Uploaded on

 

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
3,144
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0

Actions

Shares
Downloads
263
Comments
0
Likes
2

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Colon Cancer – What is it? How do you detect it? 50 Years Old or Older? Get Tested Regularly!
  • 2. Colon cancer is:
    • Cancer of the colon or rectum
    • Your colon:
      • is another name for your large intestine.
      • is about 6 feet long.
      • turns food you eat into waste matter or a bowel movement as it passes through the colon.
    • Your rectum:
      • is the last 8-10 inches of the large intestine.
      • bowel movements travel through the rectum and pass out of the body through the anus.
  • 3. Your Colon and Rectum
  • 4. How long does it take cancer to develop, and what are your chances?
    • In most people, colorectal cancers develop slowly over a period of several years.
      • 10 to 20 years
    • Chances of developing colorectal cancer sometime in your life:
      • A man has a 1 in 17 chance.
      • A woman has a 1 in 18 chance.
  • 5. Why does it develop?
    • Colorectal cancer usually begins as a non-cancerous (or benign) polyp.
    • A polyp
      • is a growth inside the colon or rectum that is not normal.
      • can be several types.
      • is not always cancerous.
  • 6. When Cancer Forms in a Polyp
    • It can eventually grow through the lining and into the wall of the colon or rectum.
    • 95 percent of colorectal cancers grow from cancerous polyps and move into the inside layer of the wall of the colon and rectum.
  • 7. Importance of Screening and Early Detection
    • Once a non-cancerous (benign) polyp is removed, it will never have the chance to develop into cancer.
    • Regular screenings for colorectal cancer and removal of polyps
      • Reduce a person’s lifetime risk of dying by 80 percent.
    • When colorectal cancer is detected early
      • It is highly curable!
  • 8. Lower Your Risk of Developing Colorectal Cancer by:
    • Increasing physical activity
      • Exercise at least 30 minutes a day on the majority of days.
    • Not smoking
      • In the USA, 1 in 5 colorectal cancers in men and 1 in 8 colorectal cancers in women may be due to cigarette smoking.
    • Improving your diet
      • Limit your alcohol use.
      • Limit high-fat diets.
      • Limit red, charred, or processed meat.
  • 9. Age and Race Factors for Colorectal Cancer
    • Age
      • 90 percent of all colorectal diagnoses happen after age 50.
    • Race and Ethnicity
      • Everyone is at risk!
      • Risk Rankings
        • African-Americans
        • Whites
        • Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders
        • Hispanics
        • American Indians
  • 10. Personal History Risk Factors for Colorectal Cancer
    • Personal History of Cancer
      • If you’ve already been treated for colorectal cancer, you’re at an increased risk for developing it again.
    • Personal History of Polyps
      • If you have had a polyp removed
        • You are no longer at risk of that particular polyp developing into cancer.
      • If you have had an adenomatous polyp removed, you are more likely to have other polyps in the future.
        • Adenomatous polyps are groups of polyps with abnormal cells that multiply and may eventually become cancerous.
  • 11. Having Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Type 2 Diabetes Are Risk Factors
    • Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) includes:
      • Ulcerative colitis and
      • Crohn’s disease
        • The overall increased risk of colorectal cancer for someone with IBD is estimated to be 4-20 times higher than normal.
    • Personal history of type 2 diabetes
      • Increases your risk of having colorectal cancer and colorectal polyps by 50 percent
  • 12. Family History and the Role of Genetics
    • You have a higher risk of developing colorectal cancer if:
      • One or more immediate family members were diagnosed with colorectal, uterine, or stomach cancer
      • Immediate family members include:
        • Parent
        • Sibling
        • Child
  • 13. Early Detection Makes a Difference
    • Approximately 56,000 Americans die from colorectal cancer each year.
    • It is the 2 nd leading cause of cancer in the nation.
    • The most effective way to reduce your risk of colorectal cancer is to get screened routinely.
      • Start at age 50.
      • Start earlier if you are at higher risk.
        • Personal health history
        • Family health history
  • 14. What if something is found?
    • If you have polyps
      • They can be removed before they turn into cancer.
      • Finding and removing adenomatous polyps can decrease colorectal cancers by 60-90 percent.
    • If cancer is found
      • It is often curable in its early stages.
  • 15. Don’t want to get screened?
    • Embarrassed?
      • Doctors need to know about changes in your bowel habits or rectal bleeding.
      • Everyone has “private parts,” and it’s important to keep them healthy!
    • Don’t want bad news?
      • Getting screened can find bad things early, which increases the amount of time you can spend with your family. They need you!
    • Doctor didn’t say you need to get tested?
      • Bring it up with him or her – it’s important!
  • 16. What test do I take to get screened?
    • There are several tests to screen for colorectal cancer.
    • Some tests are used alone, while others are used in combination with other tests.
    • Talk to your doctor about which type of test is best for you!
  • 17. Fecal Occult Blood Test (FOBT)
    • Recommended to be done yearly
    • Checks for hidden blood in the stool
    • Your doctor gives you a test kit
      • At home, you place a small amount of your stool from 3 bowel movements on test cards.
      • You then return the cards to your doctor’s office or a lab where the stool samples are tested for hidden blood.
      • If blood is found, a colonoscopy will be needed.
    • A disadvantage of this test
      • The test is often negative in people who have adenomatous polyps and colorectal cancer.
  • 18. Flexible Sigmoidoscopy (Flex Sig)
    • Recommended every 5 years
    • Examines the lining of your rectum and lower part of your colon
    • Uses a thin, flexible, lighted tube called a sigmoidoscope
      • It is inserted into your rectum and lower part of your colon.
      • If polyps or lesions are found, a follow-up test is needed.
    • Disadvantages:
      • Patient discomfort – but not painful
      • Only looks at lower part of colon, therefore polyps in the upper colon can go undetected.
      • If a polyp is found, it needs to be followed by a colonoscopy to remove the polyp.
  • 19. Combination FOBT and Flex Sig
    • Some experts recommend using both of these tests to increase the chance of finding polyps and cancers.
    • It is recommended every 5 years.
  • 20. Colonoscopy
    • Similar to the Flexible Sigmoidoscopy except:
      • It allows the doctor to look at the lining of your rectum and entire colon.
      • Done as an outpatient procedure
      • Done with “conscious sedation”
        • An IV line is inserted to help you remain calm and comfortable. Some patients sleep though the procedure.
        • Not everyone needs sedation.
      • Uses a thin, flexible, lighted tube called a colonoscope
      • It is inserted into your rectum and colon.
      • The doctor can also find and remove polyps and some cancers using the colonoscope.
      • It is recommended every 10 years for:
        • Individuals with no family or personal history of colon cancer and no symptoms.
  • 21. Colonoscopy (continued) …
    • Procedure takes 15–30 minutes.
    • May take longer if polyps are removed.
      • Called a polypectomy
      • A wire loop is passed through the scope to cut the polyp from the lining of the colon using an electrical current.
      • Polyps are collected and sent to the lab for evaluation.
  • 22. Double Contrast Barium Enema (DCBE)
    • This test allows the doctor to see an x-ray image of the rectum and entire colon.
    • First you are given an enema with a liquid called barium that flows from a tube into your colon, followed by an air enema.
    • The barium and air create an outline around your colon, allowing the doctor to see if anything is wrong.
    • Recommended every 10 years.
    • Many disadvantages:
      • Detects only 50 percent of adenomatous polyps greater than 1 cm in size and only 33 percent of polyps .5 cm in size
      • May miss up to 15 percent of colorectal cancers
      • Does not allow removal of polyps
  • 23. Worried about How Much It Will Cost?
    • If you are 50 years old or older and have Medicare
      • You are eligible for colorectal screenings!
      • For more information, call or visit:
        • 1-800-MEDICARE (1-800-633-4277)
        • http://medicare.gov/Health/ColonCancer.asp
    • If you have private insurance
      • Most insurers are now paying for some form of colorectal screening
      • Often including screening colonoscopy
  • 24. Think about the future
    • Your family needs you.
    • If you’re 50 years old or older
      • Get screened!
      • You have the power to determine your future!
    • Any questions?
    Written by Courtney J. Schoessow, MPH; February 2006 Educational programs of the Texas AgriLife Extension Service are open to all people without regard to race, color, sex, disability, religion, age, or national origin. The Texas A&M University System, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and the County Commissioners Courts of Texas Cooperating