Representations of age
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Representations of age

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Representations of age Representations of age Presentation Transcript

  • Representations of age
    How are the following represented in the media?
    Teenagers
    Old people
    Middle aged people (45 – 55)
  • What are the representations?
    How are they constructed?
  • How has Catherine Tate represented ‘Nan’?
    Is she stereotypical?
    Why? Why not?
    Look at her iconography.
    What genre of programme does she exist in?
    How does this affect her representation?
  • Your task
    In pairs, to research representation of age in your given medium/genre.
    Produce a presentation, including images/footage: saved to a USB stick.
    Make reference to semiotics (visual codes and audio codes if appropriate).
    Make reference to audience & audience theories.
  • The choices! Ooh!
    Soaps
    Adverts
    Magazines
    Films
    News
    Sitcoms
    Cartoons
    Comics
    Reality TV
    TV Drama
  • Your presentations!
  • Representations of age
    What is the media (form and genre).
    How has the representation been constructed (visual and audio codes)?
    What reasons are there for the representation?
    How might the representation affect audience?
    Who produced the representation?
  • Reflective approach
    This approach suggests that representations are a direct reflection of reality.
  • Intentional Approach
    This suggests that producers shape reality through representation and suggests an audience’s understanding of the world is directed by those representations.
  • Constructionist Approach
    This is a mixture! It accepts that representations construct meaning, but that this meaning is understood through reference to reality and the audience’s own ability to analyse, accept and reject.
  • Constructionists believe:
    Representation is a mixture of:
    The actual thing being represented
    The VALs of the people/institutions constructing the representation
    The reaction of the individual member of the audience (and their VALs)
    The context of the society in which the representation is taking place
  • Ideology
    Media texts convey ideological messages:
    Ideology is a system of ideas, values and beliefs promoted by dominant groups to reinforce their power (eg governments, state institutions, corporations).
  • Karl Marx
    Developed the concept in 1900s.
    Analysed the way those in power protected their interests by representing their privileged position as being natural.
    Consider how dominant ideologies are reinforced/challenged by media texts.
  • Positive/negative representations
    Are negative representations responsible for the prejudicial treatment of a particular group?
    Can negative representations be challenged by positive ones?
    If representations do affect the way in which we think about particular groups, what does that suggest about the media audience?
  • Dominant representation of young people
    Yobbish/anti-social behaviour
    Gang culture
    Disrespect
    Drink and drugs
    Teen pregnancies
    Which media texts perpetuate this image?
  • Eastenders: Martin Fowler
    First character to be born in the programme.
    Stereotypical youth from many news stories.
    Anti-social behaviour with gangs
    Teenage, unmarried father
    Prison sentence for manslaughter
    Continued criminal behaviour upon release
  • Moral panics!
  • Stanley Cohen (1972)
    Studied youth groups in 1960s.
    A moral panic occurs when society sees itself threatened by the values and activities of a group who are stigmatised as deviant and seen as threatening to mainstream society’s values, ideologies and /or way of life.
    Mods & Rockers (1960s), football hooligans, muggers, vandals, mobile-phone snatchers...
  • Working class males
    Represented as yobs.
    Stuart Hall (1978) argues that the negative representation of young people is deliberate as it justifies social control by authority figures such as the police and government. The media has a key role in this ‘social production’ of news.
  • From media text to legislation
    Occurrence of deviant act or social phenomenon.
    Act or problem widely reported in media: news outlets; internet chat rooms; fictional narratives; video games…
    Call for government control either from legislation/policy initiatives or the more vigilant operation of already existing social controls.
  • Jamie Bulger
    No evidence was presented that either boy had watched ‘Child’s Play 3’. The judge made the connection and this was picked up by the tabloid press. It led to a change in the law so the BBFC now has to take into account ‘the influence’ of videos as well as their content.
  • From young to old
  • Pensioners
  • Does gender make a difference?
  • Film vs TV
    Why do you think there are more opportunities for older women in fictional TV than film?
  • Stereotypes
    Poor
    Fussy
    Senile
    Infirm
    Interfering
    Victims
    Dependent
    Kind
    Generous
    Happy
    Engaging in stereo-
    typical pastimes
  • Sitcom
    Humorous idiosyncrasies:
    Forgetfulness
    Senility
    Grumpiness
    Saying the wrong thing
    Does this reinforce the stereotype?
  • To what extent is the media responsible for reinforcing age-related stereotypes?