracting services for the publication of lists of abbreviations under their joint sponsorship (38). As finally adopted by the Interim Co-ordinating Committee in Medical and Biological Abstracting at a 1949 Paris conference, the initial resolution read: "The Committee asks that UNESCO publish a List of Medical and Biological Journals with appropriate abbreviations" (39). In 1953, UNESCO and the World Health Organization jointly published World Medical Periodicals, a compilation of titles of medical and biological journals and their abbreviations. The list, compiled by Leslie T. Morton of the British Medical Association, is based on the abbreviations of the World List of Scientific Periodicals. It includes, in addition to medical and biological periodicals, journals from the fields of pharmacy, dentistry, and veterinary medicine, listing over 3,900 titles (40). The second edition appeared in 1957, published by the World Medical Association by agreement with UNESCO and WHO, and was again compiled by Mr. Morton. Its scope is the same as the first edition; its coverage is considerably enlarged to over 4,800 titles.
    • 320 FRANK B. ROGERS AND THELMA CHAREN The abbreviation system is that of the World List, modified by ISO/R4, the rules of which its preface reproduces (41).* The UNESCO agenda for this decade includes work toward greater uni- formity of journal title abbreviations in avowed co-operation with the In- ternational Organization for Standardization, the World List of Scientific Periodicals, and other important bodies. Envisioned is the publication of a list of abbreviations supported by the major scientific indexing and abstracting services as the unified product of all. II DESCRIPTION OF SELECTED SYSTEMS The following exposition is a cursory analysis of several systems of journal title abbreviations. The interested student should also refer to the study published by B. F. Courtright in 1950 (42). Index-Catalogue When, in 1880, John Shaw Billings published the first volume of the Index-Catalogue of the Library of the Surgeon General's Office, his letter of trans- mittal to Surgeon General Barnes touched upon the theory of abbreviations: Some of the abbreviations of names of places, especially in the United States, might have been still further shortened if the Catalogue had been intended for use only in this country. But an analysis, by subjects, of so large a collection of medical periodicals is, necessarily, useful in St. Petersburg, for example, as well as in Washington, its measure of utility in any locality being the extent of the collection of medical periodical literature therein. Intelligibility to foreigners, therefore, has been regarded as a quality essential to the abbreviations in question (43). In the formal "Explanations" preceding the list of journal titles and their abbreviations he laid down equally cogent and concise rules: The abbreviations are prepared as far as possible in accordance with the following principles: 1. To follow the exact order of the words of the title. 2. To make them as brief as is consistent with clearness to those who are familiar with medical literature. 3. To follow strictly the orthographical usages of each language. This disposes of the question of capitalization. 4. To attain uniformity. Some exceptions to this last rule have been found expedient. An abbreviation which is quite intelligible in the body of a title is not always suitable as the first word, and the *Editor's Note: In the Third Edition, 1961, of World Medical Periodicals, which was published after this article was submitted for publication, the basic theory and form of abbreviation remain substantially unchanged. The Third Edition is No. 41a in the Refer- ences.
    • ABBREVIATIONS FOR MEDICAL JOURNAL TITLES 321 context may make an abbreviation sufficiently clear in a long title which in a short one would appear obscure. The convenience of the reader is regarded as of more importance than a rigid adherence to uniformity. The following minor details, with the list of single- letter abbreviations, will assist in the comprehension of the scheme: The article with which a title commences is invariably omitted. Prepositions as well as articles are omitted in English titles, but in other languages their entire elision would lead to obscurity, and is not warranted by usage. The place of publication is not added when it forms an integral part of the title; in such cases it is given without abbreviation, except in instances of constant recurrence, as London, Paris, Berlin, etc., which are condensed into Lond., Par., Berl., etc., on all occasions. Nor is it added to the titles of Transactions or Journals the places of publication of which have been changed from time to time, as the references in each instance furnish the locality. The reader seeking explanation of an abbreviated title will find it under its first word (article excluded) in its alphabetical place in the list, but cross-references have been added when, as in the case of Societies, the first word of the title may not be sufficiently distinctive (44). By 1937, although the theory of abbreviation explained in earlier volumes was unchanged, the details of form were amplified in the "Synopsis of Style" prefacing Series 4, Volume 2. The rules given here are very detailed and only the highlights are given in the following condensation. Words are shortened by abbreviation, contraction, or omission, i.e., Rio for Rio de Janeiro. Single-word titles are not abbreviated, nor are short titles of two or three words "in unusual relation to each other as in Animal Defender, or Contact Point," nor titles in Asiatic languages unless bearing an interna- tional title. Conjunctions are in general disregarded. Articles and preposi- tions are omitted. The second half of long titles is disregarded if it contains words of a subject related to the first part of the title. The place of publication is in the abbreviation to show the country of origin and the language of the journal and to differentiate between similar titles or abbreviations. All words of English titles are capitalized; other capitalization follows the practice of the country. Hyphens are ignored in compound words. German compound words, hyphenated or nonhyphenated, are abbreviated element-by-element independently and joined without a hyphen (Geschlkr. for Geschlechtskrank- heiten). The list of abbreviated and contracted words contains 1,023 items. Quarterly Cumulative Index Medicas The Quarterly Cumulative Index Medicus published no set of rules regarding its method of abbreviating journal titles. Particles appear sometimes in foreign language titles, and sometimes they are omitted. The ampersand is retained as the connective in English language titles and et and u. are re- tained for French and German, respectively. Contractions do not appear. The place of publication was not given originally for those titles not revealing the country of origin, but later (1927 and after) the place of publication oc- casionally appeared, as in Med. Rev., Bergen for Medicinsk Revue; and yet,
    • 322 FRANK B. ROGERS AND THELMA CHAREN Die neue Generation, published in Berlin, was cited as merely N. Generation. By the time QCIM ceased publication in 1956 journals with similar titles were distinguished by the place of publication, thus: J. Physiol. and J. physiol., Paris; J. Urol. and J. urol., Paris. These examples demonstrate also the policy on capitalization. Chemical Abstracts Chemical Abstracts serves as a model for the journals of the American In- stitute of Physics and the American Institute of Biological Sciences as well as for the publications of the American Chemical Society, Its rules for formu- lation of abbreviations are given in its "List of Periodicals Abstracted," the latest full edition of which appeared in 1956. In the same edition it gives a list of 713 words comprising its "Journal Title Word Abbreviations." Prepositions and conjunctions are omitted except where required to iden- tify or differentiate journals with similar titles. Abbreviations (except for the familiar generic words) are long enough only to permit recognition of the word. Only words in the principal technical languages tend to be abbreviated (exceptions are made for generic words in less familiar languages). Single- word titles are not abbreviated. Exceptions to the rules are made when ob- viously required; distinction is made, for instance, between J. Chem. Phys. and J. Chem. and Phys. Capitalization follows the practice of the vernacular. The place of publication is used in parentheses to distinguish similar titles or similar abbreviations. It recognizes the use of "colloquial" abbreviations in the chemical field, but cautions that "elsewhere the longer abbreviation is probably desirable." Periodica Medica Periodica Medica follows a stated middle course. Articles and prepositions are usually omitted, but conjunctions are inconsistently retained. Single- word titles are not abbreviated. In titles beginning with a proper name the given names are omitted. The place of publication is added to the abbrevia- tion when the title is in Latin, when the language is not clearly discernible from the abbreviation, when the language of the abbreviation is not that of the official tongue of the country, and when it is necessary to distinguish between journals of similar title. Abbreviation is by truncation or contraction (tbc., fri., csl., dtsch.). Hyphens are retained in compound words according to the national practice; components of compound words in German, how- ever, are abbreviated as if the words are separate, and the hyphen is omitted. World List The World List of Scientific Periodicals shows only minor changes in its three editions. Articles and prepositions are usually omitted. While all words in
    • ABBREVIATIONS FOR MEDICAL JOURNAL TITLES 323 English titles were capitalized in the first edition, in the second and third only nouns and proper adjectives were capitalized in English; rules for the other languages called for capitalized nouns, lower-case adjectives. Conjunc- tions were omitted except between two nouns connected by and, and between broken compounds. Plurals are not indicated. Cognate words in all languages are reduced when possible to the same form. Contractions are permitted. Place of publication is omitted except to distinguish between similar titles or when the language of the original is not discernible from the abbreviation. In Germanic and Scandinavian languages compound nouns are abbreviated as if separate, with each element of the compound capitalized; compound adjectives are abbreviated as if separate, but are separated by a hyphen. The first edition gave a list of generic abbreviations for German only; the second and third editions included other languages. The first edition also gave a list of 67 abbreviations for place names, but this was omitted from the second and third editions. World Medical Periodicals The system used by World Medical Periodicals is for all practical purposes the system specified by ISO/R4, although there are some differences and inconsistencies between the two. The system is, of course, close to that of the World List, but again there are differences, as, for example, the fact that ISO/R4 indicates plurals, while World List does not, and ISO/R4 gives the name in full when a title begins with a personal name, while World List uses only the family name. The ISO/R4 rules are here given in full: INTERNATIONAL CODE FOR THE ABBREVIATION OF TITLES OF PERIODICALS 1. The rules in these recommendations are to be regarded as indicating the utmost limits permitted for abbreviations; these rules may be modified to suit national purposes within those limits. 2. As a general rule titles of periodicals are not abbreviated beyond a point which allows the identification both of the title and the language. The order of the words, when abbreviated, is never varied. 3. As a general rule the abridged form retains all words other than articles, conjunc- tions, prepositions and the like, which are usually omitted. The following are exceptions to the general rule: a) The article, conjunction, preposition or combination of these are retained if form- ing part (other than the initial word) of a title consisting of only two other words, neither of which is a generic name. b) The conjunction is retained between two compound words of a title, the last part of which is common to and shared by both. c) In exceptionally long titles, in addition to articles, conjunctions and prepositions, some of the other less important words are omitted. When the conjunction is pre- served, "und" is abbreviated as "u." and "och" as "o."; "and" is not abbreviated. In languages in which the definite article begins with the letter d, the abbreviation "d." is used in all cases.
    • 324 FRANK B. ROGERS AND THELMA CHAREN d) When the language of the title is not clearly shown by the abbreviated form, the first conjunction, preposition or article is retained. 4. The normal method of abbreviation is by omitting the last letters (at least two) of the the word, the letters omitted being replaced by a full stop. 5. Nouns are spelt with a capital, adjectives with a small initial letter. Names of institu- tions are considered as proper nouns and begin with a capital. 6. Plurals are indicated only when necessary. This is done by adding a hyphen and the last letter of the plural form to the abbreviation of the singular (omitting the full stop). EXAMPLE: Jahrbuch-Jb. (singular) Jahrbiicher-Jb-r (plural) 7. Cognate words, having the same meaning in different languages, are reduced to the same form when the orthography permits (cf. article 1). 8. Titles transliterated into the Roman alphabet according to an internationally ac- cepted code are also abbreviated in accordance with the above rules. 9. Only titles consisting of more than one simple word, exclusive of article, are abbrevi- ated. 10. In compound words each part is abbreviated as if it stood alone, the different parts being connected by a hyphen. EXAMPLE: Finska Likaresillskapets Handlingar Finska Lak.-Sdllsk. Handl-r I1. Where confusion might arise, the place (or if necessary the country) of publication is to be indicated within brackets after the title, abbreviated or not, for instance: a) when the abbreviation according to the foregoing rules fails to indicate the lan- uage; b) when the title is in a language other than that or those of the country in which the periodical is published and the title does not reveal the country; c) when two or more periodicals have the same title or the same correctly abbreviated title. 12. When the title of a periodical begins with the name of a person, the name as given on the title page is kept in full and the rest of the title is abridged according to the rules. The family name plus a generic name will not suffice; it is necessary also to indicate the rest of the title (abbreviated). EXAMPLE 1: Wilhelm Roux' Archiv fur Entwicklungsmechanik Correct: Wilhelm Roux' Arch. Entwickl.-Mech. Incorrect: Roux' Arch. EXAMPLE 2: Aliemeyers Zeitschriftfiir Internationales Recht Correct: Niemeyers Z. int. Recht Incorrect: ANiemeyers Z. Index Medicus The general principles underlying the new Index Medicus system, numbered to correspond with ISO/R4 rules, are now presented: INDEX MEDICUS RULES FOR THE ABBREVIATION OF TITLES OF PERIODICALS 1. The rules in these recommendations are to be regarded as indicating the utmost limits permitted for abbreviations. 2. Titles of periodicals are not abbreviated beyond a point which allows the identifica- tion of the title. The order of the words, when abbreviated, is never varied. 3. As a general rule the abridged form retains all words other than articles, conjunc- tions, prepositions and the like, which are usually omitted.
    • ABBREVIATIONS FOR MEDICAL JOURNAL TITLES 325 The following are exceptions to the general rule: a) When the particle is necessary, not primarily as a means of identifying the journal but more importantly as an integral part of the intended sense of the title, the particle will be retained. EXAMPLE: Pro Medico Pro Med M & B Pharmaceutical Bulletin M&B Pharm Bull b) When the particle is an integral part of the name of a country or other place name or of a corporate entry, the particle will be retained. EXAMPLE: Archivos del Colegio medico de El Salvador Arch Col Med El Salvador Archivio De Vecchi per l'anatomia patologica e la medicina clinica Arch De Vecchi Anat Pat 4. The normal method of abbreviation is by omitting the last letters of the word. No punctuation mark, but rather a single space, is used between elements of the abbreviation. 5. The first letter of each word of the abbreviation is capitalized regardless of syntax. 6. Plurals are not indicated. 7. Cognate words, having the same meaning in different languages, are retained in their original form. 8. Titles transliterated into the Roman alphabet are also abbreviated in accordance with the above rules. 9. Only titles consisting of more than one word, exclusive of article, are abbreviated. 10. In compound words only the final part of the compound is abbreviated. 11. Where confusion might arise, the place (or if necessary the country) of publication is to be indicated within parentheses after the title, abbreviated or not, for instance: a) to distinguish titles in English from non-English titles; b) to distinguish between periodicals having the same title or the same correctly ab- breviated title; c) to anticipate and avoid possible conflict with journals created in the future with similar titles within the same country, language, or specialty; d) after abbreviations containing the words Acta and Folia unless the title contains a geographic designation. 12. When the title of a periodical includes the name of a person, only the family name is given, in uninflected form, and the rest of the title is abridged according to the rules; but when the name comes at the beginning of a title and at the same time is the name of a corporate body (society or institution), the names, both personal and family, are given. EXAMPLE 1. Albrecht von Graefes Archivfiir Ophthalmologie Graefe Arch Ophthal 2. Annali dell'Istituto Carlo Forlanini Ann Ist Forlanini but 3. Henry Ford Hospital Medical Bulletin Henry Ford Hosp Med Bull III THE INDEX MEDICUS SYSTEM In the National Library of Medicine rules for the abbreviation of journal titles have evolved from the 1880 prototype of John Shaw Billings. Through
    • 326 FRANK B. ROGERS AND THELMA CHAREN the final volume of NLM's Current List of Medical Literature, published in 1959, the old Index-Catalogue style was followed. In 1960 NLM began publication of the new series of the Index Medicus, an amalgamation, as it were, of the old Current List and Quarterly Cumulative Index Medicus. These superseded publications used two different systems of title abbreviations; in the new publication there was the opportunity to eliminate two conflicting systems in favor of a new one more closely adherent to "international standards," although we have seen that those standards are not clear-cut and are far from being universally accepted. In establishing the system for the Index Medicus,* the National Library of Medicine con- scientiously took as a firm base the system embodied in World Medical Periodicals and its corollary ISO/R4. NLM was much aware of its obligation to refrain from adding yet another new system to the pot, and thus another crime to the calendar. In point of fact, two-thirds of the abbreviations in the Index Medicus sys- tem are identical with those in the World Medical Periodicals system, if one excepts the differences of capitalization and punctuation. Where the dif- ferences between the two systems occur, they are attributable to three major reasons. 1. Limitations and requirements of machine methods. A major constraint is in- troduced by the fact that the Index Medicus is produced by methods which make the use of diacritical marks, for instance, an especially difficult problem. (See NLAM Index Mechanization Project (45).) More importantly, the Index Medicus will eventually be composed by a digital computer (circa 1964). When this is accomplished, internal punctuation of the abbreviation, as by hyphens and periods, will become a severe handicap; the computer, searching for "end of phrase" indications, easily gets into trouble. The matter of cap- italization of each element, while loosely allied to the foregoing arguments, is better justified apart from mechanical consideration. Of the multiple systems of abbreviation now in use, some capitalize all nouns, some capi- talize all words in English. Some lower-case all adjectives, while some except English adjectives derived from names. The CNRS and Karger systems lower-case all adjectives regardless of derivation: thus, J. amer. med. Ass., and J. mar. biol. Ass. unit. Kingd. In some variants the argument is that the practice helps establish the language of the original. In any system the fact of the matter is that in final proofreading of a manuscript, one is always assailed by terrible doubts solely on the grounds of capitalization, and one's * The 1962 List of Journals Indexed in Index Medicus contains some abbreviations which differ slightly from the application of the rules here stated, in such matters as treatment of given names and treatment of geographical terms in and out of parentheses. The forth- coming 1963 List, to be published this fall, will do away with conflict between rule and practice. Meanwhile, the diligent student may find the search for discrepancies instructive and sobering.
    • ABBREVIATIONS FOR MEDICAL JOURNAL TITLES 327 only recourse is to go laboriously to published lists for "authoritative" decision. In practice, in all countries, words in a title are usually printed all in capitals; the concern with these, the making of subtle distinctions, the variations from place to place, do not seem warranted. 2. Transliteration systems. The National Library of Medicine uses Library of Congress rules for transliterating the Cyrillic and Greek alphabets, a modified Hepburn romanization for Japanese, and the Wade-Giles romani- zation for Chinese. 3. Correction of WMP inconsistencies and incongruities. One of the basic princi- ples in the World Medical Periodicals system unacceptable to Index Medicus is abbreviation by contraction as well as by truncation. We do not feel that the WMP form Cy is patently City (as in J. Oslo Cy Hosp.), that Tms is clearly Times, or that Bgham is suitable for Birmingham. In the Index Medicus system all words are abbreviated by dropping letters at the end of the word. The only exception to the rule forbidding contractions relates to a few German compounds indicating frequency of publication (e.g., Mschr, Wschr) and similarly the commonly cited Zbl. The Index Medicus system tries to avoid such inconsistencies as S. Carol. for South Carolina, but N. C. for North Carolina; or the use of Sth. for southern, but North. for northern; or the omission of the El in El Salvador in a title such as Sanid. Salvador (Sanidad en El Salvador) but its inclusion in Arch. Col. med. El Salvador (for Archivos del Colegio me'dico de El Salvador). The differences between World Medical Periodicals (WMP) and Index Medi- cus (IM) practice are shown in the following comparison. In August 1961 there were 1,766 medical periodical titles covered in IM, excluding medical project report titles. Of the 1,766 titles, 346 do not appear in WMP, and 18 have undergone title changes since the appearance of WMP; these 365 titles were dropped from further consideration, leaving 1,402 periodical titles for comparison of WMP and IM practice. Of these 1,402 titles, 904 abbreviations (65 per cent) are identical, save for the presence of accents, periods, capitalization, or spacing. There is considerable deviation in 315 abbreviations (22 per cent) and there are minor deviations in 183 abbreviations (13 per cent). These 183 minor deviations are: a) differences in formation of compound words 62 b) deviation of geographical name in parentheses 36 c) difference in bracketed material 27 d) omission of conjunction by IM 27 e) difference in transliteration system 13 f) use of contractions by WMP 12 g) use of prepositions by WMP 3 h) use of article or other particles by WMP 3
    • 328 FRANK B. ROGERS AND THELMA CHAREN Examples of each of these minor deviations are: a) WMP: Acta gastro-ent. belg. IM: Acta Gastroent Belg b) WMP: An. Med. Cir. (Barcelona) IM: An Med Cir (Barc) c) WMP: GI. srpske Akad. Nauka, Od. med. Nauka IM: Glas Srpske Akad Nauk [Med] WMP: Excerpta med. (Amst.), Sect. XV IM: Excerpta Med [XV] d) WMP: Antibiot. et Chemother. (Basel) IM: Antibiot Chemother (Basel) e) WMP Biohimia IM: Biokhimiia f) WMP: Amer. J. publ. Hlth IM: Amer J Public Health g) WMP: Lutte c. Cancer IM: Lutte Cancer h) WMP: Ther. d. Gegenw. IM: Ther Gegenw Examples of the 315 abbreviations showing "considerable deviation" are listed here, with commentary: i) WMP: J. Iowa St. med. Soc. IM: J Iowa Med Soc for Journal of the Iowa State Medical Society but WMP: J. Mich. med. Soc. IM: J Mich Med Soc for Journal of the Michigan State Medical Society Comment: Of 15 state medical journal titles in which the word "state" appears, WMP uses St. in the abbreviation for 7, but omits it from the abbreviation for 8. IM consistently omits it. j) WMP: Penn. med. J. Stud. Dep. Path. Pa Univ. Comment: Penn., Pa. and even Pennsylvania appear in abbreviations. IM, on the contrary, has tried to be consistent in the abbreviation of the names of states; the only variations are those allowed when the state name is the initial word rather than an internal word, as: New York J Med, but J NY Med Coll. k) WMP: Igiene mod. but Nuovi Ann. Ig. Comment: IM has tried to be consistent in its use of the same abbreviation for base words and all derivatives.
    • ABBREVIATIONS FOR MEDICAL JOURNAL TITLES 329 1) WMP: Arch. Inst. bras. Tuberc. for Arquivos do IBIT Boston med. Quart. for BMQ but DDZ for DDZ-Das Deutsche Zahnarzteblatt Comment: In its treatment of acronyms, IM uses the form as it appears in the journal title. m) WMP: Arch. for Arq. Comment: This is a basic deviation in policy from WMP and ultimately ISO/R4, article 7, which states that "cognate words, having the same meaning in different languages, are reduced to the same form when the orthography permits." IM feels that no purpose is served in identifying a journal by respelling words ad libitum. n) WMP: Ann. Ist. Forlanini but Mem. Inst. Osw. Cruz Mem. Inst. biol. E. Dias Comment: IM consistently omits the initials of proper names in title ab- breviations. o) WMP: Bull. Johns Hopk. Hosp. but Sudhoffs Arch Gesch. Med. Comment: IM consistently gives proper names in full. p) WMP: Gesnerus (Aarau) but Janus Comment: IM tries to be consistent in applying its rules for use of place of publication; WMP appears to be inconsistent in its application of ISO/R4 article on this matter. IV SIX SYSTEMS COMPARED The following examples illustrate the differences in the abbreviation of titles in six systems. The titles selected demonstrate only a few of the various principles of concern to abbreviation theory in the systems of Chemical Abstracts (CA), Quarterly Cumulative Index Medicus (QCIM), World List of Scientifw Periodicals (WLSP), World Medical Periodicals (WMP), Index-Cata- logue (IC), and Index Medicus (IM). Length of tide Annals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology (Saint Louis) CA: Ann. Otol. Rhinol. & Laryngol. QCIM: Ann. Otol. Rhin. & Laryng.
    • 330 FRANK B. ROGERS AND THELMA CHAREN WLSP: Ann. Otol., etc., St Louis WMP: Ann. Otol. (St. Louis) IC: Ann. Otol. Rhinol. IM: Ann Otol Bulletin of the New York Medical College, Flower and Fifth Avenue Hospitals (this has been recently changed to Journal of New York Medical College, Flower and Fifth Avenue Hospitals) CA: Bull. N. Y. Med. Coll. Flower and Fifth Ave. Hosp. QCIM: Bull. New York M. Coll. WLSP: Bull. N. Y. med. Coll. WMP: Bull. N. Y. med. Coll. IC: Bull. N. York M. Coll. IM: Bull NY Med Coll Zentralblatt fur allgemeine Pathologie und pathologische Anatomie CA: Zentr. allgem. Pathol. u. pathol. Anat. QCIM: Zentralbl. allg. Path. WLSP: Zbl. allg. Path. path. Anat. WMP: Zbl. allg. Path. path. Anat. IC: Zbl. allg. Path. IM: Zbl Allg Path Capitalization of corporate names Bulletins et me'moires de la Societe' medicale des h6pitaux de Paris CA: Bull. me'm. soc. me'd. h6p. Paris QCIM: Bull. et me'm. Soc. me'd. h6p. Paris WLSP: Bull. Soc. me'd. H6p. Paris WMP: Bull. Soc. med. H6p. Paris IC: Bull. Soc. me'd. h6p. Paris IM: Bull Soc Med Hop Paris Arquivos de Faculdade de higiene e sau'de puiblica da Universidade de Sao Paulo CA: Arquiv. fac. hig. e sau'de pu'blica univ. Sdo Paulo QCIM: Arq. Fac. hig. e sau'de pu'b. WLSP: WMP: Arch. Fac. Hig. S. Paulo IC: IM: Arq Fac Hig S Paulo Place of publication Acta Neurovegetativa (Wien) CA: Acta Neuroveget. (Vienna) QCIM: Acta neuroveg. WLSP: Acta Neuroveg. WMP: Acta neuroveg. (Wien)
    • ABBREVIATIONS FOR MEDICAL JOURNAL TITLES 331 IC: IM: Acta Neuroveg (Wien) Vocabulary Archives internationales de pharmacodynamie et de the'rapie CA: Arch. intern. pharmacodynamie QCIM: Arch. internat. pharmacodyn. WLSP: Arch. int. Pharmacodyn. WMP: Arch. int. Pharmacodyn. IC: Arch. internat. pharm. dyn., Par. IM: Arch Int Pharmacodyn Conjunctions Cuore e circolazione CA: Cuore e circolazione QCIM: Cuore e circolaz. WLSP: Cuore e Circul. [sic] WMP: Cuore e Circol. IC: Cuore & circol. IM: Cuore Circ Compounds Zeitschrift fur Anatomie und Entwicklungsgeschichte CA: Z. Anat. Entwicklungsgeschichte QCIM: Ztschr. Anat. WLSP: Z. Anat. EntwGesch. WMP: Z. Anat. Entwickl.-Gesch. IC: Zschr. Anat. Entw. IM: Z Anat Entwicklungsgesch Proper names Albrecht von Graefes Archivffur Ophthalmologie CA: Arch. ophthalmol., Graefe's QCIM: von Graefes Arch. Ophth. WLSP: v. Graefes Arch. Ophthal. WMP: Albrecht v. Graefes Arch. Ophthal. IC: Arch. Ophth., Berl. IM: Graefe Arch Ophthal State medical journals Journal of the Indiana State Medical Association CA: J. Indiana State Med. Assoc. QCIM: J. Indiana M. A.
    • 332 FRANK B. ROGERS AND THELMA CHAREN WLSP: J. Ind. med. Ass. WMP: J. Indiana med. Ass. IC: J. Indiana M. Ass. IM: J Indiana Med Ass Journal of the Oklahoma State Medical Association CA: J. Oklahoma State Med. Assoc. QCIM: J. Oklahoma M. A. WLSP: J. Okla. med. Ass. WMP: J. Okla. St. med. Ass. IC: J. Oklahoma M. Ass. IM: J Okla Med Ass Journal of the Medical Association of the State of Alabama CA: J. Med. Assoc. State Alabama QCIM: J. M. A. Alabama WLSP: J. med. Ass. Ala. WMP: J. med. Ass. Ala IC: J. M. Ass. Alabama IM: J Med Ass Alabama Selective subdivisions Zentralblatt fur Bakteriologie, Parasitenkunde, Infektionskrankheiten und Hy- giene. Erste Abteilung: Originale CA: Zentr. Bakteriol. Parasitenk. Abt. I. Orig. QCIM: Zentralbl. Bakt. WLSP: Zbl. Bakt., Abt. 1 WMP: Zbl. Bakt., I. Abt. Orig. IC: Zbl. Bakt. IM: Zbl Bakt [Orig] Table I shows a comparison of several generic terms and a few other com- mon words as abbreviated by the major abbreviation systems. Table II summarizes the characteristics of the six systems along various axes. Most of the items are illustrated in the previously cited sample titles. On the basis of the samples used and others which could have been chosen one can see similarities between any two systems on any given item. If the systems were arranged on a spectrum of similarity, as it were, the range in general would be thus: CA QCIr,M IC im WMP WLSP
    • ABBREVIATIONS FOR MEDICAL JOURNAL TITLES 333 4-) V. 1-4 0 4-i cis 4) S-4 S-4 E , V E -W 4-) 4 v $, 4-- 0 0 .o 11:1 U2 4 x u V CA P4 CZ >, E 4-11 v u .0 0, C's 4-- --4 W m C) r. 4 --!. --!. < u r:1 0 0 0 "'. .. .. 0 0 0. E-4 E--l .'- N N u CZ Q~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ; E2 E Q~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~C UY . =~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~' E ¢ < U : c) c > E = > > o O < XeEX,0 0 C13~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ E )> HE|3 D 14 r. 0w 0-4 t) 60C s0 w 04 A CZ¢a 's. E-4 3 ¢ $ , O O > E = E S~~~~~~~E E E¢ O blo 0 $.4 4 1-4 19 rA 0 C)4 .-4 W L-J 0 Cd U CZ rA 4-J ;.4 o o 0 0 0 4.0 (L) 0 'o CZ 0 0 02 ta .0 4-1 'n 0 4) CIS -4 1-,.z OO AC'41 >0 0 4O bD 0 0 ei ad o: n.> E E A A b:=E= o H¢N >< U:OO OO
    • 334 FRANK B. ROGERS AND THELMA CHAREN TABLE II CHARACTERISTICS CA QCIM WLSP WMP IC IM Punctuation used + + none Accents and other dia- + + none critical marks used Capitalization Nouns: English ± + Nouns: Foreign' none none none Adj: English2 + + none Adj: Foreign none none none none Articles used none none limited limited none none Conjunctions used + limited + none Ampersand used + none + none + + Particles used limited limited limited limited limited none Contractions used + limited limited + + + Single-word titles spelled + + in full Personal names Abbreviations none none varies varies none none Full name + varies varies varies varies Hyphens retained + + none none none none + + + none Compound words abbre- viated separately Place of publication in ( ) out of ( ) out of ( ) in ( ) out of ()in ( ) State in state medical included omitted irreg irreg omitted omitted journals State names abbreviated varies none varies varies none varies Geographical names ab- breviated Nouns + none none + + Adjectives + + 1. German nouns always capitalized 2. Adjectives from proper nouns always capitalized Index-Catalogue lies between Quarterly Cumulative and Index Medicus but is closer to the latter. Index Medicus, on the other hand, lies halfway between Index-Catalogue, its parent, and World Medical Periodicals. World Medical Periodicals is of course very close to its parent World List. CONCLUSION In the matter of abbreviating journal titles, Dr. John F. Fulton offers this overly generous and nondefinitive dictum: ". . . in the last analysis it does not matter whether you follow any one of these lists provided you are your- self consistent and have thought sufficiently deep into the matter to make reasonable men give your preferences serious consideration" (46). The National Library of Medicine, in its code of rules delineated in the Appendix,
    • ABBREVIATIONS FOR MEDICAL JOURNAL TITLES 335 has attempted to be consistent, has indeed thought deep into the matter, and can only hope that reasonable men will give these preferences serious consideration. There can be no doubt that the last word has not been said; there should be no doubt, either, that the National Library of Medicine will continue to be willing to consider the preferences of others. We would add this note. An international standard requires a set of rules. It also requires an authoritative list. An international indexing periodical such as Index Medicus must of necessity deal with new journal titles as they appear, before they are incorporated into any list. For its own control pur- poses the Index Medicus must publish revised lists of titles and abbreviations at least annually. A viable international standard would have a better op- portunity of remaining viable if it were exemplified in such recurring, updated lists. While some change is inevitable, a situation in which standards change every few years is not standardization, but chaos. We believe that the elimination of the old Index-Catalogue and Quarterly Cumulative Index Medicus systems in favor of the new Index Medicus system brings Amelican practice in medical bibliography a great deal closer to the "international standard," insofar as there is an international standard. If the international standard is to be further revised, as seems likely, we would welcome the attention of the revision plenum to the principles here set forth. REFERENCES 1. MCCASLAND, G. E. A concise form for scientific literature citations. Science 120: 150-152, July 23, 1954. 2. BISHOP, C. An integrated approach to the documentation problem. Amer. Docum. 4: 54-65, Spring (April) 1953. 3. REID, J. B. Chronological sigils. Amer. Docum. 5: 26-28, Jan. 1954. 4. ODEND'HAL, G. Un code d'abreviations pour bibliographes. Primo Congresso Mon- diale delle Biblioteche e di Bibliografia, Roma-Venezia, 15-30 giugno 1929. Vol. 2, Memorie e comunicazioni [1]. Roma, 1931. p. 289-291. 5. PLACE, F. Abbreviation: more or less. BULLETIN 21: 111-113, July 1932. 6. KENT, F. L. Some aspects of international standardization in library work. Libr. World 51: 243-245, June 1949. 7. BRODE, W. R. Journal abbreviations. Phys. Today 4: 4-5, Aug. 1951. 8. SHEPPARD, R. L. Contractions for titles of periodicals. Nature 122: 277-278, Aug. 25, 1928. 9. LORPHAVRE, G. Les travaux de la Commission 46 de 1' "International Standardisa- tion Organisation" concernant la normalisation en matiere de documentation. Cah. Docum. 2: 90-96, Oct. 1948. 10. ARTELT, W. The problem of abbreviating the titles of medical periodicals. BULLETIN 43: 52-57, Jan. 1955. 11. U. S. Army Medical Library. Synopsis of style with a list of abbreviations for serial publications. In Index-Catalogue of the Library of the Surgeon General's Office. Ser. 4, Vol. 2, 1937. p. [1]-[9]. 12. American Chemical Society. 1960 Supplement to the List of Periodicals Abstracted by Chemical Abstracts (1956 edition). Columbus, Ohio, 1960. p. I J.
    • 336 FRANK B. ROGERS AND THELMA CHAREN 13. Conference of Biological Editors. Committee on Form and Style. Style Manual for Biological Journals. Washington, American Institute of Biological Sciences, 1960. p. 61. 14. WEINBERGER, B. W. Proper abbreviations for dental journals. BULLETIN 24: 92-99, Sept. 1935. 15. -. Code of abbreviations for dental journals. Dent. Survey 12: 314-319, Aug. 1936. 16. A World List of Scientific Periodicals Published in the Years 1900-1933. 2d ed. Lon- don, Oxford University Press, 1934. p. x. 17. Biological Council. A List of Abbreviations of Titles of Biological Journals Selected, by Permission, from the World List of Scientific Periodicals. London, 1949. p. [iv]. 18. SCHWALBE, J. Einheitliche Abkiurzung der Titel medizinischer Zeitschriften und Werke in Quellenangaben. Deutsch. Med. Wschr. 40: 28-30, Jan. 1, 1914. 19. Periodica Medica: Titelabkiurzungen medizinischer Zeitschriften. 4. Aufl. Stuttgart, Georg Thieme Verlag, 1952. p. iv. 20. RUST, WERNER. Verzeichnis von unklaren Titelkuirzungen deutscher und auslan- discher Zeitschriften. Leipzig, Otto Harrassowitz, 1927. 142 p. 21. PRINZHORN, F. Normung im Bibliotheks-, Buch- und Zeitschriftenwesen. Primo Con- gresso Mondiale delle Biblioteche e di Bibliografia, Roma-Venezia, 15-30 giugno 1929. Vol. 2, Memorie e comunicazioni [1]. Roma, 1931. p. 196-208. 22. WVo sind Welche? Medizinische Zeitschriften in der DDR; Stand vom 1. Marz 1960. Deutsche Staatsbibliothek-Berlin. Zeitschriften-Bestandsverzeichniss 7. Berlin, 1960. 252 p. 23. RICHET, C. Dictionnaire de physiologie. Paris, 1897. Vol. 2, p. 101. 24. Recommandations aux auteurs. J. Physiol. (Par) 39: [1-6] 1946/47. 25. Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique. Bulletin analytique: Liste des periodi- ques regus au C.N.R.S. et de leurs abreviations. Paris, 1948. 72 p. 26. L'Abreviation des titres de periodiques. Cah. Docum. 2: 97-105, Oct. 1948. 27. KARGER (S.), A.G., Basel. Kurze Anleitung zur Abfassung von Manuskript und Litera- turverzeichnis mit einer Liste der abgekusrzten Zeitschriftentitel der meist zitierten medizinischen Periodica. Basel, 1958. 17 p. 28. -. Rules for the Preparation of Manuscripts and Bibliographies with a List of Ab- breviations of Titles of Current Medical Periodicals. Basel, 1958. 17 p. 29. DRACHMANN, A. G. The Danish standard for abbreviation of titles of periodicals: DS 909. Libri 6: 247-254, 1956. 30. Akademiia Nauk SSSR. Institut Nauchnoi Informatsii. Ukazatel' Sokrashchennykh i Polnykh Nazvanii Nauchnoi i Tekhnicheskoi Literatury. Moskva, 1957. 237 p. 31. -. Index of Abbreviated and Full Titles of Scientific and Technical Periodical Literature. Prepared by Liaison Office, Technical Information Center, MCLTD. Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. Washington, 1959. 247 p. [Partial transla- tion]. 32. FISHER, E. L. Abbreviations of Russian scientific serial publications. Amer. Docum. 10: 192-208, July 1959. 33. International Institute of Intellectual Co-operation. Code international d'abrevia- tions des titres de periodiques. Paris, 1930. 12 p. 34. -. Supplement au Code international d'abreviations des titres de periodiques. Paris, 1932. 18 p. 35. International Organization for Standardization. Standardization in the Domain of Documentation. The Hague, 1954. p. 4-7. 36. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Report on the Activities and the Meeting of the Co-ordinating Committee on Abstracting and
    • ABBREVIATIONS FOR MEDICAL JOURNAL TITLES 337 Indexing in the Medical and Biological Sciences, 1950. UNESCO Publication 580. p. 35. 37. Ibid., p. 57-62. 38. Ibid., p. 66-71. 39. International Conference on Science Abstracting convened by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, in Paris, from 20 to 25 June 1949. Final Report. 1951. p. 156. 40. World Medical Periodicals. Paris, WHO and UNESCO, 1953. 237 p. 41. World Medical Periodicals. 2d ed. New York, World Medical Association, 1957. 340 p. 41a. World Medical Periodicals. 3d ed. New York, World Medical Association, 1961. 407 p. (This edition appeared after the present article was submitted for publication. Although the analysis of WMP is here based on the second edition, the basic theory and form of abbreviations in the third edition remain substantially unchanged.) 42. COURTRIGHT, B. F. Journal titles in medical bibliography. In Johns Hopkins Uni- versity. Welch Medical Library. Terminal Report of Indexing Research Project. Baltimore, 1951. Appendix 3, 31 p. and 2 Supp. 43. Index-Catalogue of the Library of the Surgeon-General's Office, United States Army. Washington, 1880. Vol. 1, p. iv. 44. Ibid., p. [1]. 45. The National Library of Medicine Index Mechanization Project,July 1, 1958-June 30, 1960. BULLETIN 49: No. 1, Pt. 2, Jan. 1961. 96 p. 46. FULTON, J. F. The principles of bibliographical citation: an informal discourse ad- dressed to writers of scientific papers. BULLETIN 22: 183-197, April 1934.
    • 338 FRANK B. ROGERS AND THELMA CHAREN APPENDIX I RULES FOR ABBREVIATION OF PERIODICAL TITLES Capitalization The first letter of each word of the abbreviation is capitalized regardless of syntax. Punctuation All punctuation, such as periods, commas, apostrophes, hyphens, and semicolons, is omitted. Accents All accents and other diacritical marks are omitted. In German the umlauted a, 6 and iu are written ae, oe and ue respectively (except in place names). In the Scandinavian languages a, a, 6 and 0 are written a, a, o and o, respectively. In the Russian translitera- tion, the ligature and the apostrophe are disregarded. In the Chinese transliteration, the apostrophe is disregarded. Particles Articles, conjunctions (including the ampersand), prepositions, and other particles are omitted from abbreviations. Exceptions are permitted if omission of the particle results in an unintelligible abbreviation (as for M & B Pharmaceutical Bulletin). Length of Word The usual method of abbreviation is by omission of the last letters of a word. Letters are not omitted within a word to form contractions. The only exceptions to this rule are the German words containing time designations (Mbl for Monatsblatter, Mh for Monats- hefte, Mschr for Monatsschrift, Mkurse for Monatskurse, Vjschr for Vierteljahrsschrift, Wschr for Wochenschrift) and the form Zbl for Zentralblatt. Abbreviations will, in general, be formed by the truncation of at least two letters. Ab- breviation by dropping merely a single letter is permissible for cognate words if the re- sulting abbreviations are similar (as Stud for Studi and Studies) and for derivative words if the resultant abbreviations are similar or identical (as Cuba for Cuba, Cuban, cubanos, etc.). In English the word Saint is contracted to St. The various forms in foreign languages (Saint [French], Sainte, San, Santa, Sankt, Sao, Sint and comparable forms) are shortened to S in abbreviations. Foreign contractions (St. [French], Ste., Sto., Sta.) are also shortened to S. Length of Title Titles are abbreviated in general up to the point where the journal is clearly distin- guishable from another. Since in theory the object of abbreviation is brevity, title abbreviations will in general be short; all elements of a full title need not be accounted for in the abbreviation. The words of the abbreviation will proceed in the order of the words of the full title only up to the point of positive identification of the journal. Arch Mal Prof for Archives des maladies professionelles, de mcdecine du travail et de skcurite' sociale Titles consisting of a single word are not abbreviated.
    • ABBREVIATIONS FOR MEDICAL JOURNAL TITLES 339 Titles consisting of initials or abbreviations are reproduced in capital letters and with- out spacing. BMQ CA DDZ Acronyms within abbreviations are retained as above in capital letters and without spacing. Arq IBIT Rev IBYS Cron IDI Omissions Omission of words within a title will be permitted only under the following circum- stances: a) If two or more generic names connected by and appear in the title, only the first will be used in the abbreviation. Bol Soc Cir B Air for Boletines y trabajos; Sociedad de cirugia de Buenos Aires b) Explanatory or extraneous words appearing in the title may be omitted from the abbreviation if the omission does not affect the substance of the generic concept and if the inclusion would materially affect the brevity. C R Acad Sci (Paris) for Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des se'ances de l'Academie des sciences C R Lab Carlsberg for Comptes rendus des travaux du Laboratoire Carls- berg c) Unessential titular designations and political, geographical, or administrative sub- divisions may be omitted from the abbreviation if the omission does not affect the identity of the body or if the inclusion would materially affect the brevity. An Acad Nac Med (Madrid) for Anales de la Real academia nacional de medicina (Madrid) but Ann Roy Coll Surg Eng for Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England d) The parent body in corporate names may be omitted from the abbreviation if its subdivision is distinctive enough to stand alone. An Fac Med S Paulo for Anais da Faculdade de medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo Language Cognate words having the same meaning in different languages (e.g., journal, giornale, Zhurnal; archivos, arquivos) are retained in their original form and abbreviated accordingly. Titles are transliterated into the Roman alphabet using the systems in current practice at the National Library of Medicine, viz., Library of Congress rules for the Greek and Cyrillic alphabets (with omission of the ligature and apostrophe), modified Hepburn romanization for the Japanese, and the Wade-Giles romanization for the Chinese (with omission of the apostrophe). Transliterated titles will be subjected to the same general rules of abbreviation obtain- ing for original titles. In the matter of questionable truncations, however, Index Medicus favors not abbreviating.
    • 340 FRANK B. ROGERS AND THELMA CHAREN Hifu Rinsho for Hifuka no Rinsho ["Clinical Studies in Dermatology"] but Saishin Igaku for Saishin Igaku ["Recent Medicine"] If a journal title appears in the vernacular and in another language, the vernacular will be the basis of the abbreviation. If the vernacular requires transliteration, the transliteration will be the basis of the abbreviation. Present exceptions are some Japanese and Chinese titles: if the translation of the ideogram or the romanization appears on the outside cover of the journal, the ab- breviation will be based on these. Place Names Geographical names, whether noun or adjective, inflected or uninflected, may be ab- breviated. Abbreviation is usually avoided if the word is the first word of the abbreviated title. Abbreviation of the same place name in or out of the parentheses will be determined by the length of the place name of itself and in relation to the rest of the abbreviation. Short names, however familiar, will gain little by abbreviation within short titles (e.g., Sem Hop Paris). Longer names are abbreviated only by omission of the last letters of single names or the last letters of each of the elements of compound names (e.g., B Air for Buenos Aires) and not by contraction. The common element -burg, -burgh, -bourg, etc., may appear as -b appended to the base element (as Luxemb in Bull Soc Sci Med Luxemb). The word State is omitted from the abbreviations of State medical journal titles. The word State appearing in an institutional name must be retained (as in Louisiana State University School of Medicine). The only state names abbreviated are Calif(ornia), Conn(ecticut), Mich(igan), Minn- (esota), Okla(homa), Penn(sylvania), Tenn (essee), and the compound state names N(orth) Carolina, S(outh) Carolina, S(outh) Dakota and W(est) Virginia. New York must be written in full for initial appearance in an abbreviation, although NY will serve when it appears within the abbreviation. The abbreviations N, E, S, W may be used for North, East, South, West or for Northern, Eastern, Southern, and Western only when these words are followed by a geographical name. The forms Northern, Eastern, Southern, Western, when not followed by a geographical name, are given in full at the beginning of a title but are shortened to North, East, South, West when occurring within the body of a title. Intercardinal points will be spelled out, in their shortest form, as Northwest for Northwest and Northwestern, Southeast for Southeast and South- eastern. E Afr Med J for East African S Dakota J Med Pharm for South Dakota Pediat Clin N Amer for North America Northwest Med for Northwest Northwest Univ Dent Sch for Northwestern Proc North Cent Sect Amer Urol Ass for North Central Southern Med J for Southern Proc West Pharmacol Soc for Western Place names within parentheses containing an initial definite article (La Habana, Den Haag) omit the initial article if the identity of the city is preserved; internal particles must be retained (Aix les Bains for Aix-les-Bains).
    • ABBREVIATIONS FOR MEDICAL JOURNAL TITLES 341 Personal Names Proper names of historical, contemporary, or mythological figures in titles are not abbreviated. Arch Maragliano Pat Clin Arch Dc Vecchi Anat Pat Ochsner Clin Rep Minerva Med Proper names in inflected form in titles are given in uninflected form in abbreviations. Virchow Arch Path Anat for Virchows Archiv fur pathologische Ana- tomie und Physiologie und fur klinische Medizin Zh Nevropat Psikhiat Korsakov for Zhurnal Nevropatologii i Psikhiatrii imeni S.S. Korsakova When the title contains a personal name not a part of a corporate designation, only the family name is used regardless of the position of the name in the title. Graefe Arch Ophthal for Albrecht von Graefes Archivffir Ophthalmologie Personal names which are part of the official title of a society or institution are given in full when they appear at the beginning of a journal title; within the body of a title, given names are omitted. Henry Ford Hosp Med Bull for Henry Ford Hospital Medical Bulletin Bull Hopkins Hosp for Bulletin of the Johns Hopkins Hospital Corporate Names The parent body of corporate designations may be omitted from the abbreviation if its subdivision is distinctive enough to stand alone. Bull Ayer Clin Lab for Bulletin of the Ayer Clinical Laboratory of the Pennsylvania Hospital Tr Inst Norm Pat Fiziol for Trudy Instituta; Institut normal'noi i pato- (Moskva) logicheskoi fiziologii, Akademiia meditsinskikh nauk SSSR Selective Sections and Editions Selective subdivisions or sections of general scientific publications or of specialties are identified in abbreviated form in brackets. Ann Univ Curie Sklodowska [Med] for Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie- Sklodowska; Sectio D, Medicina Farmaco [Prat] for Farmaco; Edizione Pratica Other editions of parent publications are indicated in abbreviated form in brackets. Acta Rheum [Eng] for Acta Rheumatologica; English Edition Compound and Hyphenated Words No hyphens are used in abbreviations. Nonhyphenated compound words are treated as single words, i.e., elements of the com- pound words are not individually abbreviated. Ergebn Anat Entwicklungsgesch for Ergebnisse der Anatomie und Entwick- lungsgeschichte Hyphenated compound words are treated as single words, disregarding the hyphen, except:
    • 342 FRANK B. ROGERS AND THELMA CHAREN a) In hyphenated words artificially compounding separate geographical concepts, the hyphen is omitted and the elements are abbreviated separately. Acta Morph Neerl Scand for Acta morphologica Neerlando-Scandinavica 4cta Gynaec Obstet Hisp Lusit for Acta gynaecologica et obstetrica Hispano- Lusitana b) In hyphenations artificially compounded for stylistic reasons, the hyphen is omitted and the elements are abbreviated separately. J Lancet for Journal-Lancet Bruxelles Med for Bruxelles-Medical c) In broken compounds incorporating the conjunction and, the hyphens are omitted and the elements are abbreviated according to the usual rules. Arch Ohr Nas Kehlkopfheilk for Archiv fiir Ohren-, Nasen- und Kehlkopf- heilkunde d) In hyphenated proper names the hyphen is dropped. Hoppe Seyler Z Physiol Chem for Hoppe-Seyler's Zeitschrift fur physio- logische Chemie Place of Publication The place of publication is added to the title abbreviation, in parentheses, in the fol- lowing circumstances only: a) To distinguish non-English from English titles. J Physiol (London) J Physiol (Paris) Anesth Analg (Cleveland) Anesth Analg (Paris) also J Pediat (Rio) Med Trop (Marseille) Rev Hemat (Paris) b) To distinguish one title from another. Khirurgiia (Moskva) Khirurgiia (Sofiia) c) In journal titles beginning with the generic words Acta and Folia which contain no identifying geographical word. Acta Anaesth (Padova) but Acta Anaesth Belg d) To anticipate and avoid possible conflict with journals created in the future with similar titles within the same country, language, or specialty. When the language of the journal title differs from the language of the country of origin, the place of publication, if used in the abbreviation, will be that of the country of origin. When a country has two or more official languages, the form of the place of publication in parentheses will be arbitrarily selected by Index Medicus, e.g., (Brux) for Brussel or Bruxelles; (Haag) for Den Haag, The Hague, 's Gravenhage. The place of publication in parentheses is treated thus in titles containing corporate names, such as institutes and hospitals: a) If the corporate name is distinctive or specific, the place of publication will be omitted. Mem Inst Cruz for Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz Milbank Mem Fund Quart for Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly
    • ABBREVIATIONS FOR MEDICAL JOURNAL TITLES 343 b) If the corporate name is general, common, indistinct or subject to conflict, the place of publication will be supplied. Ann Inst Pasteur (Paris) Trans St John Hosp Derm Soc (London) Place of publication is based on the location of the following, in order of choice: (1) major publisher; (2) minor publisher with distinctive imprint; (3) official sponsoring body (society, academy, institution, drug company, government agency, etc.); (4) editorial office of the official sponsoring body; (5) business office of the sponsoring body; (6) printer. When examination of the journal over a period of years discloses many changes in publisher or printer, the location of the sponsoring agent is the preferred place of publica- tion. When the editorial offices of the sponsoring agent change frequently, the permanent or official address of the body is preferred. Title Changes When a full title is changed by the publisher, minor additions or deletions of words at the end of the title will not be reflected in a new title abbreviation. Radical changes, however, at the beginning of a title or within the title which basically affect identification of the journal and, therefore, the abbreviation, must be modified to conform to the title change. Minerva Fisioter for change of Minerva fisioterapica to Minerva fisioterapica e radiologica Ther Umsch for change of Therapeutische Umschau und medizinische Biblio- graphie to Therapeutische Umschau but AMA Arch Derm to Arch Derm (Chicago) for change of A.M.A. Archives of Derma- tology to Archives of Dermatology APPENDIX I I. DICTIONARY OF ABBREVIATIONS The following is a selected list of abbreviations used by Index Medicus in the formulation of journal title abbreviations in the 1963 List of Journals Indexed in Index Medicus. The fol- lowing general directions will help in using this dictionary. Words not found here should be abbreviated in accordance with the patent abbreviation pattern of Index Medicus forms and in accordance with the practices outlined in the Rules for Abbreviation of Periodical Titles. 1. All abbreviated words are printed with initial capitals regardless of syntax and all are printed without accents or other diacritical marks. No period is used after any ab- breviation, contraction, or acronym. 2. When a word is not abbreviated, the nonabbreviated form may appear in the list in order to remind the user of practice. 3. The list is arranged alphabetically by the individual word or by the root of words common to various languages or in various inflectional forms. For example, anatomical, Anatomie, anatomische, anatomicheskii, etc., are listed as anatom- and all are abbreviated Anat (without the period). 4. Differences in the spelling of roots are listed separately. For example, both microbiol- and mikrobiol- appear. 5. A few compound words appearing in the List of Journals Indexed are included in the list below. A compound word not found in the list should be abbreviated, in general, to the form in which the last element of the compound appears in the list. For example, radiopathology (not found here) would be abbreviated Radiopath on the basis of the listing
    • 344 FRANK B. ROGERS AND THELMA CHAREN Path for pathology; likewise, Strahlenforschung (not found here) would be abbreviated to Strahlenforsch on the basis of Forschung as the terminal element of the compound. 6. Geographical nouns and adjectives appearing in either the body of the abbrevia- tion or the parentheses following the abbreviation are given in a separate list. The user should be reminded that a place name is not usually abbreviated when it appears as the first word of the title. 7. In general, nouns are listed in the nominative case regardless of the inflection in which the word appears in the title. 8. In general, adjectives are listed in the nominative masculine singular form regardless of the inflection in which the adjective appears in the title. In a few cases when the in- flected word is not abbreviated but appears here in the dictionary in the form in which it appears in the title, the entry will be that of the inflected form. 9. The user should be reminded that various words and phrases are omitted from ab- breviations. In accordance with the Rules of Abbreviation, articles, prepositions, conjunc- tions, and the like are omitted routinely in any language (e.g., against, contra, imeni are omitted from abbreviations). In addition, certain phrases which add nothing to the sub- stance of the title are also omitted from the abbreviation and consequently have no entry in this list. Those routinely omitted from abbreviations are auf dem Gebiete, und deren Grenz- gebiete, memoires in Bulletins et Memoires, memorias in Trabajosy Memorias, and similar phrases. FREQUENTLY OCCURRING WORDS WORD ABBREVIATION WORD ABBREVIATION abstracts Abstr apparat- Appar academ- Acad applied Appl accademia Accad Arbeiten Arb acta Acta Arbeitsmedizin Arbeitsmed actas Actas archeion Arch actualidad Actualidad archiv- Arch actualites Actualites archiwum Arch advances Advances arcispedale Arcisped Arzteblatt Aerztebl arhiv Arh arztlich Aerztl arkhiv Arkh akadem- Akad arm&es Armees akusherstvo Akush army Army akustik- Akust arquivo Arq alergia Alergia Arzt Arzt allergie Allergie asistencia Asist allergolog- Allerg asociaci6n Asoc allergy Allergy associa- Ass allgemein Allg atherosclerosis Atheroscler anaesthes- Anaesth atomic Atom anais An atti Atti anales An attualita Attualita analysis Anal avances Avances anatom- Anat bacteriolog- Bact anestesiolog- Anest bakteriolog- Bakt anesthes- Anesth balneolog- Balneol annal- Ann batteriolog- Batt annee Annee behavior Behav annual Ann Beitrage Beitr
    • ABBREVIATIONS FOR MEDICAL JOURNAL TITLES 345 WORD ABBREVIATION ABBREVIATION Bericht Ber communications Commun bibliography Bibliogr compare Comp bibliotheca Bibl comprehensive Compr biochem- Biochem comptes rendus CR biochim- Biochim concepts Conc biokhim- Biokhim conference Conf biolog- Biol control Contr biophysic- Biophys cor Cor biulleten' Biull corriere Corr bladen B1 cosmetic Cosmet Blut Blut council Counc boletim Bol cultura Cult bolezn' Bolez cuore Cuore bollettino Boll current Curr brain Brain cytochem- Cytochem bulletin Bull cytolog- Cytol cahiers Cah deaf Deaf cancerolog- Cancer dent- Dent cancr- Cancr dermatolog- Derm carbohydrate Carbohyd development Develop cardiolog- Cardiol diabetes Diabetes cardiovascular Cardiov diagnos- Diagn casopis Cas dieta Dieta cellul- Cell dietolog- Diet center Cent digest- Dig central Cent disease Dis cercet'ari Cercet disorders Dis cerebral Cereb division Div chemi- Chem doctor Doctor chemotherap- Chemother documenta- Docum chest Chest drug Drug childhood Child drugs Drugs children Child education Educ chimi- Chim eksperimental- Eksp chromatography Chromatogr electrologie Electr chronic Chronic electronics Electronics ciencia Cienc ematologia Emat cientifico Cient embriologia Embriol circolazione Circ embryology Embryol circular Circular encyclopaedia Encycl circulation Circ endemic Endem cirugia Cir endocrinolog- Endocr cirujanos Cir endokrynol- Endokr cirurgia Cir enfermedades Enferm city City environmental Environ clini- Clin enzymolog- Enzym coeur Coeur epidemiolog- Epidem colegio Col Ergebnisse Ergebn college Coll Ernahrung Ernaehr
    • 346 FRANK B. ROGERS AND THELMA CHAREN WORD ABBREVIATION WORD ABBREVIATION estud- Estud health Health etudes Etud hearing Hearing evolution Evolut Hefte Hefte excerpta Excerpta Heilkunde Heilk experimental- Exp helminthology Helminth facolta Fac hematology Hemat factors Factors higien- Hig facult- Fac higijen- Hig fakult- Fak histochem- Histochem farmac- Farm histology Histol farmaceut- Farm history Hist farmacolog- Farmacol homeopath- Homeop farmatsevt- Farm hopitaux Hop fertility Fertil Hormon Hormon fisico Fis hormone Hormone fisiolog- Fisiol hospit- Hosp fiziolog- Fiziol humain Hum folia Folia hygien- Hyg food Food hypnosis Hypn Forschung Forsch igien- Ig Fortbildung Fortbild illustrat- Illus Fortschritte Fortschr immunolog- Immun function Funct industrial- Industr fysiolog- Fysiol industrie Industr gaceta Gac industry Industr gastroenterolog- Gastroent infancia Infanc gazeta Gaz infect- Infect gazette Gaz infettivo Infett gazzetta Gazz inform- Inform Geburtshilfe Geburtsh injury Inj gematologiia Gemat institut- Inst geneeskund- Geneesk internal Intern genet- Genet international Int geriatrics Geriat isotop- Isotop gerontolog- Geront istituto Ist gesamt Ges istologia Istol Gesellschaft Ges izotop Izotop Gesundheitswesen Gesundh izvestiia Izv gigiena Gig Jahrbuch Jahrb ginecolog- Ginec jornal J giornale G journal J glas Glas journees Journees glasnik Glas kardiologia Kardiol guide Guide khirurg- Khir Gynakologie Gynaek klini- Klin gynecolog- Gynec Krankheit Kr handlingar Handl labor Labor Haut Haut laborator- Lab Hautkrankheiten Hautkr Laeger Laeg
    • ABBREVIATIONS FOR MEDICAL JOURNAL TITLES 347 WORD ABBREVIATION WORD ABBREVIATION lakartidningen Lakartidn nature Nature language Lang nauki Nauk laringologia Laring naval- Nav lavoro Lavoro neonatus Neonat lechenie Lech nerve Nerve lectures Lect nervoso Nerv legal- Leg neue Neue lekar- Lek neurolog- Neurol leprol- Lepr new New library Libr nifio Nino listy Listy nifios Ninos literature Lit normal- Norm lotta Lotta nuclear- Nucl maladies Mal nurse Nurse malariolog- Malar nursing Nursing manedsskrift Manedsskr nutritio- Nutr materia Mat obstetr- Obstet matern- Matern occupational Occup meddelanden Medd odontolog- Odont m6decin- Med 6ffentlich Oeff medicin- Med oncolog- Oncol meditsin- Med ophthalmolog- Ophthal medycyn- Med optic- Opt memoires Mem optometry Optom mental- Ment oral Oral methods Meth orthopaedic- Orthop microbiol- Microbiol orvos- Orv microscop- Micr ospedal- Osped mikrobiol- Mikrobiol osteopathic Osteopath mikroskop- Mikr otolog- Otol militar- Milit oto-rhino-laryngolog- Otorhinolaryng Mitteilungen Mitt ottalmologia Ottal modern- Mod paediatr- Paediat Monatsbhitter Mbl palsy Palsy Monatshefte Mh papers Pap Monatskurse Mkurse parasitolog- Parasit Monatsschrift Mschr patholog- Path monde Monde pediatr- Pediat mondial Mond perceptual Percept mondo Mondo periodique Period monograph- Monogr periodontology Periodont monthly Monthly pharmaceut- Pharm morfologia Morf pharmacolog- Pharmacol morpholog- Morph pharmacy Pharm mundo Mundo pharmazeut- Pharm nacional Nac phoniatr- Phoniat Nasen Nas photograph- Photogr national- Nat physical Phys natural- Natur physicians Physicians
    • 348 FRANK B. ROGERS AND THELMA CHAREN WORD ABBREVIATION WORD ABBREVIATION physics Phys resenha Resen physiolog- Physiol respirat- Resp plastic- Plast reumatol- Reum podiatry Podiat review Rev pollution Pollut revista Rev postepy Postepy revue Rev practi- Pract revy Rev prax- Prax rheumat- Rheum pregled Pregl rhumatolog- Rhum prensa Prensa riforma Riforma press Press rivista Riv presse Presse R6ntgen Roentgen preventiv e Prev roentgenolog- Roentgen problem- Probl royal- Roy proceedings Proc Rundschau Rundsch proctolog- Proctol sanatorio Sanat products Prod sanguinis Sang profession- Prof sante Sante progres- Progr school Sch psicoanalisi- Psicoanal science Sci psikhiatriia Psikhiat scientia Sci psychiatr- Psychiat scientifi- Sci psychoanalytic Psychoanal scienza Sci psychodynamics Psychodyn semaine Sem psycholog- Psychol semana Sem psychosomat- Psychosom seminar Seminar pubblica Pubblica servic- Serv pu'blica Publica settimana Settim publicaciones Publ sifilografia Sif publicaqi5es Publ sistem- Sist publications Publ social- Soc publique Publique societ- Soc quantitative Quant sovremennyi Sovr quimico Quim sperimentale radiation Radiat Sper spital Spital radioaktivnih Radioaktiv stiintific Stiint radiography Radiogr stomatolog- Stomat radiolog- Radiol stud- Stud rassegna Rass recent Recent superior- Sup recentes supplement Suppl Recent surgeon recherche Rech Surg record Rec surgery Surg survey Survey recueil Rec sympos- rehabilit- Rehab Sympos rendiconti syphilographie Syph Rendic system Syst report Rep tandheelkunde reproduction Tandheelk Reprod techni- Techn research Res technolog- Techn
    • ABBREVIATIONS FOR MEDICAL JOURNAL TITLES 349 WoiB ABBREVIATION WORD ABBREVIATION terap- Ter venereal Vener theor- Theor venereology Vener therap- Ther vestnik Vestn therapeut- Ther veterinar- Vet thorac- Thorac Vierteljahrsschrift Vjschr thorax Thorax virolog- Virol tidskrift T virus Virus tidsskrift T virusologiia Virus tijdschrift T Vitamine Vitamine tisiolog- Tisiol Vitaminolog- Vitamin torace Torace vitamins Vitamins t6rax Torax vjesnik Vjesn toxicology Toxic voprosy Vop transactions Trans vysshii Vyssh transfusion Transfus weekblad Weekbl transplantation Transplant wetenschappen Wet trauma Trauma weterynaryjny Weteryn traumatolog- Trauma Wissenschaft Wiss trud- Tr Wochenschrift Wschr tuberculos- Tuberc wydzial Wydz tumor Tumor x-ray Xray umano Um year Year union Un zahnarztlich Zahnaerztl universidad- Univ zasshi z universit- Univ Zeitschrift z urolog- Urol Zeitung Zeitung vakblad Vakbl Zentralblatt Zbl veda Ved Zhurnal Zh vegetativo Veg zoolog- Zool GEOGRAPHIC NAMES Woin ABBREVITION WORD ABBREVIATION Africa Afr Austriacus Austria African Afr azerbaidzhan- Azerbaidzh Afrique Afr Barcelona Barc Alabama Alabama Basel Basel Alaska Alaska belg- Belg Algerie Algerie Berlin Berlin America Amer Berliner Berlin American Amer Bologna Bologna Amsterdam Amst Bombay Bombay Argentina Argent Brasil Brasil argentino Argent brasileiro Brasil Arizona Arizona Bratislava Bratisl Arkansas Arkansas British Brit Asian Asian Bruxelles Brux Australasian Aust Bucuresti Bucur Australia Aust Budapest Budap Australian Aust Buenos Aires B Air
    • 350 FRANK B. ROGERS AND THELMA CHAREN WORD ABBREVIATION WOiD ABBREVIATION California Calif Guyane Fran,ais Guyane Franc Canada Canada Den Haag Haag Canadian Canad La Habana Habana canadien Canad haitien Haiti Cechoslovacus Cech Hawaii Hawaii ceskoslovensk'y Cesk Hebrew Hebrew 6esk'y Cesk hellen- Hellen Chicago Chicago Helvetia Helv Chile Chile Helveticus Helv chileno Chile Hispalis Hisp Chinese Chin hispano-lusitano Hisp Lusit Cleveland Cleveland hondurenlo Hondur Connecticut Conn Hungaricus Hung Costa Rica Costa Rica iberico Iber cubano Cuba ibero-americano Iber Amer Czechoslovak Czech Idaho Idaho Danish Danish Illinois Illinois dansk Dansk India India Delaware Delaware Indian Indian Detroit Detroit Indiana Indiana deutsch Deutsch Indonesia Indonesia Deutschland Deutsch Iowa Iowa District of Columbia DC Iranicus Iran dominicano Dominic Irish Irish ecuatoriano Ecuat Israel Israel El Salvador El Salvador Itali- Ital England Eng Iugoslavicus Iugosl English Eng Japan Jap Espafia Esp Japanese Jap espaniol Esp japanisch Jap Europ Europ Japonicus Jap Europe Europe Kansas Kansas europeen Europ kazakhskii Kazakh Europeus Europ kazanskii Kazan Fennia Fenn Kentucky Kentucky finsk Finsk K0benhavn Kobenhavn Firenze Firenze Kyoto Kyoto Florida Florida latino-americano Lat Amer France France Latinus Lat francais Franc Lebanese Leban Frankfurt Frankfurt Leipzig Leipzig Frankfurter Frankfurt Leningrad Leningr Gdain'sk Gdansk Leningradskii Leningr Gen&ve Geneve libanais Liban Genova Genova Liege Liege Georgia Georgia Lille Lille German German Lima Lima Germanicus German Lisboa Lisboa Guatemala Guatemala London London
    • ABBREVIATIONS FOR MEDICAL JOURNAL TITLES 351 WORD ABBREVIATION WORD ABBREVATION Los Alamos Los Alamos Oklahoma Okla Los Angeles Los Angeles Ontario Ontario Louisiana Louisiana Oslo Oslo Luxembourg Luxemb Outre-Mer Outre Mer Lyon Lyon Pacific Coast Pacif Coast lyonnais Lyon Padova Padova Madrid Madrid Panamfa Panama magyar Magy panameno Panamen Maine Maine panamericano Panamer Malaya Malaya Parana Parana Maroc Maroc Paris Paris Marseille Marseille paulisto Paul Maryland Maryland Pennsylvania Penn Melbourne Melbourne Peru Peru mexicano Mex peruano Peru Mexico Mex Philadelphia Phila Michigan Mich Philippine Philipp milanese Milan Philippinus Philipp Milano Milano piemontese Piemont Minneapolis Minneap plzensky Plzen Minnesota Minn Polon- Pol Mississippi Mississippi polski Pol Missouri Missouri P6rto Porto Montevideo Montev P6rto Alegre P Alegre Montreal Montreal Portugal Port moskovskii Moskov portugueso Port Moskva Moskva Poznan Poznan Moyen-Orient Moyen Orient poznanski Poznan Munchener Munchen Praha Praha Nagasaki Nagasaki Puerto Rico P Rico Nancy Nancy Rio de Janeiro Rio Napoli Napoli Roma Roma Nebraska Nebraska romande Rom Nederland- Nederl Russian Russ Neerlandicus Neerl Sao Paulo S Paulo Neerlando- Scandinav- Scand Scandinavicus Neerl Scand schweizer- Schweiz New England New Eng Siena Siena New Jersey New Jersey South Africa S Afr New York NY South African S Afr New Zealand New Zeal South Carolina S Carolina Newark Newark South Dakota S Dakota Nicaragua Nicaragua S.S.S.R. SSSR Nippon- Nippon St. Louis St Louis nordisk Nord Stockholm Stockholm norsk Norsk Stuttgart Stuttgart North Carolina N Carolina Suisse Suisse Nova Scotia Nova Scotia Suomi Suom Ohio Ohio svensk Svensk
    • 352 FRANK B. ROGERS AND THELMA CHAREN WORD ABBREVIATION WORD ABAREVIATION Sverige Sverige ural'skii Ural Tennessee Tenn Uruguay Urug Tokyo Tokyo uruguayo Urug Torino Torino U. S. US Toronto Toronto Uzbekistan Uzbek Toulouse Toulouse veneto Veneto Tunis Tunis Venezia Venezia Tunisie Tunis venezolano Venezolano turk Turk Vietnamicus Vietnam Turkmenistan Turkmen Virginia Virginia ukrains'kyi Ukr Washington Wash United Kingdom UK West Virginia W Virginia United States US Wien Wien Uppsala Uppsala Wiener Wien Upsaliensis Upsal Wisconsin Wisconsin