Play, Creativity and Digital Cultures

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A presentation by Jackie Marsh in My Media Playground seminar 14th Feb 2013 in Tampere, Finland.

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Play, Creativity and Digital Cultures

  1. 1. Play, Creativity and Digital Cultures Jackie Marsh University of Sheffield, UK
  2. 2. Structure of Talk• Young children’s digital literacy practices in homes and communities• Playful pedagogies in early years settings and schools• Future developments and the implications for educators and researchers
  3. 3. Family DigitalLiteracy PracticesChildren’s Use of Virtual WorldsChildren’s Gamesand Rhymes in aNew Media Age
  4. 4. •Four children, two boys and two girls,aged between 2- 4 years, filmed by parents engaging in digital literacy practices •Parents interviewed regarding the data •175 children aged 5-11 completed an online survey •26 children took part in group and individual interviews •3 children filmed using ‘Club Penguin’ in the home over a period of one month•Ethnographic study conducted over two years in 2primary schools in London and Sheffield•Children were co-researchers•Interviews, videos, annotated maps, sociograms,online survey of media use
  5. 5. Lubna, aged 3 Farooq, aged 2
  6. 6. Grace, aged 4 Sohail, aged 2
  7. 7. Play, Creativity and Digital Cultures• Singing, dancing, talking to/ in front of TV/ films on own or with friends and family• Using an electronic toy on own or with siblings and parents (e.g. Arabic script toy, matching words and images)• Using mobile phone to talk to imaginary person• Using mobile phone to talk to family members - language play• Using laptop on own or with siblings and family members to use programs or watch Youtube
  8. 8. Play, Creativity and Digital Cultures• Using games console, generally with siblings• Using digital camcorder and camera to record family activities• Using CD/ MP3 player, dancing to music• Using mobile phone to take photographs and videos of family members• Playing on phone apps• Using mobile phone to engage in video calls
  9. 9. Purposes for literacy in the home (Teale, 1986)• School-related activity (e.g. homework, forms and letters from school, playing school)• Daily living routines (e.g. maintaining the social organisation of the family, shopping, cooking, paying bills)• Work (e.g. related to family employment)• Participating in ‘information networks’ (e.g. to find out what was happening in areas of interest e.g. reading sports pages of newspapers)• Religion (e.g. reading holy books)• Literacy for the sake of teaching/ learning literacy (e.g.phonics/ phonological awareness activities using books)• Interpersonal communication (e.g. letters, birthday cards)• Entertainment (e.g. reading books, comics)• Storybook time (adult-child reading of picture books) (Teale, 1986)
  10. 10. Purposes for digital literacy in the home• Daily living routines (e.g. emails; ebay; online supermarket sites)• Work (e.g. word processing; emails)• Participating in ‘information networks’ (e.g. chat forums; Facebook)• Religion (e.g. online religious communities)• Literacy for the sake of teaching/ learning literacy (e.g. tablet apps based on phonics).• Interpersonal communication (e.g. emails; text messages)• Entertainment (e.g. console games; electronic books; websites)• Storybook time (electronic books)
  11. 11. CBeebies: Everything’s rosie
  12. 12. TRANSMEDIA INTERTEXTUALITY (KINDER, 1991)
  13. 13. 1928 1930s...
  14. 14. New Media AssemblagesWhile an ecological framing looks to find a contributory role for allcomponents, an assemblage has room for tension, mismatch and ongoingreconfiguration. There is not sense of creating and then maintaining abalanced symbiosis of parts. As a result of this heterogeneity andindependence, assemblages dismantle and reassemble in differentcombinations as context and requirements shift.! ! ! ! ! ! (Carrington, in press)
  15. 15. 3 current UK trends: 5-11 year-olds’ favourite Internet sites n = 180
  16. 16. YouTube
  17. 17. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U4CV9LebIa8
  18. 18. Facebook
  19. 19. Yes No % of 5 - 8 year olds who had used Facebook (n =73)47% 53%
  20. 20. Yes No % of 5 - 8 year olds who had their own Facebook/ myspace page 30% (n =77)70%
  21. 21. Jackie: OK. So when you go on it, what are the things that you do whenyou go on it?Kate: You can play games, like there’s lots of stuff to do like pets and stuff,there’s a game called Happy Pets, Pet Society, Petville, and then there’ssomething called Cityville, like you can make your own city, and there’sFarmville.Jackie: And do you play on all of those games?Kate: Yeah.Jackie: Do you send people messages?Kate: Yeah.Jackie: And what sort of messages do you send?Kate: We just say “hiya” and we start like a normal conversation as if wewere talking to each other.
  22. 22. VirtualWorlds
  23. 23. Commercial VWs for children• Persistent space that offers a range of environments that are navigable through maps• Customisable avatar• Home for avatar• Free chat and safe-chat servers• Games which earn in-world currency, generally played individually• In-world goods that can be purchased• Moderators• Information for parents on website
  24. 24. Genres of PlayFantasy play Games with rules‘Rough and tumble’play Socio-dramatic play
  25. 25. Owen: I go on YouTube sometimes andthey have like little presentations on..it’sfunny because it’s like the funniest clips ofClub Penguin and stuff and they fall andstuff.Stacey: You can type ‘Club Penguin’ andit comes up and there’ll be like and there’smusic in the background and it can showyou slideshows.
  26. 26. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TK3Uo_-auLU
  27. 27. Class 2 Offline Online I (G) A (B) O (G) R (B) J (B) N (G) B (G) M (B) J (B) G (G) L (B) C (B) G (G) J (B) B (B) T (B) B (B) J (B) B (B) H (B) L (G) L (G) C (B) T (B) A (G) K (B) K (B)
  28. 28. Augmented reality Text Apptivity - Hot Wheels
  29. 29. Disney Dream Play
  30. 30. Mobile Devices52% of 0-8 year-olds had access tomobile device such as smartphone/ ipod or ipad; 38% of 0-8 year olds used them (Common Sense Media, 2011)
  31. 31. App Gap? (Common Sense Media, 2011) 47% v 14%
  32. 32. OFCOM, 2012
  33. 33. Play, Creativity and Digital Cultures in Homes and Communities• Many young children’s play and creativity shaped by ‘new media assemblages’• Play and creative activities take place across online/ offline spaces and two becoming more merged in play• Peer-to-peer fandom growing but it is still a minority of children who create and post online texts• Danger of digital divide being exacerbated by developments
  34. 34. Play, Creativity and Digital Culture in Early Years Settings and SchoolsDigital Futures in Teacher Education Project http://www.digitalfutures.org/
  35. 35. Aims of project: To involve pre- and in-service teachers, teacher educators and pupils in:• Exploring and sharing the potential of digital technologies• Understanding more about what it means to be digitally literate• Sharing and developing good practice in teaching through development of open educational resources (OERs)
  36. 36. 44Nursery Using mobile apps, including iPads, for digital storytelling Using Scratch to create and animate digital monsters; using WebPrimary school 1 2.0 sites for monster theme creativityPrimary school 2 Visual arts and the digital - using the app Brushes on iPadsPrimary school 3 Camp Cardboard - digital arts and dramaPrimary school 4 Using QR codes and geocaching in local parkSpecial school Creating films to enhance communication skillsSecondary school 1 Developing a school VLESecondary school 2 Using OERs to share good practiceSecondary school 3 21st century ‘show and tell’ using video and screencastSecondary school 4 Using QR codes with local science museum, Magna Centre http://www.digitalfutures.org/
  37. 37. http://www.digitalfutures.org/
  38. 38. PLAYFUL AND CREATIVE PEDAGOGIESFlexible learning spaces Digital playCultural relevance Multimodal, multimedia production/ design Participatory practices
  39. 39. Digital Play• Allowing children time to explore modes and media and understand their affordances• Play as a central concept• Teachers taking a facilitative/ supporting rather than leading role
  40. 40. Multimodal Production and Design Children:• Developing appropriate technical skills• Choosing appropriate modes and media for purpose• Developing skills across modes and media e.g. ability to insert animations into texts, understand issues relating to layout• Developing critical skills e.g. ability to review and critically analyse texts
  41. 41. Participatory Practices• Social constructionist/ communities of practice models of learning• Children learning to work effectively with others• Children learning how to manage complexities of distributed knowledge• Intergenerational learning
  42. 42. Cultural Relevance• Projects embedded children’s own out-of-school knowledge and understanding into activities e.g. use of smartphones• Popular culture important in some projects e.g. monster films• Links to community interests and needs e.g. QR codes in local park/ museum
  43. 43. Flexible Learning Spaces• Moving outside of the classroom space when necessary• Blending online and offline• Pupils able to work in flexible ways e.g. individually, dyads, groups• Control and choice important
  44. 44. Future Developments• Increased use of wearable devices to get online e.g. watches, glasses• Online/ offline play more integrated• Personalisation of robots in play
  45. 45. Conclusion• Many children living increasingly complex digital lives, active with a range of media from an early age - we need to identify and map skills and knowledge• Essential for early years schools and settings to build on these early experiences, especially for children who do not have digital access at home or in the community• We need further research on young children’s digital/ media literacy practices e.g. longitudinal studies, comparative studies, online/ offline tracking• Future developments will lead to an increasing blend of online/ offline spaces in children’s out-of-school lives - are formal learning spaces equipped to build on these developments?
  46. 46. http://www.bl.uk/playtimes

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