Truck and Large Vehicles

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  • © 2013 by Smith System Driver Improvement Institute, Inc., Arlington, TX 76006-7441 USA All Rights ReservedNo part of these course materials may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means.
  • Developed by Harold Smith in 1948Techniques developed by Harold Smith in 1952 and refined with the help from a writer and OphthalmologistEstablished as a company in 1952First company to teach experienced drivers how to avoid collisions in the U.S. and it is also believed in the worldFirst training method dedicated to educating experienced drivers in collision avoidanceSponsored by Ford Motor Co. beginning in the early 50’s and continuing for many years
  • UtilitiesTruckingPetro-ChemicalsPharmaceuticalsPackage DeliveryTelecommunicationsGovernment EntitiesMany of the Worlds Largest Companies
  • SpeedRoadsHealthFatigue AttitudeWeatherTailgatingInattentionImpairmentInexperienceOther DriversVehicle Condition
  • SPACE for the vehicleCreate Space to maneuver their vehicle away from conflictVISIBILITY for the driverProvide Visibility to detect the potential for danger with other vehicles or fixed objects TIME to make decisionsEnsure the driver Time to react to volatile and complex driving situations
  • Reduced collision potentialReduced fuel usageReduced maintenanceLower insurance expenseReduced anxiety and stress
  • Number The Keys®Explain each individually
  • An animal’s eyesight is suited to its needsAverage drivers use 3 to 6 seconds as eye lead timeExpand your eye lead time to a minimum of 15 secondsDemonstrate: The benefits of aiming high
  • Look 15 seconds aheadScan at least one of your mirrors every 5 to 8 secondsAchieve a circle of awareness
  • Relevant and non-relevant objectsPosition your vehicle so you can seeDemonstrate: Eliminating vision barriersSimulate: A truck (book), car (hand) and motorcycle (thumb)3. Maintain the proper following distance Describe: Proper following distanceDefine: Not only allows space for stopping but also time to gather information.Refer: To Key 2 Following Distance Diagram
  • Central vision is approximately 3° of clear visibilityPeripheral vision is approximately 180° of visibilityDemonstrate: Central “cone” and peripheral visionExample: Use a page, sign or other item with words on it.
  • 1. Avoid blank and fixed staresDescribe: Their nature and their effect2. Avoid focusing on an object for more than 2 secondsDemonstrate: The fixed stare problemExample: Student looks at book while instructor establishes peripheral vision limits with hand 90° from face. The student them loses the hand while reading.Emphasize: To keep information flowing and to keep stares from forming, move your eyes every 2 seconds.
  • Avoid traveling in traffic clustersSurround yourself with spaceDemonstrate: Ways to create space on the roadwayRefer: To Key 4. Coin Demonstration Diagram 3. Anticipate the actions of others
  • Seek eye contactUse your warning devicesWhat are our communication devices?Solicit: List from group3. Proper timing is essentialExplain: Learning to use them properly is a skillExpound: On misuse of horn or turn indicators
  • Here is a brief recap of The 5 Keys®Review each Key® and its main theme
  • When possible avoid reversingThink about your departure upon arrivalSelect the safest parking location and reversing path
  • Look for all hazards and consider reversing upon arrivalUse a guide when availableWhen in doubt get out and look
  • Avoid staring at any one object; scan the entire areaDo not forget the front and the sidesReverse slowly
  • Choose the site with the fewest hazardsManeuver no closer to other objects than necessaryReverse only as far as you mustWhat parking space would you choose?Why?
  • Seek eye contactUse warning devicesIf you do not know, do not go!
  • Here is a brief recap of The 5 Keys®Review each Key® and its main theme

Transcript

  • 1. Smith System Driver Improvement Institute Incorporated Arlington, Texas, 76006-7441 USA 800.777.7648 • www.drivedifferent.com REV 05.2013SSS-933 CIP T Permission for use of Smith System Materials © 2013 by Smith System Driver Improvement Institute, Inc., Arlington, TX 76006-7441 USA All Rights Reserved No part of these course materials may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means. Smith System® and each of The Smith 5 Keys®; Key 1. Aim High In Steering® Key 2. Get The Big Picture® Key 3. Keep Your Eyes Moving® Key 4. Leave Yourself An Out® Key 5. Make Sure They See You® And all knowledge derived from “The Smith System”, (Space-Visibility-Time) “Space Cushion Driving”, (G.O.A.L.), are registered, copyrighted and trademarked by Smith System for the use of Smith System Driver Safety Training.
  • 2. “Changing Driving Habits Since 1952” SmithSystemDriverImprovementInstitute,Inc.Arlington,Texas76006USA Truck and Large Vehicle Presentation
  • 3. Smith System History: Developed by Harold Smith in 1948 Established as a company in 1952 First training method dedicated to educating experienced drivers in collision avoidance 3
  • 4. 4 We Have Worked With: 44 Utilities Trucking Petro-Chemicals Pharmaceuticals Package Delivery Government Entities Telecommunications Over Half of the Fortune 500 Companies
  • 5. Traffic Collision Triangle: Dollars Spent $299.5 Billion Vehicles Involved 9,411,520 Total Collisions 5,338,000 Unsafe Acts ? ? ? Deaths 32,367 Injuries 2,220,000 Citations Issued 59,828,000 Source: NHTSA Traffic Safety Facts 2011 For each death there are: $9,253,252 1,848 291 165 69 1 5
  • 6. 6
  • 7. Use Of The Smith 5 Keys® Provides: SPACE for the vehicle VISIBILITY for the driver TIME to make decisions 7
  • 8. The Benefits:  Reduced collision potential  Reduced fuel usage  Reduced maintenance  Lower insurance expense  Reduced anxiety and stress 8
  • 9. Key 1. Aim High In Steering® Key 2. Get The Big Picture® Key 3. Keep Your Eyes Moving® Key 4. Leave Yourself An Out® Key 5. Make Sure They See You® 9
  • 10. Key 1. Aim High In Steering® • An animal's eyesight is suited to its needs • Average drivers use 3 to 6 seconds of eye lead time • Expand your eye lead to a minimum of 15 seconds 15 seconds 6 seconds 10
  • 11. Key 2. Get The Big Picture® • Look 15 seconds ahead • Scan at least one of your mirrors every 5 to 8 seconds • Achieve a circle of awareness  11
  • 12. Key 2. Get The Big Picture® • Relevant and non-relevant objects • Position your vehicle so you can see • Maintain the proper following distance at all times 12
  • 13. Key 3. Keep Your Eyes Moving® • Central vision is approximately 3° of clear visibility • Peripheral vision is approximately 180° of visibility  13
  • 14. Key 3. Keep Your Eyes Moving® • Avoid blank and fixed stares • Avoid focusing on any object for more than 2 seconds 14
  • 15. Key 4. Leave Yourself An Out® • Avoid traveling in traffic clusters • Surround yourself with space • Anticipate the actions of others 15
  • 16. Creating Space on the Roadway • When stopped, the cushion of space surrounding your vehicle is diminished • Although your vehicle is not moving, your eyes should remain active 16
  • 17. When Stopped at a Light… • Look at least 15 seconds ahead for potential problems • Turning vehicles, cross traffic, pedestrians/bicyclists • Drivers to the sides and rear who may be distracted 17
  • 18. Front Position • How can your space be regained? • Check Left-Right-Left before you move out • Why do you check left first? 18
  • 19. Front Position • After scanning the intersection, proceed with caution • By holding your acceleration, you create space around the vehicle 19
  • 20. Front Position – Aggressive Drivers • Should the drivers on the sides remain next to your vehicle, you have space ahead and behind but not to the sides 20
  • 21. Front Position – Aggressive Drivers • Ease off the accelerator and allow the vehicles on your sides to overtake • Now you have space to maneuver 21
  • 22. Front Position – Slow Drivers • Check Left-Right-Left before you move out • Proceed when safe to do so 22
  • 23. Front Position – Slow Drivers • Accelerate at your normal pace • Now you have space to maneuver 23
  • 24. Tailgaters • When space is available, oftentimes faster moving vehicles will overtake you • If they remain, encourage them to overtake by gradually reducing your speed 24
  • 25. Tailgaters • Change lanes to the right and allow them to overtake 25
  • 26. Center Position • As the vehicle ahead starts to move, take your foot off the brake and hesitate to allow the leading vehicle to move forward 26
  • 27. Center Position • Taking your foot off the brake pedal will prevent the driver in the rear from becoming irritated • As your space cushion begins to build in front, scan the intersection and proceed with caution 27
  • 28. Rear Position • Hesitate to allow the vehicles ahead to begin moving • As space begins to form, scan the intersection before entering and proceed with caution 28
  • 29. Following Distance • Verify your following distance by using a line on the opposite side of the intersection • Start counting when the back bumper of the vehicle ahead crosses the line 29
  • 30. Following Distance • Stop counting when the front of your vehicle reaches the line • Adjust your following distance as necessary 30
  • 31. Key 5. Make Sure They See You® • Seek eye contact • Use your warning devices • Proper timing is essential 31
  • 32. Key 1. Aim High In Steering® Key 2. Get The Big Picture® Key 3. Keep Your Eyes Moving® Key 4. Leave Yourself An Out® Key 5. Make Sure They See You® Remember Look ahead a minimum of 15 seconds 4 second minimum following distance Scan at least one of your mirrors every 5 to 8 seconds Avoid focusing on any object for more than 2 seconds Surround yourself with space Seek eye contact 32
  • 33. “Changing Driving Habits Since 1952” SmithSystemDriverImprovementInstitute,Inc.Arlington,Texas76006USA Truck and Large Vehicle Presentation 33
  • 34. Many fleets report that more than 30% of their incidents happen while backing Can We Remove Reverse? to Safe Backing 34
  • 35. Backing unnecessarily Blind areas Vehicle design Infrequent practice Limited mental preparation for backing Inadequate information during backing Why Do Backing Collisions Happen? 35
  • 36. Key 1. Aim High In Steering® • When possible avoid backing • Think about your departure upon your arrival • Select the safest parking location and backing path 36
  • 37. Key 2. Get The Big Picture® • Look for all hazards and consider backing upon arrival • Use a guide when available • When in doubt Get Out And Look – G.O.A.L. 37
  • 38. Key 3. Keep Your Eyes Moving® • Avoid staring at one object; scan the entire area • Do not forget the front and the sides • Back slowly 38
  • 39. Key 4. Leave Yourself An Out® • Choose the site with the fewest hazards • Cut no closer to other objects than necessary • Back only as far as you must 39
  • 40. Key 5. Make Sure They See You® • Seek eye contact • Use warning devices • If you don’t know, DON’T GO! 40
  • 41. Key 1. Aim High In Steering® Key 2. Get The Big Picture® Key 3. Keep Your Eyes Moving® Key 4. Leave Yourself An Out® Key 5. Make Sure They See You® Choose the safest location possible Search for all potential hazards Scan, do not fixate Surround yourself with space Use warning devices - Seek eye contact If you must back... When possible, avoid backing! 41