motivation and its theories
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motivation, its theories and applications.

motivation, its theories and applications.

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  • McDougall says that instincts are inherited. (18 in no.)For e.g.,  birds have an inborn need to build a nest or migrate during the winter. (Bernard, said there are 5759 instincts)

motivation and its theories motivation and its theories Presentation Transcript

  • Motivation -By Medhavi Sood Venue-DDU Hospital (Psychiatry Dept.)
  • Motivation Motivation come from a Latin word “Movere” which means to move. Motivation is what moves people to do the things they do. Baron, 1995 defined motivation as an internal process that activate, guide and maintain behaviour.
  • Need, Drive, Incentive, Motive Need- they are general wants or desires. It is a condition of deficiency every human has to strive for. E.g. Food, hunger, rest, oxygen, e.t.c. (Murry) Drive- It is an aroused state resulting from some bodily need or tissue need. This state motivates the organism to initiate behaviour to remedy the need.
  • Incentive-It is a reinforcing agent that adds force to a drive. If need is added with incentive, drive becomes powerful. E.g. praise, reward, appreciation, e.t.c. Motive- It is a desired goal that prompts behaviour.
  • Types of motivations MOTIVATION
  • ExtrinsicExtrinsic motivation refers when motivation is external or coming from outside. A person performs an action because it leads to an outcome that is separate from the person (Ryan and Deci, 2000). E.g.- giving a child money for every A+ he gets.
  • IntrinsicIntrinsic motivation refers to motivation that is driven by an interest or enjoyment in the task itself, and exists within the individual rather than relying on external pressures or a desire for reward. These behaviours are interesting and self satisfying. E.g.- playing guitar even when no one is listening.
  • THEORIES OF MOTIVATION & THEIR APPLICATIONS
  • CLASSIFICATION OF THEORIES
  • Content theories Maslow’s hierarchy of needs McClelland’s Acquired needs theory Herzber g’s twofactor theory Behavioural Theories Social learning theory Intrinsic theories Instinct theory Cognitive Theories Psychoanalyt ic Theory Incentiv e theory Freud’s psychoanalytic theory Drive reductio n theory Goal setting theory Arous al theory Balance theory
  • CONTENT THEORIES
  • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
  • Physiological need- Hunger, thirst etc., Safety need- To feel secure & safe, out of danger Belongingness & love needs- Affiliate with others, be accepted & belong Esteem needs- To achieve, be component, gain approval Self-actualization needs- Self fulfillment & realize one’s potential  He explained needs of the people. Had a very optimistic view of humans. Its basic
  • McClelland’s Theory of Needs
  • There are three kinds of needs: (1) Need for achievement (nAch) (Mc Clelland, 1953) (2) Need for power (nPow) (Winter, 1973) (3) Need for affiliation (nAff) (O’Connor, 1996)
  • Herzberg’s two factor theory
  • According to Herzberg, individuals are not content with the satisfaction of lower-order needs at work, for example, those associated with minimum salary levels e.t.c. Rather, individuals look for the gratification of higher-level psychological needs having to do with achievement, recognition, responsibility , advancement, and the nature of the work itself.
  • Herzberg added a new dimension to this theory by proposing a two-factor model of motivation, based on the notion that the presence of one set of job characteristics or incentives leads to worker satisfaction at work, while another and separate set of job characteristics leads to dissatisfaction at work. Taken from OB this theory finds its applications in daily life as well.
  • BEHAVIOURAL THEORY
  • Social learning theory; Bandura
  • It focuses on individual drives and patterns of behaviour the individual learns in coping with the environment. It says that the behaviors can be learnt through direct experience or by observing behaviors of others.
  • INTRINSIC THEORIES
  • Instinct theoryWilliam McDougall
  • Instincts are goal-directed and innate patterns of behavior that are not the result of learning or experience. According to the instinct theory of motivation, all organisms are born with innate biological tendencies that help them survive. This theory suggests that all behaviors are driven by instincts.
  • Hull’s Drive reduction (Push theory)
  • Biological needs arising within our body creates unpleasant state of arousal that we usually call hunger, thirst, e.t.c. To eliminate such feelings & restore a balanced physiological state or homeostasis we engage in certain activities. Thus motivation according to this theory (1943) is a process in which various biological needs push/drive us to do actions designed to satisfy these needs.
  • Those actions that fail to do so are weakened and will not be repeated again when the need arises. E.g.- reflexes of infants. He explained the reasons for our basic needs.
  • Two kinds of drives Primary drives Acquired (secondary) drives Those that involve survival needs of the body. E.g.- hunger, thirst, e.t.c. Those that are learned through experience. E.g.- Money, social approval, e.t.c.
  • Arousal Theory In this theory people are said to have an optimal level of tension that they seek to maintain by increasing or decreasing stimulation. E.g.-Task performance suffers if the level of arousal is too high or too low. For most tasks, moderate level of arousal is best.
  • The Yerkes–Dodson law It is an empirical relationship between arousal and performance, was developed in 1908. The law dictates that performance increases with physiological or mental arousal, but only up to a point. When levels of arousal become too high, performance decreases.  Helps in understanding people and their level of motivation and anxiety. (sports psychology, competitions, O.B.) 
  • COGNITIVE THEORIES
  • Incentive theory (Pull Theory) It states that external stimuli regulates motivational state. It is also called expectancy theory. (McClelland 1975)  Expectancy-value model; (Atkinson 1978) It states that actions depend on 2 factorsoExpectancy about ones chance of attaining incentive oValue of desired incentive. Basic application is behavioural modification (token economy) like in Tihar jail, giving gold stars to kids for solving the question right, e.t.c. 
  • Goal Setting Theory It suggests that motive is strongly influenced by goals. Though it works under certain conditions. It is most effective in boosting performance when the goal set is highly specific and is perceived to be attainable. Setting smaller goals to reach the larger one helps more in many cases.
  • Balance Theory; Fritz Heider (1958)
  • We are motivated to maintain harmony among our beliefs and attitudes. It’s a basic theory of attitude change. Mainly used in the marketing sector or other place (some times to chance beliefs in patients with cognitive distortions as well) where attitude change is required.
  • PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY
  • Psychoanalyti c Theory; Freud
  • He believed that our actions are determined by inner forces and impulses often operate below the level of consciousness. He believed that there are 2 opposing forces that control our behaviour-
  • MOTIVATION AT WORK Monetary Incentives (Not so relevant for Government employees) Rti, Jammu 47
  • NON-FINANCIAL  Employee recognition programmes  Employee involvement programmes  Employee participation  Job enrichment and job excitement  Delegation Rti, Jammu 48
  • STRATEGIES FOR MOTIVATION Reward creativity instead of mindless conformity  Reward smart work instead of busy work  Reward working together instead of working against  Rti, Jammu 49
  • Remember Six important words are “ I admit I made a mistake”  Five important words are” You did a good job”  Four important words are “ What is your opinion?”  Three important words are “Let’s work together.”  Two most important words are “ Thank you”  Single most important word is ”WE”.  Rti, Jammu 50
  • Thank You :)