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Anemia Heart Failure Talk (2005-11-02)
Anemia Heart Failure Talk (2005-11-02)
Anemia Heart Failure Talk (2005-11-02)
Anemia Heart Failure Talk (2005-11-02)
Anemia Heart Failure Talk (2005-11-02)
Anemia Heart Failure Talk (2005-11-02)
Anemia Heart Failure Talk (2005-11-02)
Anemia Heart Failure Talk (2005-11-02)
Anemia Heart Failure Talk (2005-11-02)
Anemia Heart Failure Talk (2005-11-02)
Anemia Heart Failure Talk (2005-11-02)
Anemia Heart Failure Talk (2005-11-02)
Anemia Heart Failure Talk (2005-11-02)
Anemia Heart Failure Talk (2005-11-02)
Anemia Heart Failure Talk (2005-11-02)
Anemia Heart Failure Talk (2005-11-02)
Anemia Heart Failure Talk (2005-11-02)
Anemia Heart Failure Talk (2005-11-02)
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Anemia Heart Failure Talk (2005-11-02)

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  • 1. Anemia Presented by Manny Ramos RN, MSN
  • 2. Crossmatching game for RBC laboratory test values
    • Reticulocytes
    • Hematocrit
    • MCV
    • MCHC
    • MCH
    • Crossmatch items from this column that correspond correctly to the definitions in the other column
    • Ave. volume of individual RBCs
    • Number of immature RBCs/mm3 blood
    • # of circulating RBCs/mm3 blood
    • calculated ave. weight of Hg/RBC
    • Ave. concentration or % of Hg/RBC
    • Packed vol. of RBCs in 100ml blood
  • 3. Pathophysiology
    • Decreased RBC production
    • Iron deficiency
    • Folic acid deficiency
    • Aplastic anemia
    • Increased RBC loss or destruction
    • sickle cell anemia
    • blood loss
    • infection
  • 4. Iron deficiency anemia
    • Causes:
    • inadequate dietary iron intake
    • Malabsorption: gastrectomy, chronic diarrhea, celiac sprue
    • increased iron needs: pregnancy and lactation
    • chronic occult blood loss: bleeding ulcers, GI inflammation, hemorrhoids, cancer, chronic hemoglobinuria
    • Menstrual blood loss
  • 5. Iron Deficiency anemia
    • Diagnostics:
    • Iron levels
    • Total iron-binding capacity (TIBC)
    • Serum Ferritin
    • Medications:
    • Iron supplements, oral or parenteral
    • Vit. C
  • 6. Vit. B12 deficiency anemia
    • Causes:
    • Pernicious anemia: lack of intrinsic factor
    • ileal resections, loss of pancreatic secretions, chronic gastritis
    • Strict vegetarians
    • Diagnostics:
    • Schilling test
    • Medications:
    • Vit. B12 parenteral
  • 7. Folic acid deficiency anemia
    • Inadequate intake:
    • Chronically malnourished
    • Older adults
    • Alcoholics
    • Drug addicted persons
    • Increased need:
    • Pregnant women: neural tube defects in fetus
    • Persons experiencing rapid growth
    • Malabsorption disorders: Celiac sprue
    • Persons taking methotrexate and other chemotherapy
  • 8. Sickle cell anemia
    • Pathophysiology:
    • Autosomal recessive genetic defect
    • Hypoxemia: abnormal HbS deoxygenated
    • crescent or sickle shape RBC
    • Sickled cells clump together
    • weakened RBCs, hemolyzed
    • shortened RBC life span
  • 9. Sickle cell anemia
    • Sickle cell crises arise from:
    • Hypoxia
    • Low environmental or body temperature
    • Excessive exercise
    • Anesthesia
    • Dehydration
    • Infection
    • Acidosis
  • 10. Sickle cell crises
    • Manifestations:
    • pallor, fatigue, jaundice, irritability
    • Painful swelling hands and feet, large joints, priapism, abdominal pain, stroke
    • Aplastic anemia
    • Blood pools in liver and spleen
    • Diagnostics: Sickle cell test
  • 11. Interventions
    • H ydration
    • O xygen
    • R est
    • P ain management
    • Treat precipitating factors
    • Folic acid supplementation
    • Blood transfusions
    • Genetic counseling
  • 12. Thalassemia
    • Inherited disorder of hemoglobin synthesis
    • alpha or beta chains of hemoglobin are missing or defective
    • Manifestations:
    • Minor: asymptomatic; mild anemia, splenomegaly, bronze skin, bone marrow hyperplasia
    • Major: severe anemia, heart failure, liver and spleen enlargement; fractures of long bones, ribs, vertebrae
    • Diagnostics: Hemoglobin electrophoresis
  • 13. Acquired hemolytic anemia
    • Causes:
    • Mechanical trauma to RBC: prosthetic heart valves
    • Autoimmune disorders
    • Bacterial or protozoan infection
    • Immune system-mediated responses
    • drugs, toxins, chemical agents, venoms
    • Manifestations:
    • Anemia
    • splenomegaly, jaundice, pathologic fractures
  • 14. Glucose -6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) Anemia
    • Hereditary defect in RBC metabolism
    • Direct oxidation of hemoglobin damages RBC
    • occurs when person exposed to stressors: aspirin, sulfonamides, Vitamin K derivatives
    • Manifestations: pallor, jaundice, hemoglobinuria, elevated reticulocyte count
    • Diagnostics: quantitative assay of G6PD
  • 15. Aplastic anemia
    • Bone marrow failure: decreased RBC, WBC, platelets
    • Marrow replaced with fat
    • Causes: idiopathic
    • Viral infections
    • stem cell damage from radiation
    • Exposure to chemicals
    • Certain antibiotics (chloramphenicol)
    • Chemotherapeutic drugs
  • 16. Aplastic anemia
    • Manifestations: vary with onset and severity of pancytopenia
    • Pallor, fatigue, headache, exertional dyspnea, tachycardia, heart failure
    • Bleeding due to low platelet levels
    • Fever, increased infection risk due to low WBC
    • Diagnostics: bone marrow exam
  • 17. Aplastic anemia
    • Interventions:
    • Removal of causative agent
    • Blood transfusions
    • Bone marrow transplant
  • 18. Assignment
    • Identify 3 priority nursing diagnoses for anemia and formulate nursing care plan for anemia

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