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Retinoblastoma

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  • CLINICAL PICTURE DIFFRENTIAL DAIGNOSIS SHOULD ALSO HAVE BEEN INCLUDED.
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  • 1. Retinoblastoma
  • 2. What is Retinoblastoma ?
    • “ Retinoblastoma is a disease that causes the growth of malignant tumors in the retinal cell layer of the eye.” (3)
    • It is the most common eye tumor in children.
  • 3. Symptoms of Retinoblastoma
    • Problems with eye movements (crossed eyes).
    • A persistent red irritation in the eye.
    • Differences in pupil size, iris color, abnormal eye movements, bulging forward of the eyes, tearing, and cataract.
    • “ A white spot on the pupil of the eye.”(2)
  • 4. What Causes Retinoblastoma ?
    • Retinoblastoma is caused by a mutation on the 13 th chromosome.
    • “ Possibly environmental factors increase mutational events at the retinoblastoma gene locus.” (2)
  • 5. Diagnosis
    • Untreated, Retinoblastoma is almost always fatal.
    • Early examination is key to survival.
  • 6. The Prevalence of Retinoblastoma
    • Retinoblastoma is a childhood disease.
    • There is no known sex or racial predilection.
    • “ Retinoblastoma affects 1 child for every 15,000 live births.” (1)
    • 250-350 new cases are diagnosed each year in the U.S., 90% of which occur before the age of five.
    • Retinoblastoma can be either a hereditary or non-hereditary disease
  • 7. Treatments (4)
    • Chemotherapy
    • Cryotherapy (freezing treatment)
    • Enucleation ( removal of the eye)
    • External beam radiation therapy (radiation treatment)
    • Localized plaque radiation therapy (radiation therapy)
    • Photocoagulation (laser treatment)
  • 8. Prognosis
    • The survival rate for Retinoblastoma patients is more than 90%.
    • This is attributed to earlier diagnosis and improved methods of treatment.
  • 9. Sources:
    • 1. Early detection is key to retinoblastoma management. Ophthamology Times , 06/15/2001, Bol.26 Issue 12, p9, 2p, Murray,Timothy G ;. Ho, Allen C. 2. Medicine for the Public; The Genetics of Cancer , 1993, Vol.90 Issue 3056, p1,16p, 3 charts, 10bw
  • 10. Sources:
    • 3. Retinoblastoma; http://www.dyo.harvard.deu/meei/P1/RB/RB.html
    • 4. Retinoblastoma; http://www.meb.uni-bonn.de/cancernet/100993.html#8_TREATMENTOPTIONOVERVIEW