Skills – interpreting data, understanding policy responses, communicating to the public/patient Kweku Rockson and Alex Dod...
Overview <ul><li>Interpreting data </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding policy responses </li></ul><ul><li>Communicating with t...
Interpreting data - I <ul><li>“ Lies, damn lies and statistics” </li></ul><ul><li>Facts or spinning </li></ul><ul><li>Drug...
Interpreting data - II <ul><li>Benefits of medicines (or the medicine) </li></ul><ul><li>The available alternatives </li><...
Understanding policy responses <ul><li>National Drug Policy  </li></ul><ul><li>National Malaria Policy </li></ul><ul><li>N...
How are policies developed? <ul><li>In response to a national need </li></ul><ul><li>Experts gather and use “best practice...
The Malaria Example - I <ul><li>Chloroquine the mainstay of malaria treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Parasite developed resista...
The Malaria Example - II <ul><li>Ghana decided to move to Artemisinin-combination therapy (ACT) </li></ul><ul><li>Four ACT...
The Malaria Example - III <ul><li>New proposed policy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Three first line medicines for uncomplicated m...
Communicating with the public and patients <ul><li>Multiple ways of communicating </li></ul><ul><li>From proper labelling ...
Challenges Facing Patients - I <ul><li>More medicines available </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pharmaceutical industry coming up wi...
Challenges Facing Patients - II <ul><li>Explosion in information available to consumers </li></ul><ul><li>Increased direct...
How can health professionals communicate with the public <ul><li>Written information  </li></ul><ul><li>Television program...
Television Programmes <ul><li>Several programmes on TV talking about medicines and health </li></ul><ul><li>Let’s Talk Abo...
Other examples <ul><li>What are the other ways in which we can communicate with the public? </li></ul><ul><li>Is Access to...
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Skills interpreting data, understanding policy responses, communicating to the public/patient

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'Skills – interpreting data, understanding policy responses, communicating to the public/patient', presentation by Kweku Rockson and Alex Dodoo during MeTA Ghana, CSO & media orientation workshop, 16 April 2009.

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Skills interpreting data, understanding policy responses, communicating to the public/patient

  1. 1. Skills – interpreting data, understanding policy responses, communicating to the public/patient Kweku Rockson and Alex Dodoo MeTA CSO/Media Orientation 16 th April 2009
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Interpreting data </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding policy responses </li></ul><ul><li>Communicating with the public </li></ul>MeTA CSO Training 16th April 2009
  3. 3. Interpreting data - I <ul><li>“ Lies, damn lies and statistics” </li></ul><ul><li>Facts or spinning </li></ul><ul><li>Drug X doubles your risk of having cancer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the incidence of cancer in this population being referred to? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the risk of cancer in the general population? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the benefits of taking this medicine? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What will happen if this medicine is NOT taken (will the patient die or suffer complication)? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are there alternatives? </li></ul></ul>MeTA CSO Training 16th April 2009
  4. 4. Interpreting data - II <ul><li>Benefits of medicines (or the medicine) </li></ul><ul><li>The available alternatives </li></ul><ul><li>The cost (not price) of the alternatives </li></ul><ul><li>Terminologies used </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relative risk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Absolute risk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost effective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficacious </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Safe </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Beware of statistics, especially percentages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Always look for the “raw data” i.e. the absolutes </li></ul></ul>MeTA CSO Training 16th April 2009
  5. 5. Understanding policy responses <ul><li>National Drug Policy </li></ul><ul><li>National Malaria Policy </li></ul><ul><li>National HIV/AIDS Policy </li></ul><ul><li>National TB Policy </li></ul><ul><li>How are these policies developed? </li></ul><ul><li>Where can they be found? </li></ul><ul><li>Can or should government be held to account to deliver as per the policies? </li></ul>MeTA CSO Training 16th April 2009
  6. 6. How are policies developed? <ul><li>In response to a national need </li></ul><ul><li>Experts gather and use “best practice” and evidence-based approach </li></ul><ul><li>Reference to international organizations usually WHO and WHA </li></ul><ul><li>Global information customized to fit the local situation </li></ul><ul><li>Policy formed should be informed by several factors including adaptability, acceptability and ability of the system to pay for it and ensures it appropriate application </li></ul>MeTA CSO Training 16th April 2009
  7. 7. The Malaria Example - I <ul><li>Chloroquine the mainstay of malaria treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Parasite developed resistance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The drug did not work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Patients were not getting cured </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why did this happen? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Patients adherence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Doctors and other health workers practices </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Manufacturing practices </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>WHO recommendation to “change policies” when treatment failure rates gets to 20% or more </li></ul><ul><li>Failure rates in Ghana falling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ascertained by sentinel site testing (how representative are these sentinel sites) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Did the drug really fail or did we want to change? </li></ul></ul>MeTA CSO Training 16th April 2009
  8. 8. The Malaria Example - II <ul><li>Ghana decided to move to Artemisinin-combination therapy (ACT) </li></ul><ul><li>Four ACTs recommended by WHO </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amodiaquine + artesunate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Artesunate + SP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Artemether + lumefanthrine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Artesunate + mefloquine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Amodiaquine + Artesunate chosen because of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to manufacture locally (do we have the ability?) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Was that the best and most cost effective treatment? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Safety issues </li></ul></ul>MeTA CSO Training 16th April 2009
  9. 9. The Malaria Example - III <ul><li>New proposed policy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Three first line medicines for uncomplicated malaria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Artesunate + amodiaquine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Artemether + lumefanthrine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dihydroartemisinin + piperaquine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Awaiting cabinet approval </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is that the best? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DHA+P not yet “recommended by WHO” </li></ul></ul>MeTA CSO Training 16th April 2009
  10. 10. Communicating with the public and patients <ul><li>Multiple ways of communicating </li></ul><ul><li>From proper labelling of medicines to provision of drug information services to public health campaigns and programmes </li></ul><ul><li>Why should we be interested in communicating with the public? </li></ul>MeTA CSO Training 16th April 2009
  11. 11. Challenges Facing Patients - I <ul><li>More medicines available </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pharmaceutical industry coming up with more medicines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Global initiatives e.g. 3-by-5, GFATM, ACT subsidy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing use of therapeutic agents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased switches from “prescription only” to “over the counter” status </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cheaper medicines (generics) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Influx of counterfeits, sub-standard products etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased use of traditional/herbal remedies either alone or concomitantly with allopathic medicines </li></ul></ul>MeTA CSO Training 16th April 2009
  12. 12. Challenges Facing Patients - II <ul><li>Explosion in information available to consumers </li></ul><ul><li>Increased direct-to-consumer advertising </li></ul><ul><li>Unregulated advertising (and challenges of restricting this) </li></ul><ul><li>Use of different media to promote medicines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet, TV, radio, newspapers, printed materials etc </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increased claims (and counter-claims) by various health professionals </li></ul><ul><li>End result: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Confusion to patients AND </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acute need for CREDIBLE info on safety and efficacy </li></ul></ul>MeTA CSO Training 16th April 2009
  13. 13. How can health professionals communicate with the public <ul><li>Written information </li></ul><ul><li>Television programmes </li></ul><ul><li>Telephone answering services </li></ul><ul><li>Leaflets and manuals </li></ul>MeTA CSO Training 16th April 2009
  14. 14. Television Programmes <ul><li>Several programmes on TV talking about medicines and health </li></ul><ul><li>Let’s Talk About Drugs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Funded by the Department for International Development, UK </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>30-minute series on National TV during Prime Time hours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used well-known actors (comedians) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fictitious story lines interspersed with factual comments and “PowerPoint” slides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very popular with the public </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Omnibus version for public to phone in </li></ul></ul>MeTA CSO Training 16th April 2009
  15. 15. Other examples <ul><li>What are the other ways in which we can communicate with the public? </li></ul><ul><li>Is Access to Medicines an interesting topic? </li></ul><ul><li>How can the message be packaged appropriate? </li></ul>MeTA CSO Training 16th April 2009

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