MeTA MSP workshop: Power, cude and advocacy_Introduction

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MeTA Multi Stakeholder Processes workshop for MeTA pilot countries in Wageningen UR Centre for Development Innovation, January 2010

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MeTA MSP workshop: Power, cude and advocacy_Introduction

  1. 1. 1/11/2010 MeTA Multi Stakeholder Processes Workshop for MeTA pilot Countries Ghana, Jordan, Kyrgyzstan, Peru, Philippines, Uganda, Zambia 5 Power Simone van Vugt/ Karen Verhoosel Wageningen UR Centre for Development Innovation January 2010 Power is itself a highly contested concept Some see power as held by actors (powerful and powerless) Some see power as zerosum (to gain power others must lose) Some see power as ‘negative’ as in ‘control’ Others see it as more pervasive and embodied in all relationships and discourses Others see it as more fluid and accumulative Others see it as more ‘positive’, as necessary for agency and positive action 1
  2. 2. 1/11/2010 And yet power is changing Changing perceptions of public authority – create new spaces for engagement, and new forms of power within and between them Changing relationships of the local, national and global – alter understanding of where power is located and where it may be exercised Changing role of knowledge and expertise in a globalised world – creates new boundaries which affect whose voices enter policy processes, and whose knowledge counts within them Exercise Ranking! 2
  3. 3. 1/11/2010 Power Cube How do we assess the transformative potential of new democratic spaces? What are the possibilities of effective, pro poor citizen action? Whose spaces? What levels of power? What dimensions of power? The Power Cube – a tentative approach 3
  4. 4. 1/11/2010 Closed or uninvited spaces Bureaucrats, experts, elected representative make decisions with little broad consultation or involvement Closed / uninvited SPACES for participation Invited spaces People are invited to participate by various kinds of authorities Closed / Invited uninvited SPACES for participation 4
  5. 5. 1/11/2010 Claimed / created spaces Spaces claimed by less powerful actors from or against the power holders, or created more autonomously by them Closed / Invited Claimed / uninvited created SPACES for participation PLACES of participation Global National Local Closed / Invited Claimed / uninvited created SPACES 5
  6. 6. 1/11/2010 PLACES POWER relationships Global National Local Closed / Invited Claimed / uninvited created SPACES Visible: contests over interests are assumed to be visible in public spaces PLACES POWER Global National Local Visible Closed / Invited Claimed / uninvited created SPACES 6
  7. 7. 1/11/2010 Hidden: there are barriers that preclude the entry of certain actors and issues PLACES POWER Global National Local Hidden Visible Closed / Invited Claimed / uninvited created SPACES Invisible: power relationship is hidden through internalisation of powerlessness or lack of awareness PLACES POWER Global National Invisible Local Hidden Visible Closed / Invited Claimed / uninvited created SPACES 7
  8. 8. 1/11/2010 Increasing the rights of citizens to have power over their own lives requires change at every level and aspect of the power cube. Strategies for mobilisation and action should: connect across all the spaces – but how do civil society actors build alliances across the spaces and strategies? link vertically, as well as horizontally – who represents whom across the levels? How are actors in one space held accountable? address the hidden and invisible forms of power in every space and level – does ‘professional’ campaigning at one level re enforce hidden and invisible forms of power at another? Power cube: strategies Power cube explains different forms of power Power cube also demonstrates inter linkages Dealing with power usually involves more than one strategy Advocacy is but one of possible strategies 8
  9. 9. 1/11/2010 Group work In subgroups work on a case. Identify where citizen participation takes place in different dimensions of the power cube: Spaces Levels Power relationships To what extent are the spaces connected? To what extent is there vertical and horizontal alignment? To what extent are hidden and invisible forms of power addressed at every level and space? Possible strategies? Importance and Influence Matrix 9
  10. 10. 1/11/2010 Influence and importance (DFID) List stakeholders Draw out their interests in relation to problem addressed Assess the influence or power of the stakeholder Brainstorm; take time to understand stakeholders Combine influence and importance in matrix diagram Identify risks and assumptions for stakeholder cooperation Determine how and which stakeholders should participate in the project cycle activities Definitions: influence The power which stakeholders have over a project to control what decisions are made, facilitate its implementation, or exert influence which affects the project negatively. The extent to which the stakeholder is able to persuade or coerce others into making decisions, and following certain course on action 10
  11. 11. 1/11/2010 Definition: importance The priority given (by your organisation) to satisfying stakeholders’ needs and interests through the project Likely to be most obvious when stakeholders interests in the project converge closely with your objectives Variables affecting stakeholders’ relative power and influence Within and between formal For informal interest groups organisations: and primary stakeholders: Legal hierarchy (command & Social, economical and political control, budget holders) status Authority of leadership (formal, degree of organisation, informal, charisma, political, consensus and leadership in the familial or cadre connections) group Control of strategic resources Degree of control of strategic for the project resources significant for the Possession of specialist project knowledge & skills Informal influence through links Negotiating position (strength in with other stakeholders relation to other stakeholders) Degree of dependence on other stakeholders 11
  12. 12. 1/11/2010 Influence and importance matrix A. B. high importance high importance low influence high influence the “victims” the ones that can make the difference Level of importance D. C. low importance low importance low influence high influence the “bystanders” the “irresponsible” Level of influence Relevant questions Which problems, affecting which stakeholders, does the project seek to address or alleviate? For which stakeholders does the project place a priority on meeting their needs, interests and expectations? Which stakeholder interests converge most closely with policy and project objectives? 12
  13. 13. 1/11/2010 Implications for your project A: stakeholders in A require special initiatives if their interests are to be protected B: your project needs to construct good working relationships with these stakeholders, to ensure effective coalition of support C: these stakeholders may be a source of significant risk, and they will need careful monitoring and management D: these stakeholders are unlikely to be the subject of project activities or management Deciding on strategies Decide on strategy for working with stakeholders in view of the outcome of the analysis Advocacy can be used whenever you want to involve decision maker (person with power in public or private sector) Decision makers can be found amongst other stakeholders in box B and C 13
  14. 14. 1/11/2010 Influence and importance matrix A. B. high importance high importance low influence high influence the “victims” the ones that can make the difference Level of importance D. C. low importance low importance low influence high influence the “bystanders” the “irresponsible” Level of influence Group work: influence and importance matrix Decide on case you want to work on (don’t spend too much time selecting one!) Describe problem target group (people you want to help) and change you want to make List stakeholders on post its (1 on each post it) Select 10 most relevant and put them in matrix on flip chart If time allows: decide on possible strategies per key stakeholder 14
  15. 15. 1/11/2010 © Wageningen UR 15

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