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Drug Facilitated Sexual Assault Partners With Law Enforcement


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Drug Facilitated Sexual Assault is poorly understood and often not adequately investigated. This program seeks to describe the reality of drug facilitated sexual assault and to point out ways to …

Drug Facilitated Sexual Assault is poorly understood and often not adequately investigated. This program seeks to describe the reality of drug facilitated sexual assault and to point out ways to improve outcomes for victims, law enforcement and social service providers.

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  • GHB is especially known for its sexual enhancement capabilities.  But not only is a victim disinhibited and likely to engage in behavior quite atypical for her personally, she most likely truly will not even remember such conduct.
  • Recently, the manufacturers of Rohypnol have coded the drug with a blue dye and slowed the rate at which the drug dissolves. Also in darker drinks Rohypnol will produce a cloudy, murky appearance. GHB has been known to have a salty taste.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Dr. Janet Parker DVMMedical Whistleblower
    • 2. Sexual Assault
      There are 198,850
      sexual assaults each year
      Disabled Women - rate of abuse and rape twice that of the general population of women.
      545 women are raped every day
      Only one in 50 women who have been raped reports the crime to the police
      National Crime Victims Rights Resource Guide 2005
    • 3. False Reports?
      Did you know that... Less than 2 percent of the reported rape cases are found to be false.
      "More people falsely report their own death than file a false report alleging sexual assault.”
      It is more likely that women will not report a rape that occurred.
      (Federal Bureau of Investigation statistics)
    • 4. DFSA Definition
      Victim is subjected to non-consensual sexual act(s) while incapacitated by alcohol and/or drugs
      Effect of the
      resistance and ability to consent
    • 5. Myth: Stranger in the club or singles bar
      Reality is:
      Perpetrator could be a
      date or a trusted “friend”
      Health care provider in a medical setting
      Could be a neighbor
      Drug can be placed in non-alcoholic beverage
      Can occur at a workplace, a church
      or any social gathering
    • 6. DFSA Victims
      All social categories, race, ethnicity, education levels, social and economic classes, sexual orientation, religions, and physical and mental abilities.
    • 7. DFSA Effects
      Fear, profound
      damage to victim,
      serious injury, or death
      Adverse long-term psychological, emotional, physical, and economic effects on all family members and affects the community at large
    • 8. Statistics
      1 in 6 women has been the victim of an attempted or completed rape in her lifetime.
      Among developmentally disabled adults, as many as 83% of the females and 32%
      of the males are the victims of sexual assault
      About 44 percent of rape victims are under age 18. One in 10 is male.
    • 9. Workplace Violence
      29,000 acts of rape
      or sexual assault in the
      workplace each year
      Both an emotional and financial impact on the workplace
      Victims report diminished work functioning and even loss of their employment
    • 10. Criminal Profileof a Rapist
      In about two-thirds of
      all rape cases,
      the victim knows the
      99 in 100 are male
      6 in 10 are white
      Average age is the early 30s
    • 11. DFSA Rapists
      Strongly defend their violence by denying, minimizing, blaming, justifying, and rationalizing their behavior.
      Appear logical and rational when convincing others of their innocence.
    • 12. Rapists Control the Victim
      Rape drugs make it relatively easy for rapists to gain control of their victims. They can even make it seem as though the victim is consenting.
      Drugs they administer immobilize and silence the victim.
      Rapist does not have to
      overcome any form of
      resistance. No need for
      physical force or threats.
    • 13. Many Repeat Offenders
      Drugs used often cause rapid loss of ability to walk –the assault very near the location of the drugging
      Perpetrators target someone who can be easily “carried” home –
      The Rescuer, The Helper
    • 14. DFSA Rapist Criminal Profile
      High functioning
      Grandiose, self-absorbed
      Appear to be functioning well
      Two groups
      College students
      Men > 30 years of age
      Often single (never married or divorced)
    • 15. Modus operandi
      Good verbal social skills, “Wine and dine”
      Charming, Usually not psychiatrically ill
      Can quickly establish “trust”
      Usually not drunk or stoned, Very much in control of the situation
      Usually not violent, Often makes NO effort to hide identity
      In the morning, dares her to tell someone
    • 16. Act Out Fantasies
      Anal sex
      Ejaculate onto victim’s face,
      into the mouth
      Shave the victim
      Dress the victim up in “special” clothes
    • 17. DFSA v Coercive Rapist
      General lack of violence
      Clothes not torn off
      No mutilation
      No threats prior to the rape – maybe a threat afterwards that no one will believe her
      DFSA have superb verbal skills
    • 18. Clinical Psychologist Dr. Nicholas Groth
      “ All sexual assault is an act of aggression, regardless of the gender or age of the victim or the assailant. Neither sexual desire nor sexual deprivation is the primary motivating force behind sexual assault. It is not about sexual gratification, but rather a sexual aggressor using somebody else as a means of expressing their own power and control”
      author of Men Who Rape: The Psychology of the Offender
    • 19. Serial Rapists
      Drug rapists are most commonly serial rapists……..They will commit this crime again. 
      Rapists usually have raped approximately 14 times for each time they are caught
    • 20. Two Common Presentations
      Complete “loss of consciousness”
      I passed out…I was gone. He could have sawed me in half and I would not know it
      Fragmented memory – brief, intermittent periods of visual and/or auditory memories
      I was awake some of the time but I couldn’t move. I couldn’t talk
    • 21. Anterograde amnesia
      Anterograde amnesia is a condition in which events that occurred during the time the drug was in effect are forgotten
      May not seek help for days
      Inability to recognize signs
      of sexual assault
      Feel powerless & out of
    • 22. Most rapists are not caught
      Only 10 percent of rapes are reported
      Less than 25 percent reported rapists are arrested
      3 percent arrested are charged
      No more than 35 percent charged are convicted (according to FBI)
    • 23. Victim’s Feelings
    • 24. Support the Victim
      Believe the person when
      they tell you that they
      believe they were drugged. 
      Do not fault them for what they may have done before, during, or after. 
    • 25. Misjudging and MinimizingVictims’ Trauma
      Because most victims
      of drug-facilitated rapes have
      no memory of the sexual
      assault, people may
      mistakenly minimize the trauma
      Victims feel powerlessness, and humiliated by not knowing what was done to them.
    • 26. Secondary Victimization
      Inappropriate actions by others can so closely mimic victims' experiences at the hands of their assailants
      “The second rape" or "the second assault."
    • 27. Emergency Care
      You or someone you
      know believes that
      they have been given
      a drug and are unsure what has happened to them …………..
      Get them to the ER and
      Request to be  tested!
    • 28. Delayed Reports
      Delayed reports also are common, particularly in acquaintance rapes.
      The majority of mental health professionals surveyed (84%) agreed that contact with social service providers re-traumatizes rape victims.
    • 29. PTSD
      Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder is a normal emotional and psychological reaction to trauma (a painful, shocking experience such as rape, war or a natural disaster) that is outside of a person's normal life experiences.
    • 30. Recovery Takes Time
      Survivors recover in stages.
      Each person processes the event his or her / his own way.
      Survivors need a safe environment to work through their fears.
    • 31. Mind Rape
      The surreptitious
      drugging of a victim is,
      in and of itself, a cruel and criminal violation of the person.
      There are estimates that as many as 62% of all rapes are facilitated with drugs.
      University of Illinois at Chicago Sam Hostettler May 2006
    • 32. Rapists Can Appear to BeRescuers
      Victim may appear drunk or impaired and the rapist taking the victim to another place may appear to onlookers as assisting an impaired person.
      While the victim is still under the effects of the drug which may last 72 hours, the rapist has plenty of time to create a plausible cover story.
    • 33. Drugs Used to Rape
      Amphetamines:    Methamphetamine    MDMA-Ecstacy
      Benzodiazepines:    Alprazolam    Clonazepam    Chlordiazepoxide    Diazepam    Flunitrazepam    Flurazepam    Lorazepam    Triazolam 
      Muscle Relaxants:   Carisoprodol   Cyclobenzaprine   Meprobamate 
      Gamma Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) 
      Antihistamines:   Diphenhydramine
      Chloral Hydrate
    • 34. Most Rapes Involve Alcohol
      75% of men
      50% of women
      had been
      drinking at the
    • 35. Street Terms for “Club Drugs”
    • 36. Gay Drug Scene
      According to recent study …..
      70% of gay men attending circuit parties in Seattle use drugs
      GHB is widely accessible
      Meth use is escalating
      Hanne Thiede, DVM, MPH. Clinical Assistant Professor, Epidemiology
    • 37. METH and SEX
      Meth causes the
      release of dopamine,
      the brain's pleasure
      chemical, which makes
      sex more pleasurable, which heightens the desire for the drug, which speeds the physiological addiction.
      Sexual desire and craving for the drug become psychologically intertwined.
      Meth increases violent sexual behavior
    • 38. Male Rape
      Rape is a violent crime
      that affects
      heterosexual men
      as much as gay men
      Lack of sympathy
      Lack of support
      Victim’s concern for being perceived as homosexual
    • 39. Did you know that...
      Women can sexually assault other women?
      Lesbian domestic violence often includes lesbian rape?
      Lesbian rape is almost always unreported?
      It is estimated that 1 out of 3 lesbians have been sexually assaulted by another woman.
      GHB/GBL, meth and Ecstacy use by Lesbians increasing
    • 40. Window for Testing
      Remember, each
      of the drugs metabolize
      at various rates
      GHB 12 hours
      Ketamine for up to 48 hours
      Rohypnol for up to 72 hours. 
    • 41. Ketamine
      Not legal to possess for personal use in the United States, because its legitimate use is as a veterinary anesthetic or animal tranquilizer 
    • 42. Effects of Ketamine
      Dissociation of the mind from the body
      Produces similar side-effects to LSD or PCP
      Hallucinations and feelings as through they have entered another reality
      Amnesia which may make recollection nearly impossible
    • 43. Additional Effects - Ketamine
      Small doses block the bodies pain response, causing self-injury
      Larger doses lower the
      heart-rate, leading to
      oxygen depletion of the
      brain and muscles
      Overdoses can cause the heart to stop beating and, possibly, temporary paralysis
    • 44. Duration of Effects - Ketamine
      Immediate effects may only last an hour or less, but person's senses, judgment, and coordination may be affected for 18 to 24 hours. 
      Tests can detect Ketamine in a person's system up to 48 hours of ingestion. 
    • 45. GHB
      GHB (gamma-hydroxybutyrate) exists under many names.  Although initially thought to build muscle, it has quickly become the rapist's drug of choice.
    • 46. GHB Physical Characteristics
      Clear, syrupy liquid
      White powder form,
      like laundry detergent
      Tastes unpleasant, salty, and
      plastic-eque, and has a mild odor. 
    • 47. Duration of Effects
      The symptoms of GHB peak may peak in as few as 15 minutes and last from 3 to 6 hours.
      Extremely intoxicated
      Impaired judgment.
    • 48. Other Effects GHB
      Nausea, vomiting
      Uncontrollable twitching
      Violent, aggressive behavior
      Extreme drowsiness, weakness
      Reduced muscle-tone, blood pressure and respiratory rate
      Dizziness and confusion
      Hypothermia and seizure-like activity
      Suppression of the Gag Reflex and coma/death 
    • 49. Sexual Effects
      GHB may cause
      enhanced sexual
      feelings by the victim
      Victim may participate in reciprocal acts, as a result of the drug, rather than free will. 
    • 50. Oral Ulcers
      Homemade batches of GBH can have high pH levels
      cause internal burns.
      Vomiting burns the
      "second-time round" 
    • 51. Duration of Effects
      GHB - in the blood
      stream for only
      4 - 7 hours. 
      GHB in urine stream - up to 12 hours after ingestion. 
      Delayed reports – loss of precious evidence
      (National Drug Intelligence Center)
    • 52. Rohypnol
      Rohypnol is the trade name for the drug flunitrazepam, a benzodiazepine (central nervous system depressant) like Valium, yet 10 times more potent.
      Outside the United States, Rohypnol is legally manufactured by Hoffman-LaRoche, Inc., and is available by prescription
    • 53. Duration of Effects
      Rohypnol - begin within 15 to 20 minutes may persist for more than 12 hours.
      Detectable in urine for up to 72 hours after ingestion.
    • 54. Effects of Rohypnol
      Memory impairment
      Aggression and/or excitability
      Slowing of psychomotor performance
      Muscle relaxation
      Decreased blood pressure
    • 55. MDMA - Ecstasy
      3,4- methylenedioxymethamphetamine
      Adam, Ecstasy, XTC, E, and X
      Stimulant and low-level hallucinogen
      MDMA is generally taken orally in tablet or capsule form.
    • 56. MDMA Psychological Effects
      Long-term, even permanent brain damage
      Memory loss
    • 57. MDMA Physical Effects
      Muscle tension
      Involuntary teeth clenching
      Blurred vision
      Increased HR
      Increased BP
      Kidney Failure
      Cardiovascular Failure
    • 58. Legal Response
      DFSA - rape achieved
      with a weapon
      (that is, the drug).
      The drug is a weapon that is actively employed or used by a perpetrator to ensure submission thus taking away the victim’s capacity to consent.
    • 59. “Real Rape”
      Rape allegation
      is supported by a
      positive toxicology test.
      Forensic evidence of
      a CNS depressant as
      the weapon used to
      overcome resistance
      ultimately signals a lack of consent.
    • 60. Negative Test???
       But a negative toxicology report often just means that we didn’t get the evidence taken soon enough, for a variety of reasons. 
      This is still rape!!!!
    • 61. Memory Loss
      Victim may remember little
      Victim's account has many missing parts
      Recall difficult - may cause victim extreme anxiety
      Persons who saw the victim, or spoke to the victim, before, during and after the assault are critical witnesses.
      Witnesses establish -
      time frames
      notice unusual
      identify potential sources
    • 63. Variable Effects
      May at some point render a victim unconscious but not always
      Depending on which drug is used and/or the amount given, the victim may appear to participate or may even appear to be the aggressor early on in the attack. 
      Feeling a lot more intoxicated than you normally would, having consumed no more alcohol than usual.
      Feeling "fuzzy", waking up very hung over, unable to account for a period of time, or memory lapse.
      Feeling as though someone had sex with you but you can't remember any or all of the incident.  
      Remembering taking a drink but having difficulty recalling what happened after drinking
    • 65. Reducing the Risk
      Don't leave drinks unattended
      Don't take any drink from someone you don't know well and trust
      Don't drink anything that has an unusual taste or appearance (i.e. salty taste, unexplained residue, excessive foam)
      Don't accept open container drinks
      Watch bartenders make your drink
      Don't drink beverages that you didn't open yourself
      Bring your own drink or watch your drink being poured
      If you realize that your drink has been left unattended, discard it
      Don't share or exchange dinks with others
    • 66. Testing Negative
        “The victim claims she was drugged and raped, but they tested her for ‘date rape drugs’ and there weren’t any.  So, it wasn’t a drug rape.” 
      That statement
      mis-states the reality
      of the typical drug rape. 
    • 67. GHB often not Detected
      Some drugs stay for a couple of days, but GHB, the most popular for obvious reasons, very quickly dissipates from the system. 
      Hospitals can’t even
      test for GHB. 
    • 68. No Screening Test
      There is no “screening test” for GHB; it requires a confirmation test that hospitals cannot do and crime labs only do upon specific request
    • 69. Police Response
      Training for first line
      responders should include:
      The drugs utilized in sexual assaults
      the variety of drugs that are used
      what to look for in terms of crime scene evidence.
    • 70. Police Response
      Unable to give a complete narrative, victims often encounter suspicion, disbelief, and/or frustration.
      This inability compounds their sense of helplessness.
    • 71. DUI
      The victim may appear intoxicated or "hung-over“ and be arrested for DUI.
      Refusing to allow the rape kit to be taken is tantamount to the officer destroying evidence.         
    • 72. Difficulties in Investigation
      Many aspects of a rape investigation are facilitated by a victim’s ability to describe what happened.
      The victim’s narrative helps
      guide the medical/evidentiary examination and the police investigation.
    • 73. Prosecutor’s Training
      Drugs used and how
      they are employed
      How to investigate these cases
      Forensic evidence
      How to best use expert witnesses
    • 74. Rape Victim Rights
      You have the right to determine whether or not
      you want to report the sexual assault to
      law enforcement.You have the right to report the crime, but not proceed with prosecution. However if the prosecutor's office proceeds with the case, you may be subpoenaed. You have the right to reasonable protection by the law.  You have the right to be treated in a considerate and sensitive manner by law enforcement and medical personnel. You have the right to request copies of police reports regarding the assault. You have the right not to be exposed to prejudice because of age, race, class, lifestyle, or occupation. You have the right to be considered a rape survivor regardless of the relationship of the assailant to you (i.e. acquaintance, relative, spouse doctor, therapist, clergy or employer.)
    • 75. Contact
      Dr. Janet Parker DVM
      P.O. Box C
      Lawrence, KS 66044