Brain Attackdefinitionandidofstrokepresentaiton


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  • Brain Attackdefinitionandidofstrokepresentaiton

    1. 1. BRAIN ATTACK - STROKE By: Karen Peper RN MSN CFNP ©Providence Hospital 9/07
    2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Define Stroke </li></ul><ul><li>List types of Strokes </li></ul><ul><li>List risk factors for Stroke </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the signs and symptoms of Stroke </li></ul>
    3. 3. Stroke Statistics <ul><li>Stroke is the No. 3 cause of death in the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>(#1 – Heart Disease, #2 – Cancer) </li></ul><ul><li>Stroke kills more than 160,000 American each year </li></ul><ul><li>On average, every 53 seconds, someone in the US experiences a stroke. </li></ul>
    4. 4. Stroke Statistics <ul><li>Every 3.1 minutes someone dies of a stroke </li></ul><ul><li>Stroke risk increases with age. For each decade after age 55, the risk of stroke doubles. </li></ul><ul><li>72% of all strokes occur in people over the age of 65 </li></ul>
    5. 5. What is a Stroke? <ul><li>Brain tissue is damaged from a sudden loss of blood flow, resulting in a loss of neurological function </li></ul><ul><li>Causes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blockage (blood clot) occurring inside a blood vessel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood vessel leaks blood due to rupture </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Types of Strokes <ul><li>Ischemic Stroke (85%) </li></ul><ul><li>Hemorrhagic Stroke (15%) </li></ul>
    7. 7. Ischemic Stroke <ul><li>Types of Ischemic Stroke </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Embolic Stroke </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blood clot travels to the brain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thrombotic Stroke </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blood flow is blocked to the brain </li></ul></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Hemorrhagic Stroke <ul><li>Bleeding occurs from vessels within the brain. High blood pressure or a rupture of a blood vessel or an aneurysm may be the cause. </li></ul>
    9. 9. Transient Ischemic Attacks (TIAs) <ul><li>A stroke-like event lasting minutes, or hours, that occurs when the brain is deprived of oxygen-rich blood temporarily, but in which the effects wear off completely after the blood-flow returns </li></ul><ul><li>TIA’s do not result in permanent brain damage </li></ul><ul><li>TIA is serious and too often ignored </li></ul>
    10. 10. PLEASE … Pay Attention to these symptoms <ul><li>TIA’s should not be ignored </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More that 1/3 of people will go on to have an actual stroke </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5% of strokes will occur within 1 month of the TIA or first stroke </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>12% will occur within 1 year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>20% will occur within 2 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>25% will occur within 3 years </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. <ul><li>Stroke affects people of </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All Ages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All Ethnic Groups </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All Backgrounds </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Most strokes are preventable, take steps NOW to reduce having a stroke! </li></ul>Stroke does not Discriminate
    12. 12. Signs & Symptoms of Stroke <ul><li>Sudden numbness or weakness of the face, arm, or leg, especially on one side of the body </li></ul><ul><li>Sudden confusion, trouble speaking or understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Sudden trouble seeing in one or both eyes </li></ul><ul><li>Sudden trouble walking, dizziness, loss of balance or coordination </li></ul><ul><li>Sudden, severe headache with no known cause </li></ul>
    13. 13. Strokes occur in the brain and affect the opposite side of the body
    14. 14. Everyone… <ul><li>Please stand up </li></ul><ul><li>If you answer yes to any of the following questions, please sit down </li></ul><ul><li>Thank you </li></ul>
    15. 15. Risk Factors for Stroke <ul><li>Blood Pressure over 120/80? </li></ul><ul><li>Smoker – exposed to tobacco? </li></ul><ul><li>Overweight? </li></ul><ul><li>Diabetes? </li></ul><ul><li>High Cholesterol? </li></ul><ul><li>Heart Disease? </li></ul>
    16. 16. Risk Factors for Stroke <ul><li>Family History of Stroke? </li></ul><ul><li>Physical activity…less than a total of 30 minutes on most days? </li></ul><ul><li>Man over age of 45, OR a woman over 55 years of age? </li></ul>
    17. 17. Are you sitting down? <ul><li>Yes , you are at risk for a stroke, but it doesn’t mean you will have one </li></ul><ul><li>There are risk factors that can be controlled and risk factors that cannot be controlled </li></ul>
    18. 18. Risk Factors <ul><li>Risk factors you can control: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DIET - How we eat, do we follow our diet? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EXERCISE - Do we exercise or get some physical activity? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MEDICATIONS - Taking medications correctly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SMOKING - Stop smoking </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Strokes can affect different parts of the brain, this results in patients experiencing different symptoms
    20. 20. Strokes are an EMERGENCY <ul><li>If you are having a Stroke come to the hospital right away – CALL 9-1-1 </li></ul>
    21. 21. Once You are at the Hospital <ul><li>Diagnostic Testing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CT or MRI of the brain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EKG </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carotid Ultrasound </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Echocardiogram </li></ul></ul>
    22. 23. EKG – may show atrial fibrillation
    23. 24. Carotid Ultrasound – will show if there is stenosis (narrowing of the blood vessel)
    24. 25. Echocardiogram – detects if any thrombus (blood clot) within the heart chambers
    25. 26. Chest X-ray
    26. 27. Blood work - Labs <ul><li>Any labs may be ordered, Lipid Profile (checking your cholesterol level) is done on all patients. </li></ul>
    27. 28. Recognize the Symptoms of a Stroke <ul><li>3 Simple Questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask the person to smile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask the person to raise both arms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask the person to say a simple sentence “The sky is blue in Boston” </li></ul></ul>The sky is blue in Boston
    28. 29. ACT IN TIME <ul><li>Stroke is a medical emergency . Every minute counts when someone is having a stroke. The longer blood flow is cut off to the brain, the greater the damage. Immediate treatment can save people's lives and enhance their chances for successful recovery </li></ul>
    29. 30. tPA (Tissue Plasminogen Activator) <ul><ul><li>is a clot-busting drug </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ischemic strokes, the most common type of strokes, can be treated with a drug called t-PA, that dissolves blood clots obstructing blood flow to the brain. </li></ul></ul>
    30. 31. TIME IS BRAIN <ul><li>Time is very important in order to receive this medication </li></ul><ul><li>Window of opportunity to start treating stroke patients is three hours , but to be evaluated and receive treatment, patients need to get to the hospital within 60 minutes. </li></ul>
    31. 32. Medications <ul><li>Aspirin </li></ul><ul><li>Aggrenox </li></ul><ul><li>Plavix </li></ul><ul><li>Blood pressure medication if appropriate </li></ul><ul><li>Cholesterol lowering medicines if needed </li></ul>
    32. 33. Hospital Treatment for Stroke <ul><li>Medical Management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dietary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical & Occupational Therapy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speech Therapy if indicated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nursing </li></ul></ul>
    33. 34. Hospital Treatment for Stroke <ul><li>Rehabilitation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical Medicine Consult </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine what type of therapy best for patient </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rehab Unit </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Subacute Rehab </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extended Care Facility </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Home Care with PT/OT </li></ul></ul></ul>
    34. 35. Discharge Planning <ul><li>Starts upon admission to the hospital </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consult social worker or care coordinator to help identify discharge needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide patient/family with Stroke education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stroke Support Group meetings </li></ul></ul>
    35. 36. Can you SPOT a Stroke? <ul><li>This is the end of the program </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do you have any questions?? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>THANK YOU…. </li></ul></ul>