Resistance and conflict management


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MeTA multi-stakeholder processes workshop for MeTA pilot countries in Wageningen UR Centre for Development Innovation, January 2010.

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Resistance and conflict management

  1. 1. 1/11/2010 MeTA Multi Stakeholder Processes Workshop for MeTA pilot Countries Ghana, Jordan, Kyrgyzstan, Peru, Philippines, Uganda, Zambia 6 Resistance and Conflict Management Simone van Vugt/ Karen Verhoosel Wageningen UR Centre for Development Innovation January 2010 Wheel of resistance ST S IE Coaching Bigger picture RA IT AC T EG AP Y Training C Lack of Lack of capacity understanding Exercise Lack of Definition motivation Recognition Participation COMMITMENT 1
  2. 2. 1/11/2010 Exercise Think of an intervention of change you would like to discuss with the stakeholders. Which most important signs of resistance would you likely find? From where comes the resistance? Catogorise in 3 causes: not wanting not enough capacity no understanding Think about some actions you could take in order to go about the resistance by use of the resistance wheel. Mention 10 good reasons why a stakeholder shows resistance against change. 2
  3. 3. 1/11/2010 Reasons of resistance 1. Stakeholder does not like surprises. 2. Stakeholder does not want to loose controle 3. Stakeholder does not want insecurity 4. Stakeholder does not want to loose routine 5. Stakeholder does not want to loose face 6. Stakeholder does not want more workpressure 7. Stakeholder sees real risks and danger 8. Stakeholder won’t like it when less good history repeats itself 9. Stakeholder does not want to deal with personal effects 10. Others??? CONFLICT MANAGEMENT 3
  4. 4. 1/11/2010 How do you manage resistance and conflicts? Conflict styles of Kilman! Do the test. Accommodating Collaborating Caring for Human Relations Compromising Avoiding Competing Caring for results Conflict & conflict mangement What do we mean by ‘conflict’? What do we mean by ‘conflict management’? 4
  5. 5. 1/11/2010 Conflict Management (Moore, 1987) “All societies, communities, organizations, and interpersonal relationships experience conflict at one time or another in the process of day to day interaction. Conflict is not necessarily bad, abnormal or dysfunctional: it is a fact of life” The problem lies rather in how the conflict is managed. Conflict management is about helping people in conflict to develop an effective process for dealing with their differences. Conflict assessment & management Conflict assessment: analysis, types of conflicts, phases in the conflict process Conflict management: tools and techniques to handle conflicts, with a specific reference to negotiation See also: 5
  6. 6. 1/11/2010 1. Conflict typology a) Data or fact conflicts b) Needs or interest conflicts c) Structural conflicts d) Value conflicts e) Relationship conflicts a. Data or fact conflicts Caused by: lack of information, spreading of inaccurate information or misinformation, different views on what are relevant data, different interpretations of available data, or different assessment procedures. Solution: reach agreement of which data are important, agree on data collection procedures, develop common criteria for data assessment. 6
  7. 7. 1/11/2010 b. Needs or interest conflicts Due to perceived or actual competition between interests that are: Substantive: eg the fishing grounds, the forest Procedural: eg incentives, fees or levies Psychological: eg environmental awareness Solutions: focusing on interests instead of positions, looking for objective criteria, developing integrative solutions addressing the needs of all parties, searching for ways of expanding options or resources, developing trade offs satisfying interests of different strength, hence sharing the benefits of the project. c. Structural conflicts Proceed from geographic, physical or environmental factors as well as time constraints that hinder co operation. Caused by: lack of appropriate procedures and legislation, the general set up and role distribution of a situation, unequal power and authority in the decision making process, negative patterns of behavior and interaction, the unequal control, ownership or distribution of resources. Solutions: clear definition and acceptance of roles and levels of authority, reallocation of rights and entitlements, relocation of the negotiation platform at a convenient distance from the field, the establishment of a fair, transparent and acceptable decision making process 7
  8. 8. 1/11/2010 d. Value conflicts Caused by cultural differences. Are part of the indigenous knowledge and at the basis of people choices and priorities. Ignoring value differences can cause a great deal of trouble Solutions: Parties should agree to disagree on their own values while looking for a common superior goal they can all share. e. Relationship conflicts Involve strong disagreement between deciders on the basis of strong emotions or dislikes, misperceptions or stereotypes, poor communication leading to an accumulation of wrong assumptions, and repetitive negative behavior. Solutions: install appropriate communication channels, people to learn to control their expression and build positive perception skills in order to develop a positive problem solving attitude. The people with negative attitudes can be removed from their position or made harmless. 8
  9. 9. 1/11/2010 2. Conflict Process Full Fledge Conflict Intensity Stalemate Erupting Resolved Dormant Time The conflict process: differences over time Potential or dormant conflicts. Use consensus building or relation building Erupting conflicts, with positions being developed. Use a range of options, depending on nature of conflict and relationship among parties Evolving conflicts: Evolving towards a stalemate: use mediation or arbitration Evolving towards a resolution/abatement: no assistance needed Resolved conflicts: make use of “social capital” gained 9
  10. 10. 1/11/2010 3. Continuum of conflict management and resolution approaches Two extremes Left side extreme: private, by parties themselves Right side extreme: extralegal and/or coercive Continuum of conflict management Avoi Discuss Negotiat Media Admini Arbitra Judicial Legislati Direct Vio dance ion ion tion strative tion Deci sion ve Action lent Decision Decision Action Private, by the parties Third Authoritative, by third Legal authoritative Extralegal themselves, or third party party party Coercive 10
  11. 11. 1/11/2010 Techniques to handle conflict management Techniques to handle conflict management De personalisation: go back to the facts beyond personal feuds Fractionation: attempt a stepwise resolution per component Relocation: reformulate diverging pre occupation to where the possible solutions will meet Techniques to handle conflict management Techniques to handle conflict management Neutrality: move to a nice and neutral meeting place Appeasement: build friendly relationships between people using icebreaker and social events Language: rewrite or rephrase positions in other terms that will be received as “non offensive” 11
  12. 12. 1/11/2010 Sources of and solutions to people’s problems Differences on perception > try to understand each other Emotions > acknowledge emotions and try to understand their source Communication > active listening Generally: build up good relations! Non Violent Communication Don’t judge and blame Understand others feelings Understand others needs Express your feeling Point to specific issues that create this feeling Express your needs 12
  13. 13. 1/11/2010 Thank you! 13