Abbreviations for Medical Journal TitlesDocument Transcript
Abbreviations for Medical Journal Titles
BY FRANK B. ROGERS, M. D., Director
THELMA CHAREN, Indexing Reviser
National Library of Medicine
T HE drive for standardization is a hallmark of technology; the need for
standardization increases with the growth of technology. Activity toward
standardization of bibliographic practices has been stirring throughout the
past century, and during the past decade this movement has received added
impetus from the advent of mechanization on the publication (secondary
publication) scene. Various standards bodies have concerned themselves at
organizational, national, and international levels with bibliographical
problems such as uniformity of publication methods, journal format, trans-
literation systems, classification, computer codes, and so forth. It is not sur-
prising that the problem of journal title abbreviation looms prominently.
As the body of scientific literature grows, so the need for uniformity of
citations grows. In this article we are not concerned with the form and
style of the citation revolving about the author name, volume designation,
pagination, or year of publication, although there is ample evidence of vari-
ety in these matters. Here we are concerned with the problem of the journal
title abbreviation; we consider as in scope only conventional systems, and
do not treat the four-letter codes of G. E. McCasland (1), the coden of
Charles Bishop (2), the sigils of J. B. Reid (3), and the like.
Journal titles are repetitively recurring elements in lists of references ap-
pended to primary works, in citations of original sources of abstracts, and,
overwhelmingly, in bibliographies and indexes to periodical literature. The
need to abbreviate stems from the need to save space and, therefore, costs
of publication, and the need to save time, as in compilation. The need for
uniformity stems from the indistinct boundaries of the various scientific
fields, the existence of multiple secondary publications which are consulted
during the course of even a routine bibliographical search, and the con-
venience of editors and authors concerned with the stylistic practices of
many different primary journals.
The ideal journal title abbreviation is first of all brief; then it is clear,
unique, informative as to the language of the original, indicative as to scope
of the publication, easily remembered and used, and universally applicable.
The actual must often fall considerably short of the ideal; the various ele-
312 FRANK B. ROGERS AND THELMA CHAREN
ments are at war with each other. The ideal of brevity must often conflict
with the need for some minimum redundancy to accommodate the other
objectives. In practice, we must try to find abbreviations which combine
the greatest number of desirable qualities with the least sacrifice or com-
promise of other desiderata.
Brevity is an obviously desirable attribute, but mere economy in word
length should not be achieved at the expense of clarity. The abbreviation
should be "self explanatory either alone or in its relations" (says the Index-
Catalogue Synopsis of Style, 1937, p. ). It need not, however, be in a form
which can serve as a base for verbatim reconstruction of the title; on the
contrary, it need in this regard serve only as an identification tag-a short
label allowing one to locate the particular title unequivocally.
Any code should eschew "l'arbitraire, l'empirisme et une certaine fan-
taisie," which Gabrielle Odend'hal (4) deplores as the basis of too many
lists of title abbreviations. Place (5) gives his "rules of three C's" in formulat-
ing abbreviations: conciseness, completeness, and correctness. We would add
a fourth: consistency. Periodica Medica (1952) says: "All title abbreviations
must be a compromise between the desirable and the achievable." This
"compromise" could be entertained as a fifth "C."
The characteristic most difficult to attain is that of universality of applica-
tion. A great obstacle to universality is the multiplicity of systems existing
today-systems used by individual journals, major publishing houses, great
indexes, special disciplines, national bodies, and those proposed for inter-
national adoption. But what we are here chiefly concerned with in regard to
universality is the ability of the system to cross disciplines, embrace the
entire scientific field, and be applicable to the products of many countries
and languages. It is not satisfactory to have one system for chemistry and
another for the biomedical sciences; in this case, what happens to the bio-
chemical titles? And we are not interested in limited schemes. If a particular
bibliography lists articles from only seventeen journals, then those journal
titles may have simple arbitrary abbreviations, even single letters of the
alphabet, but this lack of compatibility with wide schemes is, under most
circumstances and for most major purposes, to be deplored. We are here
necessarily concerned with medical journal titles; our arguments and history
and examples bear predominantly on this field, but we insist that any
scheme, to be really meaningful and useful, must be susceptible to incor-
poration into a larger, total scheme, even though that scheme be emergent,
rather than actual.
Just as any reasonable system must consider all of science in relation to a
particular specialized segment, so any system must consider historical per-
spective in relation to the present and, indeed, the effect of common pat-
terns on future creations. Many journals existing in the past are defunct;
ABBREVIATIONS FOR MEDICAL JOURNAL TITLES 313
many have been resurrected under the original title; many reappear under
new titles. Many new journals have been created which, though having no
historical continuity with the first journal of the name, bear titles resembling
the original. Any reasonable system must try to avert major confusions re-
sulting from conditions such as these, but it would be absurd to insist that
all journal title abbreviations must be unique throughout all time; after all,
volume numbering and dates also have prominent distinguishing functions.
Many systems are proposed, but few are chosen. Each successive system
is declared imperfect and unsuitable; lamentations arise; there are pleas for
an Ariadne's thread to lead us out of the labyrinth of variations. But each
thread is acceptable only to a particular Theseus of bibliography; the cries
and lamentations are renewed, and new systems arise. While there is almost
unanimous agreement on the need for standardization, there is continuing
internecine controversy regarding the right system, and the suitability and
authority of the standardizing agencies. Kent (6) feels that standardization
should be based on compilations by librarians; Brode (7) decries the activities
of "professional abbreviators"; more temperately, Sheppard (8) (in his
criticism of the World List) cites as the desideratum of any list of abbrevia-
tions "title contractions free from ambiguities, indicative of the language of
the originals, and full enough for a reader of any nationality to reconstruct
the title sufficiently to enable him to find the title-entry easily in an alpha-
betically arranged catalogue of periodicals." (We may merely note, perhaps,
the opinion of Lorph&vre (9) to the effect that "I am against all abbrevia-
tions. They let the bibliographer save a little time, but make the poor
researchers, who have to reconstruct an array of letters sometimes having
no apparent meaning, lose 10 or 100 times more. ..")
The discussion which follows is divided for convenience into several sec-
tions: first, a brief historical survey by country, and a look at developments
on the international scene; next, a look at the major medical and paramedical
systems; finally, an exposition of the National Library of Medicine position
and its rationale, as exemplified in the Index Medicus.
NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENTS
The Index Medicus, compiled under the supervision of John Shaw Billings
and Robert Fletcher, appeared in 1879; it listed 737 journal titles and their
abbreviations. In the next year the Index-Catalogue of the Library of the Sur-
geon General's Office was published; its rules for abbreviation and its list of
2,342 abbreviations with corresponding titles were succinct and clear. Of
this 1880 list, Dr. Walter Artelt comments: "Had these well thought out
314 FRANK B. ROGERS AND THELMA CHAREN
rules become general practice at that time, the many discussions which
have been going on for over 40 years as to the most useful method of ab-
breviating periodical titles would not have been necessary" (10). When, in
1950, the Current List of Medical Literature superseded the Index-Catalogue, this
system of abbreviations was retained (11).
In 1916 the American Medical Association began publication of its
Quarterly Cumulative 'Index, listing 157 journal titles and their abbreviations.
In 1927 this became the Quarterly Cumulative Index Medicus; in its first volume,
as in its last (Volume 60, 1956), it listed 926 journal titles and their abbrevia-
tions, but no statement of principles accompanied the lists.
In 1922 the American Chemical Society published a list of 1,010 jour-
nal titles and their abbreviations as used in Chemical Abstracts; a 1960 list
brought the list of titles and abbreviations to more than 13,000. The latest
edition of the Chemical Abstracts list states that the journal title abbreviations
are those "adopted years ago as an international standard for chemistry by
the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. They have also
been adopted for its journals by the American Institute of Physics and by
many individual writers, editors, and publishers in their work" (12).
In 1954 Biological Abstracts (Volume 28) published its list of periodical
title abbreviations, containing 2,416 entries; no statement is offered to
explain the rules followed. In 1960 the Conference of Biological Editors
published its Style Manual for Biological Journals. This manual treats the
problem of journal title abbreviations, lists 228 abbreviations of words used
in citations, and follows this with 110 sample journal titles using these words.
The manual instructs the user to "Follow the abbreviations listed by The
Chemical Abstracts Services (1956-1960).. .. If no abbreviation is found, use
the following rules from the International Code for the Abbreviation of
Titles of Periodicals (ISO/R4- 1953)" (13).
In dentistry interest in the problem was aroused when, in 1931, Bernhard
W. Weinberger submitted for the approval of the International Dental Fed-
eration a scheme for dental periodicals. Dr. Weinberger published his spe-
cific recommendations in the form of lists of words and examples of ab-
breviations for American and British titles of dental journals in the BULLETIN
of the Medical Library Association (14) and in Dental Survey (15) in 1936, in
revised form. Despite the early enthusiasm for standardization, the ab-
breviations used by two major dental indexing services, the Index to Dental
Literature and Dental Abstracts, differ from most others.
In 1940 the American Standards Association formed its Committee Z39
on Library Work and Documentation. The Committee is at present spon-
sored by the Council of National Library Associations. Since the American
Standards Association is the national standards body and, as such, a partici-
pating member of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO),
ABBREVIATIONS FOR MEDICAL JOURNAL TITLES 315
it is to be hoped that Z39 co-ordinates its work with the ISO Technical
Committee 46, which deals with documentation standards. One of Z39's
plans for the 1960's is the collection and correlation of rules for abbreviations
used by major American indexing and abstracting services.
The impetus for standard journal title abbreviations began early in the
publication of the International Catalogue of Scientific Literature, and culminated
in the first edition of the World List of Scientific Periodicals of 1927, which
covered over 24,000 titles and included a set of rules drawn up by its editors,
A. W. Pollard and WV. A. Smith. An enlarged second edition of the World
List appeared in 1934 with only slight differences in abbreviations which
were "necessitated in order to comply with the system recommended by the
International Meeting held by the International Institute of Intellectual
Co-operation, a system which is practically the old World List system, with
slight modifications to suit foreign requirements" (16). The third edition of
the World List in 1952 ("of the order of 50,000 entries"), under the editorship
of W. A. Smith, F. L. Kent, and G. B. Stratton, followed.
The British Standards Institution, with its committee formed of the Library
Association, ASLIB, and other interests, constitutes the national representa-
tive of ISO TC 46. This BSI committee undertook in 1948, with Francis L.
Kent, co-editor of the World List, to examine the question of title abbrevia-
tions. Mr. Kent subsequently represented both the BSI Committee and the
World List at the 1948 meeting of ISO at The Hague. In that year, also, the
Royal Society Scientific Information Conference urged the use of the World
List system of abbreviations and recommended the incorporation in later
editions of "minor changes of rule internationally agreed upon" (17). As it
turned out, the ISO draft recommendation of 1952, approved by a majority
of the member bodies, was issued too late for application to the third edition
of the World List, whose abbreviations were still based on the League of
Nations' Code international d"abre'viations des titres de periodiques.
In 1946 a convention of editors of British biological journals had met under
the auspices of the Biological Council and voted in favor of a standard list
of abbreviations. A composite list of numerous private and public lists in use
in the field appeared in 1949, issued by the Biological Council, in the form
of A List of Abbreviations of the Titles of Biological Journals, and in the main was
based on the second edition of the World List (17).
In 1912, following a proposal regarding uniformity in journal abbrevia-
tions made by Heinrich Joachim (translator of the Ebers Papyrus) at the
annual meeting of the Vereinigung der Deutschen Medizinischen Fachpresse,
316 FRANK B. ROGERS AND THELMA CHAREN
a commission was set up to standardize title abbreviations. The commission,
under the chairmanship of Julius Schwalbe, editor of the Deutsche Medizi-
nische Wochenschrift, drafted a list based on Index-Catalogue forms which
appeared in 1914 (18). There was a revision in 1920, followed by a second
revision sponsored by the pathologist Ludwig Aschoff and furthered by Max
Kunst, director of the Deutsche Arztebiucherei, which appeared in 1928 as
the first edition of Periodica Medica, containing 1,719 titles. The fourth edition
of Periodica Medica, covering 12,624 titles, edited by Walter Artelt, Edith
Heischkel, and Carl Wehmer, was published by Georg Thieme Verlag in
1952. The introduction to the fourth edition details the history of the various
editions, gives the rules followed, and states that it tries "to find a middle
road between the old citation practices of Periodica Medica and the interna-
tional rules, and also to observe more carefully the national practice, es-
pecially in the United States, than was done in previous editions" (19).
In 1927, the year before the publication of Periodica Medica, Werner Rust,
Librarian of the University of Berlin, published his Verzeichnis von unklaren
Titelkarzungen deutschen und ausldndischen Zeitschriften. In addition to identi-
fying the "unclear" titles, Rust proposed for each his abbreviations as
approved by the librarians Blass, Keydell, Figulla, and Prinzhorn; these he
submitted to the 1927 library congress at Dortmund (20).
In 1928 the Deutsche Norm-Ausschuss incorporated World List principles
into the draft standard DIN Vornorm 1502: Zitiertitel; Grundsatze fur das
Zitieren wissenschaftlicher Zeitschriften. In 1929, at the First World Con-
gress of Libraries and Bibliography, Prinzhorn found that German editors
were able to adapt World List forms to their needs (21). When the Code
international appeared in 1930 and its supplement in 1932, Germany adopted
them in its standard DIN 1502: Zeitschriftkurztitel.
In 1960 the Deutsche Staatsbibliothek of the East German Republic
published a list of about 1,800 medical journals, entitled Wo sind Welche?
Medizinische Zeitschriften in der DDR (22). The list gives full titles and ab-
breviations which are somewhat inconsistent in pattern; capitalization is
erratic and abbreviation of individual words is cavalier.
As early as 1897 Charles Richet, in his Dictionnaire de physiologie, discussed
at length the problem of journal title abbreviations. He had presented to the
1895 International Congress of Physiology at Bern, in the names of Bowditch,
Kronecker, and Mosso, a proposal regarding abbreviations, which was
adopted. It concerned a brief code for 15 of the more frequently cited journals
in physiology literature. By the standards to which we have become ac-
customed they are most unsatisfactory, even though the titles recur, as
Richet says, "sans cesse"; J. P. for Journal of Physiology, Z. B. for Zeitschrift
ABBREVIATIONS FOR MEDICAL JOURNAL TITLES 317
fur Biologie (23). One wonders what compromise would have been made for
the Journal de physiologie, which was not founded until 1899, and of which
Richet was one of the editors from 1917 to 1935.
In 1944 the Association Francaise de Normalisation published its Code
d'abre'viations et titres de pe'riodiques en langueframjaise (24).
In 1948 the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique published in
its Bulletin analytique a list of journal abbreviations (25). Its most marked
difference from other systems is its treatment of the place of publication of
The Association Suisse de Documentation prepared for the Association
Suisse de Normalisation its Titres de pe'riodiques: Code d'abre'viations which
serves as standard SNV. 90 100 (26). The Swiss code differs from the ISO/R4
in only a few points. For example, the Swiss code indicates plural forms by
the use of a double apostrophe ("), and in titles beginning with personal
names the given name may be disregarded although the family name must
not be abbreviated. The Belgians once favored adoption of the Swiss code as
their national standard, but both Belgium and Switzerland are signatory to
In 1958 S. Karger, the Swiss publishing house, published its Kurze
Anleitung zur Abfassung von Manuskript und Literaturverzeichnis mit einer Liste der
abgekurzten Zeitschriftentitel der meist zitierten medizinischen Periodica (27), which
appeared also in English under the less exact title, Rulesfor the Preparation of
Manuscripts and Bibliographies with a List of Abbreviations of Titles of Current
Medical Periodicals (28). This list of 1,260 of "the most frequently cited medical
periodicals" appears to correspond closely with World Medical Periodicals,
with a few exceptions. As in the list of the Centre National de la Recherche
Scientifique, all adjectives are set in lower case regardless of the linguistic
practice of the vernacular. The place of publication (to distinguish between
journal titles) follows the title abbreviation after a comma.
In Denmark national activity toward standardization was marked in the
1930's by the industry of A. G. Drachmann of the Copenhagen University
Library. The Danish Standards Association participated in various inter-
national meetings on the abbreviation of journal titles, but its dissenting
opinions on the specific forms of abbreviations were overruled in the final
votes. Resuming work after World War II, the Danish association solicited
the help of the Swedish Standardization Association. Meeting in Gothen-
burg in 1946, the Danish and Swedish bodies devised their proposals regard-
ing the use of plurals and prepositions, which appeared acceptable at the
318 FRANK B. ROGERS AND THELMA CHAREN
International Organization for Standardization meeting at The Hague in
1948; but at Ascona in 1950 the World List rules prevailed. The 1951 Rome
meeting decided against submitting to the nations for study a list of words
appended to the international standard, and, since the various national com-
mittees were expected to furnish their own lists, the Danish committee felt
free to work on its own preferences. The Danish Standardization Association
in 1953 published its Dansk Standard 909; Fortkortelse af Tidsskrifttitler; its
eleven paragraphs closely followed the recommendations of the International
Organization for Standardization (29).
In 1957 the Akademiia Nauk SSSR published a compilation of journal
titles under the editorship of P. I. Nikitin, Ukazatel' Sokrashchennykh i Polnykh
Nazvanii Nauchnoi i Tekhnicheskoi Literatury (30). This has been published in
translation by the Liaison Office of the Technical Information Center of
Wright-Patterson Air Force Base as the Index of Abbreviated and Full Titles
of Scientific and Technical Periodical Literature and appeared in 1959, distributed
by the Office of Technical Services, U. S. Department of Commerce (31).
"The authors have taken into consideration the recommendations received
from the International Federation of National Associations on Standardiza-
tion, particularly its International Code of Abbreviations for Titles of Periodical
Publications." While the original contained entries on 12,250 periodicals from
all countries in several alphabets, the translation covers only the 1,804 Rus-
sian titles and their abbreviations of the original. It gives specific rules for
the treatment of Russian adjectives derived from proper nouns, names of the
Soviet Republics, and use of the name of the country (rather than the city)
to distinguish between similar titles. The rules on capitalization, hyphena-
tion, plurals, and particles are given.
Fisher's Abbreviations of Russian Scientific Serial Publications is a list of ab-
breviations "compiled from bibliographies in many Russian technical
journals and in the various abstract publications" (32). The 67 entries here,
as might be expected, do not show a great degree of correspondence with the
aforementioned Academy of Sciences Ukazatel'. The abbreviations in the
Fisher list are briefer than the Ukazatel': for example, G Zh versus Gornyy zh.
Having covered in cursory fashion the endeavors within a few nations
toward systematization of abbreviations, we can turn to a review of inter-
national activity. Using the 1927 edition of World List of Scientific Periodicals
and the German system as a base, the League of Nations' International
Institute of Intellectual Co-operation in 1930 published its Code international
ABBREVIATIONS FOR MEDICAL JOURNAL TITLES 319
d'abre'viations des titres de pe'riodiques (33), supplemented in 1932 by a classified
list of words most frequently appearing in periodical titles (34).
In 1937 Technical Committee 46 of the International Federation of the
National Standards Associations (ISA) was set up to deal with documentation
standards. The following year it issued as its ISA Bulletin Number 23 the
previously mentioned code adopted virtually without change. At later
plenary sessions of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO),
the successor to ISA as the official international co-ordinator of the various
national activities toward standardization, draft recommendations for peri-
odical titles were discussed. Consideration by the various national bodies at
sessions at The Hague in 1948, 1950, and 1952, in Ascona in 1950, in Rome
in 1951, in Copenhagen in 1952, and in Paris in 1953 resulted in the adop-
tion at Geneva in 1953 of ISO Recommendation R4, International Code for
the Abbreviation of Titles of Periodicals (35).
International interest in standardized journal abbreviations in recent years
has been continued under UNESCO sponsorship. The meeting of its Co-
ordinating Committee on Abstracting and Indexing in the Medical and
Biological Sciences in April 1948 listed among its agenda a discussion of a
list of abbreviations used in bibliographical references and in the texts of
abstracts (36). Dr. I. Leitch read a paper, "The Arrangement of Biblio-
graphical Information in Abstracting Journals," at the Co-ordinating Com-
mittee's meeting in June 1949, recognizing the usefulness of a standard for
abbreviation of journal titles and, while openminded, preferring the forth-
coming World List for its wider coverage (37). Eileen R. Cunningham, in
reporting at the same session on "The Librarian's Preferences Regarding
Abstracting Services," noted suggestions for the co-operation of the leading
abstracting services for the publication of lists of abbreviations under their
joint sponsorship (38).
As finally adopted by the Interim Co-ordinating Committee in Medical
and Biological Abstracting at a 1949 Paris conference, the initial resolution
read: "The Committee asks that UNESCO publish a List of Medical and
Biological Journals with appropriate abbreviations" (39).
In 1953, UNESCO and the World Health Organization jointly published
World Medical Periodicals, a compilation of titles of medical and biological
journals and their abbreviations. The list, compiled by Leslie T. Morton of
the British Medical Association, is based on the abbreviations of the World
List of Scientific Periodicals. It includes, in addition to medical and biological
periodicals, journals from the fields of pharmacy, dentistry, and veterinary
medicine, listing over 3,900 titles (40). The second edition appeared in 1957,
published by the World Medical Association by agreement with UNESCO
and WHO, and was again compiled by Mr. Morton. Its scope is the same
as the first edition; its coverage is considerably enlarged to over 4,800 titles.
320 FRANK B. ROGERS AND THELMA CHAREN
The abbreviation system is that of the World List, modified by ISO/R4, the
rules of which its preface reproduces (41).*
The UNESCO agenda for this decade includes work toward greater uni-
formity of journal title abbreviations in avowed co-operation with the In-
ternational Organization for Standardization, the World List of Scientific
Periodicals, and other important bodies. Envisioned is the publication of a list
of abbreviations supported by the major scientific indexing and abstracting
services as the unified product of all.
DESCRIPTION OF SELECTED SYSTEMS
The following exposition is a cursory analysis of several systems of journal
title abbreviations. The interested student should also refer to the study
published by B. F. Courtright in 1950 (42).
When, in 1880, John Shaw Billings published the first volume of the
Index-Catalogue of the Library of the Surgeon General's Office, his letter of trans-
mittal to Surgeon General Barnes touched upon the theory of abbreviations:
Some of the abbreviations of names of places, especially in the United States, might
have been still further shortened if the Catalogue had been intended for use only in this
country. But an analysis, by subjects, of so large a collection of medical periodicals is,
necessarily, useful in St. Petersburg, for example, as well as in Washington, its measure of
utility in any locality being the extent of the collection of medical periodical literature
therein. Intelligibility to foreigners, therefore, has been regarded as a quality essential to
the abbreviations in question (43).
In the formal "Explanations" preceding the list of journal titles and their
abbreviations he laid down equally cogent and concise rules:
The abbreviations are prepared as far as possible in accordance with the following
1. To follow the exact order of the words of the title.
2. To make them as brief as is consistent with clearness to those who are familiar with
3. To follow strictly the orthographical usages of each language. This disposes of the
question of capitalization.
4. To attain uniformity.
Some exceptions to this last rule have been found expedient. An abbreviation which
is quite intelligible in the body of a title is not always suitable as the first word, and the
*Editor's Note: In the Third Edition, 1961, of World Medical Periodicals, which was
published after this article was submitted for publication, the basic theory and form of
abbreviation remain substantially unchanged. The Third Edition is No. 41a in the Refer-
ABBREVIATIONS FOR MEDICAL JOURNAL TITLES 321
context may make an abbreviation sufficiently clear in a long title which in a short one
would appear obscure. The convenience of the reader is regarded as of more importance
than a rigid adherence to uniformity. The following minor details, with the list of single-
letter abbreviations, will assist in the comprehension of the scheme:
The article with which a title commences is invariably omitted.
Prepositions as well as articles are omitted in English titles, but in other languages their
entire elision would lead to obscurity, and is not warranted by usage.
The place of publication is not added when it forms an integral part of the title; in such
cases it is given without abbreviation, except in instances of constant recurrence, as London,
Paris, Berlin, etc., which are condensed into Lond., Par., Berl., etc., on all occasions. Nor
is it added to the titles of Transactions or Journals the places of publication of which have
been changed from time to time, as the references in each instance furnish the locality.
The reader seeking explanation of an abbreviated title will find it under its first word
(article excluded) in its alphabetical place in the list, but cross-references have been
added when, as in the case of Societies, the first word of the title may not be sufficiently
By 1937, although the theory of abbreviation explained in earlier volumes
was unchanged, the details of form were amplified in the "Synopsis of Style"
prefacing Series 4, Volume 2. The rules given here are very detailed and
only the highlights are given in the following condensation.
Words are shortened by abbreviation, contraction, or omission, i.e., Rio
for Rio de Janeiro. Single-word titles are not abbreviated, nor are short titles
of two or three words "in unusual relation to each other as in Animal Defender,
or Contact Point," nor titles in Asiatic languages unless bearing an interna-
tional title. Conjunctions are in general disregarded. Articles and preposi-
tions are omitted. The second half of long titles is disregarded if it contains
words of a subject related to the first part of the title. The place of publication
is in the abbreviation to show the country of origin and the language of the
journal and to differentiate between similar titles or abbreviations. All words
of English titles are capitalized; other capitalization follows the practice of
the country. Hyphens are ignored in compound words. German compound
words, hyphenated or nonhyphenated, are abbreviated element-by-element
independently and joined without a hyphen (Geschlkr. for Geschlechtskrank-
heiten). The list of abbreviated and contracted words contains 1,023 items.
Quarterly Cumulative Index Medicas
The Quarterly Cumulative Index Medicus published no set of rules regarding
its method of abbreviating journal titles. Particles appear sometimes in
foreign language titles, and sometimes they are omitted. The ampersand is
retained as the connective in English language titles and et and u. are re-
tained for French and German, respectively. Contractions do not appear.
The place of publication was not given originally for those titles not revealing
the country of origin, but later (1927 and after) the place of publication oc-
casionally appeared, as in Med. Rev., Bergen for Medicinsk Revue; and yet,
322 FRANK B. ROGERS AND THELMA CHAREN
Die neue Generation, published in Berlin, was cited as merely N. Generation.
By the time QCIM ceased publication in 1956 journals with similar titles
were distinguished by the place of publication, thus: J. Physiol. and J.
physiol., Paris; J. Urol. and J. urol., Paris. These examples demonstrate also
the policy on capitalization.
Chemical Abstracts serves as a model for the journals of the American In-
stitute of Physics and the American Institute of Biological Sciences as well
as for the publications of the American Chemical Society, Its rules for formu-
lation of abbreviations are given in its "List of Periodicals Abstracted," the
latest full edition of which appeared in 1956. In the same edition it gives a
list of 713 words comprising its "Journal Title Word Abbreviations."
Prepositions and conjunctions are omitted except where required to iden-
tify or differentiate journals with similar titles. Abbreviations (except for the
familiar generic words) are long enough only to permit recognition of the
word. Only words in the principal technical languages tend to be abbreviated
(exceptions are made for generic words in less familiar languages). Single-
word titles are not abbreviated. Exceptions to the rules are made when ob-
viously required; distinction is made, for instance, between J. Chem. Phys.
and J. Chem. and Phys. Capitalization follows the practice of the vernacular.
The place of publication is used in parentheses to distinguish similar titles
or similar abbreviations. It recognizes the use of "colloquial" abbreviations
in the chemical field, but cautions that "elsewhere the longer abbreviation
is probably desirable."
Periodica Medica follows a stated middle course. Articles and prepositions
are usually omitted, but conjunctions are inconsistently retained. Single-
word titles are not abbreviated. In titles beginning with a proper name the
given names are omitted. The place of publication is added to the abbrevia-
tion when the title is in Latin, when the language is not clearly discernible
from the abbreviation, when the language of the abbreviation is not that of
the official tongue of the country, and when it is necessary to distinguish
between journals of similar title. Abbreviation is by truncation or contraction
(tbc., fri., csl., dtsch.). Hyphens are retained in compound words according
to the national practice; components of compound words in German, how-
ever, are abbreviated as if the words are separate, and the hyphen is omitted.
The World List of Scientific Periodicals shows only minor changes in its three
editions. Articles and prepositions are usually omitted. While all words in
ABBREVIATIONS FOR MEDICAL JOURNAL TITLES 323
English titles were capitalized in the first edition, in the second and third
only nouns and proper adjectives were capitalized in English; rules for the
other languages called for capitalized nouns, lower-case adjectives. Conjunc-
tions were omitted except between two nouns connected by and, and between
broken compounds. Plurals are not indicated. Cognate words in all languages
are reduced when possible to the same form. Contractions are permitted.
Place of publication is omitted except to distinguish between similar titles
or when the language of the original is not discernible from the abbreviation.
In Germanic and Scandinavian languages compound nouns are abbreviated
as if separate, with each element of the compound capitalized; compound
adjectives are abbreviated as if separate, but are separated by a hyphen.
The first edition gave a list of generic abbreviations for German only; the
second and third editions included other languages. The first edition also
gave a list of 67 abbreviations for place names, but this was omitted from
the second and third editions.
World Medical Periodicals
The system used by World Medical Periodicals is for all practical purposes
the system specified by ISO/R4, although there are some differences and
inconsistencies between the two. The system is, of course, close to that of the
World List, but again there are differences, as, for example, the fact that
ISO/R4 indicates plurals, while World List does not, and ISO/R4 gives the
name in full when a title begins with a personal name, while World List uses
only the family name.
The ISO/R4 rules are here given in full:
INTERNATIONAL CODE FOR THE ABBREVIATION OF TITLES OF PERIODICALS
1. The rules in these recommendations are to be regarded as indicating the utmost limits
permitted for abbreviations; these rules may be modified to suit national purposes
within those limits.
2. As a general rule titles of periodicals are not abbreviated beyond a point which allows
the identification both of the title and the language. The order of the words, when
abbreviated, is never varied.
3. As a general rule the abridged form retains all words other than articles, conjunc-
tions, prepositions and the like, which are usually omitted.
The following are exceptions to the general rule:
a) The article, conjunction, preposition or combination of these are retained if form-
ing part (other than the initial word) of a title consisting of only two other words,
neither of which is a generic name.
b) The conjunction is retained between two compound words of a title, the last part
of which is common to and shared by both.
c) In exceptionally long titles, in addition to articles, conjunctions and prepositions,
some of the other less important words are omitted. When the conjunction is pre-
served, "und" is abbreviated as "u." and "och" as "o."; "and" is not abbreviated.
In languages in which the definite article begins with the letter d, the abbreviation
"d." is used in all cases.
324 FRANK B. ROGERS AND THELMA CHAREN
d) When the language of the title is not clearly shown by the abbreviated form, the
first conjunction, preposition or article is retained.
4. The normal method of abbreviation is by omitting the last letters (at least two) of the
the word, the letters omitted being replaced by a full stop.
5. Nouns are spelt with a capital, adjectives with a small initial letter. Names of institu-
tions are considered as proper nouns and begin with a capital.
6. Plurals are indicated only when necessary. This is done by adding a hyphen and the
last letter of the plural form to the abbreviation of the singular (omitting the full stop).
EXAMPLE: Jahrbuch-Jb. (singular)
7. Cognate words, having the same meaning in different languages, are reduced to the
same form when the orthography permits (cf. article 1).
8. Titles transliterated into the Roman alphabet according to an internationally ac-
cepted code are also abbreviated in accordance with the above rules.
9. Only titles consisting of more than one simple word, exclusive of article, are abbrevi-
10. In compound words each part is abbreviated as if it stood alone, the different parts
being connected by a hyphen.
EXAMPLE: Finska Likaresillskapets Handlingar
Finska Lak.-Sdllsk. Handl-r
I1. Where confusion might arise, the place (or if necessary the country) of publication is
to be indicated within brackets after the title, abbreviated or not, for instance:
a) when the abbreviation according to the foregoing rules fails to indicate the lan-
b) when the title is in a language other than that or those of the country in which the
periodical is published and the title does not reveal the country;
c) when two or more periodicals have the same title or the same correctly abbreviated
12. When the title of a periodical begins with the name of a person, the name as given on
the title page is kept in full and the rest of the title is abridged according to the rules.
The family name plus a generic name will not suffice; it is necessary also to indicate
the rest of the title (abbreviated).
EXAMPLE 1: Wilhelm Roux' Archiv fur Entwicklungsmechanik
Correct: Wilhelm Roux' Arch. Entwickl.-Mech.
Incorrect: Roux' Arch.
EXAMPLE 2: Aliemeyers Zeitschriftfiir Internationales Recht
Correct: Niemeyers Z. int. Recht
Incorrect: ANiemeyers Z.
The general principles underlying the new Index Medicus system, numbered
to correspond with ISO/R4 rules, are now presented:
INDEX MEDICUS RULES FOR THE ABBREVIATION OF TITLES OF PERIODICALS
1. The rules in these recommendations are to be regarded as indicating the utmost
limits permitted for abbreviations.
2. Titles of periodicals are not abbreviated beyond a point which allows the identifica-
tion of the title. The order of the words, when abbreviated, is never varied.
3. As a general rule the abridged form retains all words other than articles, conjunc-
tions, prepositions and the like, which are usually omitted.
ABBREVIATIONS FOR MEDICAL JOURNAL TITLES 325
The following are exceptions to the general rule:
a) When the particle is necessary, not primarily as a means of identifying the journal
but more importantly as an integral part of the intended sense of the title, the
particle will be retained.
EXAMPLE: Pro Medico Pro Med
M & B Pharmaceutical Bulletin M&B Pharm Bull
b) When the particle is an integral part of the name of a country or other place name
or of a corporate entry, the particle will be retained.
EXAMPLE: Archivos del Colegio medico de El Salvador
Arch Col Med El Salvador
Archivio De Vecchi per l'anatomia patologica e la medicina clinica
Arch De Vecchi Anat Pat
4. The normal method of abbreviation is by omitting the last letters of the word. No
punctuation mark, but rather a single space, is used between elements of the abbreviation.
5. The first letter of each word of the abbreviation is capitalized regardless of syntax.
6. Plurals are not indicated.
7. Cognate words, having the same meaning in different languages, are retained in
their original form.
8. Titles transliterated into the Roman alphabet are also abbreviated in accordance
with the above rules.
9. Only titles consisting of more than one word, exclusive of article, are abbreviated.
10. In compound words only the final part of the compound is abbreviated.
11. Where confusion might arise, the place (or if necessary the country) of publication
is to be indicated within parentheses after the title, abbreviated or not, for instance:
a) to distinguish titles in English from non-English titles;
b) to distinguish between periodicals having the same title or the same correctly ab-
c) to anticipate and avoid possible conflict with journals created in the future with
similar titles within the same country, language, or specialty;
d) after abbreviations containing the words Acta and Folia unless the title contains a
12. When the title of a periodical includes the name of a person, only the family name
is given, in uninflected form, and the rest of the title is abridged according to the rules;
but when the name comes at the beginning of a title and at the same time is the name
of a corporate body (society or institution), the names, both personal and family, are
EXAMPLE 1. Albrecht von Graefes Archivfiir Ophthalmologie
Graefe Arch Ophthal
2. Annali dell'Istituto Carlo Forlanini
Ann Ist Forlanini
3. Henry Ford Hospital Medical Bulletin
Henry Ford Hosp Med Bull
THE INDEX MEDICUS SYSTEM
In the National Library of Medicine rules for the abbreviation of journal
titles have evolved from the 1880 prototype of John Shaw Billings. Through
326 FRANK B. ROGERS AND THELMA CHAREN
the final volume of NLM's Current List of Medical Literature, published in 1959,
the old Index-Catalogue style was followed.
In 1960 NLM began publication of the new series of the Index Medicus,
an amalgamation, as it were, of the old Current List and Quarterly Cumulative
Index Medicus. These superseded publications used two different systems of
title abbreviations; in the new publication there was the opportunity to
eliminate two conflicting systems in favor of a new one more closely adherent
to "international standards," although we have seen that those standards
are not clear-cut and are far from being universally accepted. In establishing
the system for the Index Medicus,* the National Library of Medicine con-
scientiously took as a firm base the system embodied in World Medical
Periodicals and its corollary ISO/R4. NLM was much aware of its obligation
to refrain from adding yet another new system to the pot, and thus another
crime to the calendar.
In point of fact, two-thirds of the abbreviations in the Index Medicus sys-
tem are identical with those in the World Medical Periodicals system, if one
excepts the differences of capitalization and punctuation. Where the dif-
ferences between the two systems occur, they are attributable to three major
1. Limitations and requirements of machine methods. A major constraint is in-
troduced by the fact that the Index Medicus is produced by methods which
make the use of diacritical marks, for instance, an especially difficult problem.
(See NLAM Index Mechanization Project (45).) More importantly, the Index
Medicus will eventually be composed by a digital computer (circa 1964).
When this is accomplished, internal punctuation of the abbreviation, as by
hyphens and periods, will become a severe handicap; the computer, searching
for "end of phrase" indications, easily gets into trouble. The matter of cap-
italization of each element, while loosely allied to the foregoing arguments,
is better justified apart from mechanical consideration. Of the multiple
systems of abbreviation now in use, some capitalize all nouns, some capi-
talize all words in English. Some lower-case all adjectives, while some except
English adjectives derived from names. The CNRS and Karger systems
lower-case all adjectives regardless of derivation: thus, J. amer. med. Ass.,
and J. mar. biol. Ass. unit. Kingd. In some variants the argument is that the
practice helps establish the language of the original. In any system the
fact of the matter is that in final proofreading of a manuscript, one is always
assailed by terrible doubts solely on the grounds of capitalization, and one's
The 1962 List of Journals Indexed in Index Medicus contains some abbreviations which
differ slightly from the application of the rules here stated, in such matters as treatment of
given names and treatment of geographical terms in and out of parentheses. The forth-
coming 1963 List, to be published this fall, will do away with conflict between rule and
practice. Meanwhile, the diligent student may find the search for discrepancies instructive
ABBREVIATIONS FOR MEDICAL JOURNAL TITLES 327
only recourse is to go laboriously to published lists for "authoritative"
decision. In practice, in all countries, words in a title are usually printed all
in capitals; the concern with these, the making of subtle distinctions, the
variations from place to place, do not seem warranted.
2. Transliteration systems. The National Library of Medicine uses Library
of Congress rules for transliterating the Cyrillic and Greek alphabets, a
modified Hepburn romanization for Japanese, and the Wade-Giles romani-
zation for Chinese.
3. Correction of WMP inconsistencies and incongruities. One of the basic princi-
ples in the World Medical Periodicals system unacceptable to Index Medicus is
abbreviation by contraction as well as by truncation. We do not feel that
the WMP form Cy is patently City (as in J. Oslo Cy Hosp.), that Tms is clearly
Times, or that Bgham is suitable for Birmingham. In the Index Medicus system
all words are abbreviated by dropping letters at the end of the word. The
only exception to the rule forbidding contractions relates to a few German
compounds indicating frequency of publication (e.g., Mschr, Wschr) and
similarly the commonly cited Zbl.
The Index Medicus system tries to avoid such inconsistencies as S. Carol.
for South Carolina, but N. C. for North Carolina; or the use of Sth. for southern,
but North. for northern; or the omission of the El in El Salvador in a title
such as Sanid. Salvador (Sanidad en El Salvador) but its inclusion in Arch. Col.
med. El Salvador (for Archivos del Colegio me'dico de El Salvador).
The differences between World Medical Periodicals (WMP) and Index Medi-
cus (IM) practice are shown in the following comparison.
In August 1961 there were 1,766 medical periodical titles covered in IM,
excluding medical project report titles. Of the 1,766 titles, 346 do not appear
in WMP, and 18 have undergone title changes since the appearance of
WMP; these 365 titles were dropped from further consideration, leaving
1,402 periodical titles for comparison of WMP and IM practice.
Of these 1,402 titles, 904 abbreviations (65 per cent) are identical, save
for the presence of accents, periods, capitalization, or spacing. There is
considerable deviation in 315 abbreviations (22 per cent) and there are
minor deviations in 183 abbreviations (13 per cent). These 183 minor
a) differences in formation of compound words 62
b) deviation of geographical name in parentheses 36
c) difference in bracketed material 27
d) omission of conjunction by IM 27
e) difference in transliteration system 13
f) use of contractions by WMP 12
g) use of prepositions by WMP 3
h) use of article or other particles by WMP 3
328 FRANK B. ROGERS AND THELMA CHAREN
Examples of each of these minor deviations are:
a) WMP: Acta gastro-ent. belg.
IM: Acta Gastroent Belg
b) WMP: An. Med. Cir. (Barcelona)
IM: An Med Cir (Barc)
c) WMP: GI. srpske Akad. Nauka, Od. med. Nauka
IM: Glas Srpske Akad Nauk [Med]
WMP: Excerpta med. (Amst.), Sect. XV
IM: Excerpta Med [XV]
d) WMP: Antibiot. et Chemother. (Basel)
IM: Antibiot Chemother (Basel)
e) WMP Biohimia
f) WMP: Amer. J. publ. Hlth
IM: Amer J Public Health
g) WMP: Lutte c. Cancer
IM: Lutte Cancer
h) WMP: Ther. d. Gegenw.
IM: Ther Gegenw
Examples of the 315 abbreviations showing "considerable deviation" are
listed here, with commentary:
i) WMP: J. Iowa St. med. Soc.
IM: J Iowa Med Soc
for Journal of the Iowa State Medical Society
WMP: J. Mich. med. Soc.
IM: J Mich Med Soc
for Journal of the Michigan State Medical Society
Comment: Of 15 state medical journal titles in which the word "state"
appears, WMP uses St. in the abbreviation for 7, but omits it
from the abbreviation for 8. IM consistently omits it.
j) WMP: Penn. med. J.
Stud. Dep. Path. Pa Univ.
Comment: Penn., Pa. and even Pennsylvania appear in abbreviations. IM,
on the contrary, has tried to be consistent in the abbreviation of
the names of states; the only variations are those allowed when
the state name is the initial word rather than an internal word,
as: New York J Med, but J NY Med Coll.
k) WMP: Igiene mod.
Nuovi Ann. Ig.
Comment: IM has tried to be consistent in its use of the same abbreviation
for base words and all derivatives.
ABBREVIATIONS FOR MEDICAL JOURNAL TITLES 329
1) WMP: Arch. Inst. bras. Tuberc. for Arquivos do IBIT
Boston med. Quart. for BMQ
DDZ for DDZ-Das Deutsche Zahnarzteblatt
Comment: In its treatment of acronyms, IM uses the form as it appears in
the journal title.
m) WMP: Arch. for Arq.
Comment: This is a basic deviation in policy from WMP and ultimately
ISO/R4, article 7, which states that "cognate words, having the
same meaning in different languages, are reduced to the same
form when the orthography permits." IM feels that no purpose
is served in identifying a journal by respelling words ad libitum.
n) WMP: Ann. Ist. Forlanini
Mem. Inst. Osw. Cruz
Mem. Inst. biol. E. Dias
Comment: IM consistently omits the initials of proper names in title ab-
o) WMP: Bull. Johns Hopk. Hosp.
Sudhoffs Arch Gesch. Med.
Comment: IM consistently gives proper names in full.
p) WMP: Gesnerus (Aarau)
Comment: IM tries to be consistent in applying its rules for use of place of
publication; WMP appears to be inconsistent in its application
of ISO/R4 article on this matter.
SIX SYSTEMS COMPARED
The following examples illustrate the differences in the abbreviation of
titles in six systems. The titles selected demonstrate only a few of the various
principles of concern to abbreviation theory in the systems of Chemical
Abstracts (CA), Quarterly Cumulative Index Medicus (QCIM), World List of
Scientifw Periodicals (WLSP), World Medical Periodicals (WMP), Index-Cata-
logue (IC), and Index Medicus (IM).
Length of tide
Annals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology (Saint Louis)
CA: Ann. Otol. Rhinol. & Laryngol.
QCIM: Ann. Otol. Rhin. & Laryng.
330 FRANK B. ROGERS AND THELMA CHAREN
WLSP: Ann. Otol., etc., St Louis
WMP: Ann. Otol. (St. Louis)
IC: Ann. Otol. Rhinol.
IM: Ann Otol
Bulletin of the New York Medical College, Flower and Fifth Avenue Hospitals
(this has been recently changed to Journal of New York Medical College,
Flower and Fifth Avenue Hospitals)
CA: Bull. N. Y. Med. Coll. Flower and Fifth Ave. Hosp.
QCIM: Bull. New York M. Coll.
WLSP: Bull. N. Y. med. Coll.
WMP: Bull. N. Y. med. Coll.
IC: Bull. N. York M. Coll.
IM: Bull NY Med Coll
Zentralblatt fur allgemeine Pathologie und pathologische Anatomie
CA: Zentr. allgem. Pathol. u. pathol. Anat.
QCIM: Zentralbl. allg. Path.
WLSP: Zbl. allg. Path. path. Anat.
WMP: Zbl. allg. Path. path. Anat.
IC: Zbl. allg. Path.
IM: Zbl Allg Path
Capitalization of corporate names
Bulletins et me'moires de la Societe' medicale des h6pitaux de Paris
CA: Bull. me'm. soc. me'd. h6p. Paris
QCIM: Bull. et me'm. Soc. me'd. h6p. Paris
WLSP: Bull. Soc. me'd. H6p. Paris
WMP: Bull. Soc. med. H6p. Paris
IC: Bull. Soc. me'd. h6p. Paris
IM: Bull Soc Med Hop Paris
Arquivos de Faculdade de higiene e sau'de puiblica da Universidade de Sao Paulo
CA: Arquiv. fac. hig. e sau'de pu'blica univ. Sdo Paulo
QCIM: Arq. Fac. hig. e sau'de pu'b.
WMP: Arch. Fac. Hig. S. Paulo
IM: Arq Fac Hig S Paulo
Place of publication
Acta Neurovegetativa (Wien)
CA: Acta Neuroveget. (Vienna)
QCIM: Acta neuroveg.
WLSP: Acta Neuroveg.
WMP: Acta neuroveg. (Wien)
ABBREVIATIONS FOR MEDICAL JOURNAL TITLES 331
IM: Acta Neuroveg (Wien)
Archives internationales de pharmacodynamie et de the'rapie
CA: Arch. intern. pharmacodynamie
QCIM: Arch. internat. pharmacodyn.
WLSP: Arch. int. Pharmacodyn.
WMP: Arch. int. Pharmacodyn.
IC: Arch. internat. pharm. dyn., Par.
IM: Arch Int Pharmacodyn
Cuore e circolazione
CA: Cuore e circolazione
QCIM: Cuore e circolaz.
WLSP: Cuore e Circul. [sic]
WMP: Cuore e Circol.
IC: Cuore & circol.
IM: Cuore Circ
Zeitschrift fur Anatomie und Entwicklungsgeschichte
CA: Z. Anat. Entwicklungsgeschichte
QCIM: Ztschr. Anat.
WLSP: Z. Anat. EntwGesch.
WMP: Z. Anat. Entwickl.-Gesch.
IC: Zschr. Anat. Entw.
IM: Z Anat Entwicklungsgesch
Albrecht von Graefes Archivffur Ophthalmologie
CA: Arch. ophthalmol., Graefe's
QCIM: von Graefes Arch. Ophth.
WLSP: v. Graefes Arch. Ophthal.
WMP: Albrecht v. Graefes Arch. Ophthal.
IC: Arch. Ophth., Berl.
IM: Graefe Arch Ophthal
State medical journals
Journal of the Indiana State Medical Association
CA: J. Indiana State Med. Assoc.
QCIM: J. Indiana M. A.
332 FRANK B. ROGERS AND THELMA CHAREN
WLSP: J. Ind. med. Ass.
WMP: J. Indiana med. Ass.
IC: J. Indiana M. Ass.
IM: J Indiana Med Ass
Journal of the Oklahoma State Medical Association
CA: J. Oklahoma State Med. Assoc.
QCIM: J. Oklahoma M. A.
WLSP: J. Okla. med. Ass.
WMP: J. Okla. St. med. Ass.
IC: J. Oklahoma M. Ass.
IM: J Okla Med Ass
Journal of the Medical Association of the State of Alabama
CA: J. Med. Assoc. State Alabama
QCIM: J. M. A. Alabama
WLSP: J. med. Ass. Ala.
WMP: J. med. Ass. Ala
IC: J. M. Ass. Alabama
IM: J Med Ass Alabama
Zentralblatt fur Bakteriologie, Parasitenkunde, Infektionskrankheiten und Hy-
giene. Erste Abteilung: Originale
CA: Zentr. Bakteriol. Parasitenk. Abt. I. Orig.
QCIM: Zentralbl. Bakt.
WLSP: Zbl. Bakt., Abt. 1
WMP: Zbl. Bakt., I. Abt. Orig.
IC: Zbl. Bakt.
IM: Zbl Bakt [Orig]
Table I shows a comparison of several generic terms and a few other com-
mon words as abbreviated by the major abbreviation systems.
Table II summarizes the characteristics of the six systems along various
axes. Most of the items are illustrated in the previously cited sample titles.
On the basis of the samples used and others which could have been chosen
one can see similarities between any two systems on any given item. If the
systems were arranged on a spectrum of similarity, as it were, the range in
general would be thus:
CA QCIr,M IC im WMP WLSP
ABBREVIATIONS FOR MEDICAL JOURNAL TITLES 333
S-4 E , V E -W
0 0 .o
11:1 U2 4 x u
V CA P4 CZ >, E 4-11 v u .0 0, C's
W m C) r. 4
--!. --!. < u r:1 0 0 0 "'. .. .. 0 0 0. E-4 E--l .'- N N
UY . =~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~'
E ¢ < U : c) c > E = > > o O < XeEX,0 0
E )> HE|3 D
0-4 t) 60C
3 ¢ $ , O O > E = E S~~~~~~~E E
19 rA 0
Cd U CZ
4.0 (L) 0
ta .0 4-1
0 4) CIS -4
1-,.z OO AC'41
ad o: n.>
E E A A
b:=E= o H¢N
>< U:OO OO
334 FRANK B. ROGERS AND THELMA CHAREN
CHARACTERISTICS CA QCIM WLSP WMP IC IM
Punctuation used + + none
Accents and other dia- + + none
critical marks used
Nouns: English ± +
Nouns: Foreign' none none none
Adj: English2 + + none
Adj: Foreign none none none none
Articles used none none limited limited none none
Conjunctions used + limited +
Ampersand used + none + none
Particles used limited limited limited limited limited none
Contractions used + limited limited
+ + +
Single-word titles spelled + +
Abbreviations none none varies varies none none
Full name + varies varies varies varies
Hyphens retained + + none none
none none + + + none
Compound words abbre-
Place of publication in ( ) out of ( ) out of ( ) in ( ) out of ()in ( )
State in state medical included omitted irreg irreg omitted omitted
State names abbreviated varies none varies varies none varies
Geographical names ab-
Nouns + none none
Adjectives + +
1. German nouns always capitalized
2. Adjectives from proper nouns always capitalized
Index-Catalogue lies between Quarterly Cumulative and Index Medicus but is
closer to the latter. Index Medicus, on the other hand, lies halfway between
Index-Catalogue, its parent, and World Medical Periodicals. World Medical
Periodicals is of course very close to its parent World List.
In the matter of abbreviating journal titles, Dr. John F. Fulton offers this
overly generous and nondefinitive dictum: ". . . in the last analysis it does
not matter whether you follow any one of these lists provided you are your-
self consistent and have thought sufficiently deep into the matter to make
reasonable men give your preferences serious consideration" (46). The
National Library of Medicine, in its code of rules delineated in the Appendix,
ABBREVIATIONS FOR MEDICAL JOURNAL TITLES 335
has attempted to be consistent, has indeed thought deep into the matter,
and can only hope that reasonable men will give these preferences serious
consideration. There can be no doubt that the last word has not been said;
there should be no doubt, either, that the National Library of Medicine will
continue to be willing to consider the preferences of others.
We would add this note. An international standard requires a set of rules.
It also requires an authoritative list. An international indexing periodical
such as Index Medicus must of necessity deal with new journal titles as they
appear, before they are incorporated into any list. For its own control pur-
poses the Index Medicus must publish revised lists of titles and abbreviations
at least annually. A viable international standard would have a better op-
portunity of remaining viable if it were exemplified in such recurring,
updated lists. While some change is inevitable, a situation in which standards
change every few years is not standardization, but chaos. We believe that
the elimination of the old Index-Catalogue and Quarterly Cumulative Index
Medicus systems in favor of the new Index Medicus system brings Amelican
practice in medical bibliography a great deal closer to the "international
standard," insofar as there is an international standard. If the international
standard is to be further revised, as seems likely, we would welcome the
attention of the revision plenum to the principles here set forth.
1. MCCASLAND, G. E. A concise form for scientific literature citations. Science 120:
150-152, July 23, 1954.
2. BISHOP, C. An integrated approach to the documentation problem. Amer. Docum. 4:
54-65, Spring (April) 1953.
3. REID, J. B. Chronological sigils. Amer. Docum. 5: 26-28, Jan. 1954.
4. ODEND'HAL, G. Un code d'abreviations pour bibliographes. Primo Congresso Mon-
diale delle Biblioteche e di Bibliografia, Roma-Venezia, 15-30 giugno 1929. Vol. 2,
Memorie e comunicazioni . Roma, 1931. p. 289-291.
5. PLACE, F. Abbreviation: more or less. BULLETIN 21: 111-113, July 1932.
6. KENT, F. L. Some aspects of international standardization in library work. Libr.
World 51: 243-245, June 1949.
7. BRODE, W. R. Journal abbreviations. Phys. Today 4: 4-5, Aug. 1951.
8. SHEPPARD, R. L. Contractions for titles of periodicals. Nature 122: 277-278, Aug. 25,
9. LORPHAVRE, G. Les travaux de la Commission 46 de 1' "International Standardisa-
tion Organisation" concernant la normalisation en matiere de documentation.
Cah. Docum. 2: 90-96, Oct. 1948.
10. ARTELT, W. The problem of abbreviating the titles of medical periodicals. BULLETIN
43: 52-57, Jan. 1955.
11. U. S. Army Medical Library. Synopsis of style with a list of abbreviations for serial
publications. In Index-Catalogue of the Library of the Surgeon General's Office.
Ser. 4, Vol. 2, 1937. p. -.
12. American Chemical Society. 1960 Supplement to the List of Periodicals Abstracted
by Chemical Abstracts (1956 edition). Columbus, Ohio, 1960. p. I J.
336 FRANK B. ROGERS AND THELMA CHAREN
13. Conference of Biological Editors. Committee on Form and Style. Style Manual for
Biological Journals. Washington, American Institute of Biological Sciences, 1960.
14. WEINBERGER, B. W. Proper abbreviations for dental journals. BULLETIN 24: 92-99,
15. -. Code of abbreviations for dental journals. Dent. Survey 12: 314-319, Aug. 1936.
16. A World List of Scientific Periodicals Published in the Years 1900-1933. 2d ed. Lon-
don, Oxford University Press, 1934. p. x.
17. Biological Council. A List of Abbreviations of Titles of Biological Journals Selected,
by Permission, from the World List of Scientific Periodicals. London, 1949. p. [iv].
18. SCHWALBE, J. Einheitliche Abkiurzung der Titel medizinischer Zeitschriften und
Werke in Quellenangaben. Deutsch. Med. Wschr. 40: 28-30, Jan. 1, 1914.
19. Periodica Medica: Titelabkiurzungen medizinischer Zeitschriften. 4. Aufl. Stuttgart,
Georg Thieme Verlag, 1952. p. iv.
20. RUST, WERNER. Verzeichnis von unklaren Titelkuirzungen deutscher und auslan-
discher Zeitschriften. Leipzig, Otto Harrassowitz, 1927. 142 p.
21. PRINZHORN, F. Normung im Bibliotheks-, Buch- und Zeitschriftenwesen. Primo Con-
gresso Mondiale delle Biblioteche e di Bibliografia, Roma-Venezia, 15-30 giugno
1929. Vol. 2, Memorie e comunicazioni . Roma, 1931. p. 196-208.
22. WVo sind Welche? Medizinische Zeitschriften in der DDR; Stand vom 1. Marz 1960.
Deutsche Staatsbibliothek-Berlin. Zeitschriften-Bestandsverzeichniss 7. Berlin, 1960.
23. RICHET, C. Dictionnaire de physiologie. Paris, 1897. Vol. 2, p. 101.
24. Recommandations aux auteurs. J. Physiol. (Par) 39: [1-6] 1946/47.
25. Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique. Bulletin analytique: Liste des periodi-
ques regus au C.N.R.S. et de leurs abreviations. Paris, 1948. 72 p.
26. L'Abreviation des titres de periodiques. Cah. Docum. 2: 97-105, Oct. 1948.
27. KARGER (S.), A.G., Basel. Kurze Anleitung zur Abfassung von Manuskript und Litera-
turverzeichnis mit einer Liste der abgekusrzten Zeitschriftentitel der meist zitierten
medizinischen Periodica. Basel, 1958. 17 p.
28. -. Rules for the Preparation of Manuscripts and Bibliographies with a List of Ab-
breviations of Titles of Current Medical Periodicals. Basel, 1958. 17 p.
29. DRACHMANN, A. G. The Danish standard for abbreviation of titles of periodicals: DS
909. Libri 6: 247-254, 1956.
30. Akademiia Nauk SSSR. Institut Nauchnoi Informatsii. Ukazatel' Sokrashchennykh i
Polnykh Nazvanii Nauchnoi i Tekhnicheskoi Literatury. Moskva, 1957. 237 p.
31. -. Index of Abbreviated and Full Titles of Scientific and Technical Periodical
Literature. Prepared by Liaison Office, Technical Information Center, MCLTD.
Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. Washington, 1959. 247 p. [Partial transla-
32. FISHER, E. L. Abbreviations of Russian scientific serial publications. Amer. Docum.
10: 192-208, July 1959.
33. International Institute of Intellectual Co-operation. Code international d'abrevia-
tions des titres de periodiques. Paris, 1930. 12 p.
34. -. Supplement au Code international d'abreviations des titres de periodiques.
Paris, 1932. 18 p.
35. International Organization for Standardization. Standardization in the Domain of
Documentation. The Hague, 1954. p. 4-7.
36. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Report on the
Activities and the Meeting of the Co-ordinating Committee on Abstracting and
ABBREVIATIONS FOR MEDICAL JOURNAL TITLES 337
Indexing in the Medical and Biological Sciences, 1950. UNESCO Publication 580.
37. Ibid., p. 57-62.
38. Ibid., p. 66-71.
39. International Conference on Science Abstracting convened by the United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, in Paris, from 20 to 25 June
1949. Final Report. 1951. p. 156.
40. World Medical Periodicals. Paris, WHO and UNESCO, 1953. 237 p.
41. World Medical Periodicals. 2d ed. New York, World Medical Association, 1957. 340 p.
41a. World Medical Periodicals. 3d ed. New York, World Medical Association, 1961.
407 p. (This edition appeared after the present article was submitted for publication.
Although the analysis of WMP is here based on the second edition, the basic theory
and form of abbreviations in the third edition remain substantially unchanged.)
42. COURTRIGHT, B. F. Journal titles in medical bibliography. In Johns Hopkins Uni-
versity. Welch Medical Library. Terminal Report of Indexing Research Project.
Baltimore, 1951. Appendix 3, 31 p. and 2 Supp.
43. Index-Catalogue of the Library of the Surgeon-General's Office, United States Army.
Washington, 1880. Vol. 1, p. iv.
44. Ibid., p. .
45. The National Library of Medicine Index Mechanization Project,July 1, 1958-June 30,
1960. BULLETIN 49: No. 1, Pt. 2, Jan. 1961. 96 p.
46. FULTON, J. F. The principles of bibliographical citation: an informal discourse ad-
dressed to writers of scientific papers. BULLETIN 22: 183-197, April 1934.
338 FRANK B. ROGERS AND THELMA CHAREN
RULES FOR ABBREVIATION OF PERIODICAL TITLES
The first letter of each word of the abbreviation is capitalized regardless of syntax.
All punctuation, such as periods, commas, apostrophes, hyphens, and semicolons, is
All accents and other diacritical marks are omitted. In German the umlauted a, 6 and
iu are written ae, oe and ue respectively (except in place names). In the Scandinavian
languages a, a, 6 and 0 are written a, a, o and o, respectively. In the Russian translitera-
tion, the ligature and the apostrophe are disregarded. In the Chinese transliteration, the
apostrophe is disregarded.
Articles, conjunctions (including the ampersand), prepositions, and other particles are
omitted from abbreviations. Exceptions are permitted if omission of the particle results in
an unintelligible abbreviation (as for M & B Pharmaceutical Bulletin).
Length of Word
The usual method of abbreviation is by omission of the last letters of a word. Letters
are not omitted within a word to form contractions. The only exceptions to this rule are
the German words containing time designations (Mbl for Monatsblatter, Mh for Monats-
hefte, Mschr for Monatsschrift, Mkurse for Monatskurse, Vjschr for Vierteljahrsschrift, Wschr
for Wochenschrift) and the form Zbl for Zentralblatt.
Abbreviations will, in general, be formed by the truncation of at least two letters. Ab-
breviation by dropping merely a single letter is permissible for cognate words if the re-
sulting abbreviations are similar (as Stud for Studi and Studies) and for derivative words
if the resultant abbreviations are similar or identical (as Cuba for Cuba, Cuban, cubanos,
In English the word Saint is contracted to St. The various forms in foreign languages
(Saint [French], Sainte, San, Santa, Sankt, Sao, Sint and comparable forms) are shortened to
S in abbreviations. Foreign contractions (St. [French], Ste., Sto., Sta.) are also shortened
Length of Title
Titles are abbreviated in general up to the point where the journal is clearly distin-
guishable from another.
Since in theory the object of abbreviation is brevity, title abbreviations will in general
be short; all elements of a full title need not be accounted for in the abbreviation. The
words of the abbreviation will proceed in the order of the words of the full title only up
to the point of positive identification of the journal.
Arch Mal Prof for Archives des maladies professionelles, de mcdecine du
travail et de skcurite' sociale
Titles consisting of a single word are not abbreviated.
ABBREVIATIONS FOR MEDICAL JOURNAL TITLES 339
Titles consisting of initials or abbreviations are reproduced in capital letters and with-
Acronyms within abbreviations are retained as above in capital letters and without
Omission of words within a title will be permitted only under the following circum-
a) If two or more generic names connected by and appear in the title, only the first
will be used in the abbreviation.
Bol Soc Cir B Air for Boletines y trabajos; Sociedad de cirugia de Buenos
b) Explanatory or extraneous words appearing in the title may be omitted from the
abbreviation if the omission does not affect the substance of the generic concept
and if the inclusion would materially affect the brevity.
C R Acad Sci (Paris) for Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des se'ances de
l'Academie des sciences
C R Lab Carlsberg for Comptes rendus des travaux du Laboratoire Carls-
c) Unessential titular designations and political, geographical, or administrative sub-
divisions may be omitted from the abbreviation if the omission does not affect the
identity of the body or if the inclusion would materially affect the brevity.
An Acad Nac Med (Madrid) for Anales de la Real academia nacional de
Ann Roy Coll Surg Eng for Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons
d) The parent body in corporate names may be omitted from the abbreviation if its
subdivision is distinctive enough to stand alone.
An Fac Med S Paulo for Anais da Faculdade de medicina da Universidade
de Sao Paulo
Cognate words having the same meaning in different languages (e.g., journal, giornale,
Zhurnal; archivos, arquivos) are retained in their original form and abbreviated accordingly.
Titles are transliterated into the Roman alphabet using the systems in current practice
at the National Library of Medicine, viz., Library of Congress rules for the Greek and
Cyrillic alphabets (with omission of the ligature and apostrophe), modified Hepburn
romanization for the Japanese, and the Wade-Giles romanization for the Chinese (with
omission of the apostrophe).
Transliterated titles will be subjected to the same general rules of abbreviation obtain-
ing for original titles. In the matter of questionable truncations, however, Index Medicus
favors not abbreviating.
340 FRANK B. ROGERS AND THELMA CHAREN
Hifu Rinsho for Hifuka no Rinsho ["Clinical Studies in Dermatology"]
Saishin Igaku for Saishin Igaku ["Recent Medicine"]
If a journal title appears in the vernacular and in another language, the vernacular
will be the basis of the abbreviation.
If the vernacular requires transliteration, the transliteration will be the basis of the
abbreviation. Present exceptions are some Japanese and Chinese titles: if the translation
of the ideogram or the romanization appears on the outside cover of the journal, the ab-
breviation will be based on these.
Geographical names, whether noun or adjective, inflected or uninflected, may be ab-
breviated. Abbreviation is usually avoided if the word is the first word of the abbreviated
Abbreviation of the same place name in or out of the parentheses will be determined
by the length of the place name of itself and in relation to the rest of the abbreviation.
Short names, however familiar, will gain little by abbreviation within short titles (e.g.,
Sem Hop Paris).
Longer names are abbreviated only by omission of the last letters of single names or
the last letters of each of the elements of compound names (e.g., B Air for Buenos Aires)
and not by contraction.
The common element -burg, -burgh, -bourg, etc., may appear as -b appended to the base
element (as Luxemb in Bull Soc Sci Med Luxemb).
The word State is omitted from the abbreviations of State medical journal titles. The
word State appearing in an institutional name must be retained (as in Louisiana State
University School of Medicine).
The only state names abbreviated are Calif(ornia), Conn(ecticut), Mich(igan), Minn-
(esota), Okla(homa), Penn(sylvania), Tenn (essee), and the compound state names N(orth)
Carolina, S(outh) Carolina, S(outh) Dakota and W(est) Virginia. New York must be written
in full for initial appearance in an abbreviation, although NY will serve when it appears
within the abbreviation.
The abbreviations N, E, S, W may be used for North, East, South, West or for Northern,
Eastern, Southern, and Western only when these words are followed by a geographical name.
The forms Northern, Eastern, Southern, Western, when not followed by a geographical name,
are given in full at the beginning of a title but are shortened to North, East, South, West
when occurring within the body of a title. Intercardinal points will be spelled out, in their
shortest form, as Northwest for Northwest and Northwestern, Southeast for Southeast and South-
E Afr Med J for East African
S Dakota J Med Pharm for South Dakota
Pediat Clin N Amer for North America
Northwest Med for Northwest
Northwest Univ Dent Sch for Northwestern
Proc North Cent Sect Amer Urol Ass for North Central
Southern Med J for Southern
Proc West Pharmacol Soc for Western
Place names within parentheses containing an initial definite article (La Habana, Den
Haag) omit the initial article if the identity of the city is preserved; internal particles must
be retained (Aix les Bains for Aix-les-Bains).
ABBREVIATIONS FOR MEDICAL JOURNAL TITLES 341
Proper names of historical, contemporary, or mythological figures in titles are not
Arch Maragliano Pat Clin
Arch Dc Vecchi Anat Pat
Ochsner Clin Rep
Proper names in inflected form in titles are given in uninflected form in abbreviations.
Virchow Arch Path Anat for Virchows Archiv fur pathologische Ana-
tomie und Physiologie und fur klinische
Zh Nevropat Psikhiat Korsakov for Zhurnal Nevropatologii i Psikhiatrii
imeni S.S. Korsakova
When the title contains a personal name not a part of a corporate designation, only
the family name is used regardless of the position of the name in the title.
Graefe Arch Ophthal for Albrecht von Graefes Archivffir Ophthalmologie
Personal names which are part of the official title of a society or institution are given in
full when they appear at the beginning of a journal title; within the body of a title, given
names are omitted.
Henry Ford Hosp Med Bull for Henry Ford Hospital Medical Bulletin
Bull Hopkins Hosp for Bulletin of the Johns Hopkins Hospital
The parent body of corporate designations may be omitted from the abbreviation if its
subdivision is distinctive enough to stand alone.
Bull Ayer Clin Lab for Bulletin of the Ayer Clinical Laboratory of the
Tr Inst Norm Pat Fiziol for Trudy Instituta; Institut normal'noi i pato-
(Moskva) logicheskoi fiziologii, Akademiia meditsinskikh
Selective Sections and Editions
Selective subdivisions or sections of general scientific publications or of specialties are
identified in abbreviated form in brackets.
Ann Univ Curie Sklodowska [Med] for Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-
Sklodowska; Sectio D, Medicina
Farmaco [Prat] for Farmaco; Edizione Pratica
Other editions of parent publications are indicated in abbreviated form in brackets.
Acta Rheum [Eng] for Acta Rheumatologica; English Edition
Compound and Hyphenated Words
No hyphens are used in abbreviations.
Nonhyphenated compound words are treated as single words, i.e., elements of the com-
pound words are not individually abbreviated.
Ergebn Anat Entwicklungsgesch for Ergebnisse der Anatomie und Entwick-
Hyphenated compound words are treated as single words, disregarding the hyphen,
342 FRANK B. ROGERS AND THELMA CHAREN
a) In hyphenated words artificially compounding separate geographical concepts, the
hyphen is omitted and the elements are abbreviated separately.
Acta Morph Neerl Scand for Acta morphologica Neerlando-Scandinavica
4cta Gynaec Obstet Hisp Lusit for Acta gynaecologica et obstetrica Hispano-
b) In hyphenations artificially compounded for stylistic reasons, the hyphen is omitted
and the elements are abbreviated separately.
J Lancet for Journal-Lancet
Bruxelles Med for Bruxelles-Medical
c) In broken compounds incorporating the conjunction and, the hyphens are omitted
and the elements are abbreviated according to the usual rules.
Arch Ohr Nas Kehlkopfheilk for Archiv fiir Ohren-, Nasen- und Kehlkopf-
d) In hyphenated proper names the hyphen is dropped.
Hoppe Seyler Z Physiol Chem for Hoppe-Seyler's Zeitschrift fur physio-
Place of Publication
The place of publication is added to the title abbreviation, in parentheses, in the fol-
lowing circumstances only:
a) To distinguish non-English from English titles.
J Physiol (London)
J Physiol (Paris)
Anesth Analg (Cleveland)
Anesth Analg (Paris)
J Pediat (Rio)
Med Trop (Marseille)
Rev Hemat (Paris)
b) To distinguish one title from another.
c) In journal titles beginning with the generic words Acta and Folia which contain no
identifying geographical word.
Acta Anaesth (Padova)
Acta Anaesth Belg
d) To anticipate and avoid possible conflict with journals created in the future with
similar titles within the same country, language, or specialty.
When the language of the journal title differs from the language of the country of origin,
the place of publication, if used in the abbreviation, will be that of the country of origin.
When a country has two or more official languages, the form of the place of publication
in parentheses will be arbitrarily selected by Index Medicus, e.g., (Brux) for Brussel or
Bruxelles; (Haag) for Den Haag, The Hague, 's Gravenhage.
The place of publication in parentheses is treated thus in titles containing corporate
names, such as institutes and hospitals:
a) If the corporate name is distinctive or specific, the place of publication will be
Mem Inst Cruz for Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Milbank Mem Fund Quart for Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly
ABBREVIATIONS FOR MEDICAL JOURNAL TITLES 343
b) If the corporate name is general, common, indistinct or subject to conflict, the place
of publication will be supplied.
Ann Inst Pasteur (Paris)
Trans St John Hosp Derm Soc (London)
Place of publication is based on the location of the following, in order of choice: (1)
major publisher; (2) minor publisher with distinctive imprint; (3) official sponsoring body
(society, academy, institution, drug company, government agency, etc.); (4) editorial
office of the official sponsoring body; (5) business office of the sponsoring body; (6) printer.
When examination of the journal over a period of years discloses many changes in
publisher or printer, the location of the sponsoring agent is the preferred place of publica-
tion. When the editorial offices of the sponsoring agent change frequently, the permanent
or official address of the body is preferred.
When a full title is changed by the publisher, minor additions or deletions of words at
the end of the title will not be reflected in a new title abbreviation. Radical changes,
however, at the beginning of a title or within the title which basically affect identification
of the journal and, therefore, the abbreviation, must be modified to conform to the title
Minerva Fisioter for change of Minerva fisioterapica to Minerva fisioterapica e
Ther Umsch for change of Therapeutische Umschau und medizinische Biblio-
graphie to Therapeutische Umschau
AMA Arch Derm to Arch Derm (Chicago) for change of A.M.A. Archives of Derma-
tology to Archives of Dermatology
APPENDIX I I.
DICTIONARY OF ABBREVIATIONS
The following is a selected list of abbreviations used by Index Medicus in the formulation
of journal title abbreviations in the 1963 List of Journals Indexed in Index Medicus. The fol-
lowing general directions will help in using this dictionary. Words not found here should
be abbreviated in accordance with the patent abbreviation pattern of Index Medicus forms
and in accordance with the practices outlined in the Rules for Abbreviation of Periodical
1. All abbreviated words are printed with initial capitals regardless of syntax and all
are printed without accents or other diacritical marks. No period is used after any ab-
breviation, contraction, or acronym.
2. When a word is not abbreviated, the nonabbreviated form may appear in the list
in order to remind the user of practice.
3. The list is arranged alphabetically by the individual word or by the root of words
common to various languages or in various inflectional forms. For example, anatomical,
Anatomie, anatomische, anatomicheskii, etc., are listed as anatom- and all are abbreviated Anat
(without the period).
4. Differences in the spelling of roots are listed separately. For example, both microbiol-
and mikrobiol- appear.
5. A few compound words appearing in the List of Journals Indexed are included in the
list below. A compound word not found in the list should be abbreviated, in general, to
the form in which the last element of the compound appears in the list. For example,
radiopathology (not found here) would be abbreviated Radiopath on the basis of the listing
344 FRANK B. ROGERS AND THELMA CHAREN
Path for pathology; likewise, Strahlenforschung (not found here) would be abbreviated to
Strahlenforsch on the basis of Forschung as the terminal element of the compound.
6. Geographical nouns and adjectives appearing in either the body of the abbrevia-
tion or the parentheses following the abbreviation are given in a separate list. The user
should be reminded that a place name is not usually abbreviated when it appears as the
first word of the title.
7. In general, nouns are listed in the nominative case regardless of the inflection in
which the word appears in the title.
8. In general, adjectives are listed in the nominative masculine singular form regardless
of the inflection in which the adjective appears in the title. In a few cases when the in-
flected word is not abbreviated but appears here in the dictionary in the form in which
it appears in the title, the entry will be that of the inflected form.
9. The user should be reminded that various words and phrases are omitted from ab-
breviations. In accordance with the Rules of Abbreviation, articles, prepositions, conjunc-
tions, and the like are omitted routinely in any language (e.g., against, contra, imeni are
omitted from abbreviations). In addition, certain phrases which add nothing to the sub-
stance of the title are also omitted from the abbreviation and consequently have no entry
in this list. Those routinely omitted from abbreviations are auf dem Gebiete, und deren Grenz-
gebiete, memoires in Bulletins et Memoires, memorias in Trabajosy Memorias, and similar phrases.
FREQUENTLY OCCURRING WORDS
WORD ABBREVIATION WORD ABBREVIATION
abstracts Abstr apparat- Appar
academ- Acad applied Appl
accademia Accad Arbeiten Arb
acta Acta Arbeitsmedizin Arbeitsmed
actas Actas archeion Arch
actualidad Actualidad archiv- Arch
actualites Actualites archiwum Arch
advances Advances arcispedale Arcisped
Arzteblatt Aerztebl arhiv Arh
arztlich Aerztl arkhiv Arkh
akadem- Akad arm&es Armees
akusherstvo Akush army Army
akustik- Akust arquivo Arq
alergia Alergia Arzt Arzt
allergie Allergie asistencia Asist
allergolog- Allerg asociaci6n Asoc
allergy Allergy associa- Ass
allgemein Allg atherosclerosis Atheroscler
anaesthes- Anaesth atomic Atom
anais An atti Atti
anales An attualita Attualita
analysis Anal avances Avances
anatom- Anat bacteriolog- Bact
anestesiolog- Anest bakteriolog- Bakt
anesthes- Anesth balneolog- Balneol
annal- Ann batteriolog- Batt
annee Annee behavior Behav
annual Ann Beitrage Beitr
ABBREVIATIONS FOR MEDICAL JOURNAL TITLES 345
WORD ABBREVIATION ABBREVIATION
Bericht Ber communications Commun
bibliography Bibliogr compare Comp
bibliotheca Bibl comprehensive Compr
biochem- Biochem comptes rendus CR
biochim- Biochim concepts Conc
biokhim- Biokhim conference Conf
biolog- Biol control Contr
biophysic- Biophys cor Cor
biulleten' Biull corriere Corr
bladen B1 cosmetic Cosmet
Blut Blut council Counc
boletim Bol cultura Cult
bolezn' Bolez cuore Cuore
bollettino Boll current Curr
brain Brain cytochem- Cytochem
bulletin Bull cytolog- Cytol
cahiers Cah deaf Deaf
cancerolog- Cancer dent- Dent
cancr- Cancr dermatolog- Derm
carbohydrate Carbohyd development Develop
cardiolog- Cardiol diabetes Diabetes
cardiovascular Cardiov diagnos- Diagn
casopis Cas dieta Dieta
cellul- Cell dietolog- Diet
center Cent digest- Dig
central Cent disease Dis
cercet'ari Cercet disorders Dis
cerebral Cereb division Div
chemi- Chem doctor Doctor
chemotherap- Chemother documenta- Docum
chest Chest drug Drug
childhood Child drugs Drugs
children Child education Educ
chimi- Chim eksperimental- Eksp
chromatography Chromatogr electrologie Electr
chronic Chronic electronics Electronics
ciencia Cienc ematologia Emat
cientifico Cient embriologia Embriol
circolazione Circ embryology Embryol
circular Circular encyclopaedia Encycl
circulation Circ endemic Endem
cirugia Cir endocrinolog- Endocr
cirujanos Cir endokrynol- Endokr
cirurgia Cir enfermedades Enferm
city City environmental Environ
clini- Clin enzymolog- Enzym
coeur Coeur epidemiolog- Epidem
colegio Col Ergebnisse Ergebn
college Coll Ernahrung Ernaehr
346 FRANK B. ROGERS AND THELMA CHAREN
WORD ABBREVIATION WORD ABBREVIATION
estud- Estud health Health
etudes Etud hearing Hearing
evolution Evolut Hefte Hefte
excerpta Excerpta Heilkunde Heilk
experimental- Exp helminthology Helminth
facolta Fac hematology Hemat
factors Factors higien- Hig
facult- Fac higijen- Hig
fakult- Fak histochem- Histochem
farmac- Farm histology Histol
farmaceut- Farm history Hist
farmacolog- Farmacol homeopath- Homeop
farmatsevt- Farm hopitaux Hop
fertility Fertil Hormon Hormon
fisico Fis hormone Hormone
fisiolog- Fisiol hospit- Hosp
fiziolog- Fiziol humain Hum
folia Folia hygien- Hyg
food Food hypnosis Hypn
Forschung Forsch igien- Ig
Fortbildung Fortbild illustrat- Illus
Fortschritte Fortschr immunolog- Immun
function Funct industrial- Industr
fysiolog- Fysiol industrie Industr
gaceta Gac industry Industr
gastroenterolog- Gastroent infancia Infanc
gazeta Gaz infect- Infect
gazette Gaz infettivo Infett
gazzetta Gazz inform- Inform
Geburtshilfe Geburtsh injury Inj
gematologiia Gemat institut- Inst
geneeskund- Geneesk internal Intern
genet- Genet international Int
geriatrics Geriat isotop- Isotop
gerontolog- Geront istituto Ist
gesamt Ges istologia Istol
Gesellschaft Ges izotop Izotop
Gesundheitswesen Gesundh izvestiia Izv
gigiena Gig Jahrbuch Jahrb
ginecolog- Ginec jornal J
giornale G journal J
glas Glas journees Journees
glasnik Glas kardiologia Kardiol
guide Guide khirurg- Khir
Gynakologie Gynaek klini- Klin
gynecolog- Gynec Krankheit Kr
handlingar Handl labor Labor
Haut Haut laborator- Lab
Hautkrankheiten Hautkr Laeger Laeg
ABBREVIATIONS FOR MEDICAL JOURNAL TITLES 347
WORD ABBREVIATION WORD ABBREVIATION
lakartidningen Lakartidn nature Nature
language Lang nauki Nauk
laringologia Laring naval- Nav
lavoro Lavoro neonatus Neonat
lechenie Lech nerve Nerve
lectures Lect nervoso Nerv
legal- Leg neue Neue
lekar- Lek neurolog- Neurol
leprol- Lepr new New
library Libr nifio Nino
listy Listy nifios Ninos
literature Lit normal- Norm
lotta Lotta nuclear- Nucl
maladies Mal nurse Nurse
malariolog- Malar nursing Nursing
manedsskrift Manedsskr nutritio- Nutr
materia Mat obstetr- Obstet
matern- Matern occupational Occup
meddelanden Medd odontolog- Odont
m6decin- Med 6ffentlich Oeff
medicin- Med oncolog- Oncol
meditsin- Med ophthalmolog- Ophthal
medycyn- Med optic- Opt
memoires Mem optometry Optom
mental- Ment oral Oral
methods Meth orthopaedic- Orthop
microbiol- Microbiol orvos- Orv
microscop- Micr ospedal- Osped
mikrobiol- Mikrobiol osteopathic Osteopath
mikroskop- Mikr otolog- Otol
militar- Milit oto-rhino-laryngolog- Otorhinolaryng
Mitteilungen Mitt ottalmologia Ottal
modern- Mod paediatr- Paediat
Monatsbhitter Mbl palsy Palsy
Monatshefte Mh papers Pap
Monatskurse Mkurse parasitolog- Parasit
Monatsschrift Mschr patholog- Path
monde Monde pediatr- Pediat
mondial Mond perceptual Percept
mondo Mondo periodique Period
monograph- Monogr periodontology Periodont
monthly Monthly pharmaceut- Pharm
morfologia Morf pharmacolog- Pharmacol
morpholog- Morph pharmacy Pharm
mundo Mundo pharmazeut- Pharm
nacional Nac phoniatr- Phoniat
Nasen Nas photograph- Photogr
national- Nat physical Phys
natural- Natur physicians Physicians
ABBREVIATIONS FOR MEDICAL JOURNAL TITLES 349
WoiB ABBREVIATION WORD ABBREVIATION
terap- Ter venereal Vener
theor- Theor venereology Vener
therap- Ther vestnik Vestn
therapeut- Ther veterinar- Vet
thorac- Thorac Vierteljahrsschrift Vjschr
thorax Thorax virolog- Virol
tidskrift T virus Virus
tidsskrift T virusologiia Virus
tijdschrift T Vitamine Vitamine
tisiolog- Tisiol Vitaminolog- Vitamin
torace Torace vitamins Vitamins
t6rax Torax vjesnik Vjesn
toxicology Toxic voprosy Vop
transactions Trans vysshii Vyssh
transfusion Transfus weekblad Weekbl
transplantation Transplant wetenschappen Wet
trauma Trauma weterynaryjny Weteryn
traumatolog- Trauma Wissenschaft Wiss
trud- Tr Wochenschrift Wschr
tuberculos- Tuberc wydzial Wydz
tumor Tumor x-ray Xray
umano Um year Year
union Un zahnarztlich Zahnaerztl
universidad- Univ zasshi z
universit- Univ Zeitschrift z
urolog- Urol Zeitung Zeitung
vakblad Vakbl Zentralblatt Zbl
veda Ved Zhurnal Zh
vegetativo Veg zoolog- Zool
Woin ABBREVITION WORD ABBREVIATION
Africa Afr Austriacus Austria
African Afr azerbaidzhan- Azerbaidzh
Afrique Afr Barcelona Barc
Alabama Alabama Basel Basel
Alaska Alaska belg- Belg
Algerie Algerie Berlin Berlin
America Amer Berliner Berlin
American Amer Bologna Bologna
Amsterdam Amst Bombay Bombay
Argentina Argent Brasil Brasil
argentino Argent brasileiro Brasil
Arizona Arizona Bratislava Bratisl
Arkansas Arkansas British Brit
Asian Asian Bruxelles Brux
Australasian Aust Bucuresti Bucur
Australia Aust Budapest Budap
Australian Aust Buenos Aires B Air
350 FRANK B. ROGERS AND THELMA CHAREN
WORD ABBREVIATION WOiD ABBREVIATION
California Calif Guyane Fran,ais Guyane Franc
Canada Canada Den Haag Haag
Canadian Canad La Habana Habana
canadien Canad haitien Haiti
Cechoslovacus Cech Hawaii Hawaii
ceskoslovensk'y Cesk Hebrew Hebrew
6esk'y Cesk hellen- Hellen
Chicago Chicago Helvetia Helv
Chile Chile Helveticus Helv
chileno Chile Hispalis Hisp
Chinese Chin hispano-lusitano Hisp Lusit
Cleveland Cleveland hondurenlo Hondur
Connecticut Conn Hungaricus Hung
Costa Rica Costa Rica iberico Iber
cubano Cuba ibero-americano Iber Amer
Czechoslovak Czech Idaho Idaho
Danish Danish Illinois Illinois
dansk Dansk India India
Delaware Delaware Indian Indian
Detroit Detroit Indiana Indiana
deutsch Deutsch Indonesia Indonesia
Deutschland Deutsch Iowa Iowa
District of Columbia DC Iranicus Iran
dominicano Dominic Irish Irish
ecuatoriano Ecuat Israel Israel
El Salvador El Salvador Itali- Ital
England Eng Iugoslavicus Iugosl
English Eng Japan Jap
Espafia Esp Japanese Jap
espaniol Esp japanisch Jap
Europ Europ Japonicus Jap
Europe Europe Kansas Kansas
europeen Europ kazakhskii Kazakh
Europeus Europ kazanskii Kazan
Fennia Fenn Kentucky Kentucky
finsk Finsk K0benhavn Kobenhavn
Firenze Firenze Kyoto Kyoto
Florida Florida latino-americano Lat Amer
France France Latinus Lat
francais Franc Lebanese Leban
Frankfurt Frankfurt Leipzig Leipzig
Frankfurter Frankfurt Leningrad Leningr
Gdain'sk Gdansk Leningradskii Leningr
Gen&ve Geneve libanais Liban
Genova Genova Liege Liege
Georgia Georgia Lille Lille
German German Lima Lima
Germanicus German Lisboa Lisboa
Guatemala Guatemala London London
ABBREVIATIONS FOR MEDICAL JOURNAL TITLES 351
WORD ABBREVIATION WORD ABBREVATION
Los Alamos Los Alamos Oklahoma Okla
Los Angeles Los Angeles Ontario Ontario
Louisiana Louisiana Oslo Oslo
Luxembourg Luxemb Outre-Mer Outre Mer
Lyon Lyon Pacific Coast Pacif Coast
lyonnais Lyon Padova Padova
Madrid Madrid Panamfa Panama
magyar Magy panameno Panamen
Maine Maine panamericano Panamer
Malaya Malaya Parana Parana
Maroc Maroc Paris Paris
Marseille Marseille paulisto Paul
Maryland Maryland Pennsylvania Penn
Melbourne Melbourne Peru Peru
mexicano Mex peruano Peru
Mexico Mex Philadelphia Phila
Michigan Mich Philippine Philipp
milanese Milan Philippinus Philipp
Milano Milano piemontese Piemont
Minneapolis Minneap plzensky Plzen
Minnesota Minn Polon- Pol
Mississippi Mississippi polski Pol
Missouri Missouri P6rto Porto
Montevideo Montev P6rto Alegre P Alegre
Montreal Montreal Portugal Port
moskovskii Moskov portugueso Port
Moskva Moskva Poznan Poznan
Moyen-Orient Moyen Orient poznanski Poznan
Munchener Munchen Praha Praha
Nagasaki Nagasaki Puerto Rico P Rico
Nancy Nancy Rio de Janeiro Rio
Napoli Napoli Roma Roma
Nebraska Nebraska romande Rom
Nederland- Nederl Russian Russ
Neerlandicus Neerl Sao Paulo S Paulo
Neerlando- Scandinav- Scand
Scandinavicus Neerl Scand schweizer- Schweiz
New England New Eng Siena Siena
New Jersey New Jersey South Africa S Afr
New York NY South African S Afr
New Zealand New Zeal South Carolina S Carolina
Newark Newark South Dakota S Dakota
Nicaragua Nicaragua S.S.S.R. SSSR
Nippon- Nippon St. Louis St Louis
nordisk Nord Stockholm Stockholm
norsk Norsk Stuttgart Stuttgart
North Carolina N Carolina Suisse Suisse
Nova Scotia Nova Scotia Suomi Suom
Ohio Ohio svensk Svensk
352 FRANK B. ROGERS AND THELMA CHAREN
WORD ABBREVIATION WORD ABAREVIATION
Sverige Sverige ural'skii Ural
Tennessee Tenn Uruguay Urug
Tokyo Tokyo uruguayo Urug
Torino Torino U. S. US
Toronto Toronto Uzbekistan Uzbek
Toulouse Toulouse veneto Veneto
Tunis Tunis Venezia Venezia
Tunisie Tunis venezolano Venezolano
turk Turk Vietnamicus Vietnam
Turkmenistan Turkmen Virginia Virginia
ukrains'kyi Ukr Washington Wash
United Kingdom UK West Virginia W Virginia
United States US Wien Wien
Uppsala Uppsala Wiener Wien
Upsaliensis Upsal Wisconsin Wisconsin