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    Margadarshan main text Margadarshan main text Document Transcript

    • != kl/ro !=! ljifo k|j]z g]kfn /fi6« a}+s P]g, @)%* sf] bkmf !@ cg';f/ a}+sn] ;dli6ut cy{tGq, ljQLo ahf/sf] ljsf;, d'b|fk|bfo, d"No l:y/tf, shf{sf] lj:tf/, zf]wgfGt/ tyf ljb]zL ljlgdo h:tf ljifodf cfk"mn] u/]sf] tYofÍut ljZn]if0fsf] hfgsf/L lgoldt¿kn] ;fj{hlgs¿kdf k|sfzg / k|;f/0f ug]{ ub{5 . ;fy}, ;f]xL P]gsf] bkmf !) sf] pkbkmf # cg';f/ a}+sn] cg'/f]w u/]sf] v08df g]kfn ;/sf/, ;fj{hlgs lgsfo tyf lghL If]qn] a}+snfO{ cfly{s tyf ljQLo ljifodf cfjZos ;"rgf pknAw u/fpg' kg]{ Joj:yf ul/Psf] 5 . o;/L g]kfn /fi6« a}+s P]g, @)%* n] a}+snfO{ cfly{s tyf ljQLo ljifo;Fu ;DalGwt ;"rgf Pj+ tYofÍ ;Íng u/L ltgsf] ljZn]if0f ;lxtsf] k|ltj]bg ;Dk|]if0f ug{ dxTjk"0f{ lhDd]jf/L lbPsf] 5 . To:t}, g]kfn /fi6« a}+sn] df}lb|s gLlt th'{df tyf sfof{Gjog ug{, ljleGg cfly{s r/x¿;Fusf] ;DaGw ljZn]if0f ug{ tyf cGt/f{li6«o ;+3 ;:yfx¿nfO{ lgoldt¿kdf hfgsf/L u/fpgsf] nflu ;d]t jf:tljs If]q;Fu ;DjlGwt tYofÍsf] lgoldt ;Íng tyf ljZn]if0f ug'{kg]{ x'G5 . cfly{s tyf ljQLo If]q;Fu ;DalGwt ;"rgf Pj+ tYofÍsf] ljZn]if0faf6 d'n'ssf] cfly{s ljsf;sf] cfwf/ / :t/sf] hfgsf/L x'g] x'gfn] o;af6 lbuf] cfly{s j[l4 tyf :yfloTj k|fKt ug{, pko'Qm gLlt tyf sfo{qmd th'{df ug{ tyf o;sf] k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjog ug{ ;lsG5 . cfly{s ultljlwsf] ljZn]if0f, cg'dfg tyf k|If]k0f ug]{ d"n cfwf/ ;dod} k|fKt oyfy{ tyf ljZj;gLo ;"rgf tyf tYofÍ g} xf] . pknAw ;"rgf tyf tYofÍsf] dfWodåf/f cy{tGqsf ljljw If]qdf x'g] kl/jt{gnfO{ ;dod} klxrfg ug{ ;lsg] x'gfn] pko'Qm ;'emfjx¿ dfkm{t g]kfn ;/sf/sf gLlt tyf sfo{qmdsf] k|efjsfl/tf clej[l4 ug{ g]kfn /fi6« a}+ssf] e"ldsf cem lhDd]jf/Lk"0f{ aGb} uPsf] 5 . !=@ cWoog–cg';Gwfgsf] k[i7e"ld :yfgLo:t/sf] jf:tljs cfly{s cj:yf tyf ;d:ofx¿ oyfy{k/s 9Ën] cf}+Nofpg ;lsof]; / :yfgLo :t/sf] cfjZostfcg'¿k gLlt tyf sfo{qmd th'{df x'g;sf]; eGg] p2]Zon] cfly{s ultljlw;Fu ;DalGwt ;"rgf Pj+ tYofÍ ;Íngsf] nflu g]kfn /fi6« a}+sn] lj=;+= @)@% df a}+ssf pkTosf aflx/ /x]sf zfvf tyf pkzfvf sfof{nox¿df ;Djfbbftf kmfF6sf] Joj:yf u/]sf] lyof] . :yfgLo cfly{s ultljlwx¿sf] hfgsf/L tf]lsPsf] 9fFrfdf cg';Gwfg ljefudf ;do–;dodf k7fpg'kg]{ u/L pQm kmfF6sf] sfo{ tf]lsPsf] lyof] . lj=;+= @)#) kl5 d"No tyf zf]wgfGt/ tYofÍsf] ;Íng, k|zf]wg tyf k|sfzgsf] lhDd]jf/L ;d]t g]kfn /fi6« a}+sdf cfof] . o;}cg'¿k lj=;+= @)#@ df ;Djfbbftf kmfF6nfO{ If]qLo cg';Gwfg s]Gb|df kl/0ft ul/of] . If]qLo cg';Gwfg s]Gb|sf] sfo{nfO{ Jojl:yt ug{ lj=;+= @)#@ df sfof{Gjogdf NofOPsf] sfo{ lgb]{lzsfnfO{ lj=;++ @)#* tyf lj=;+= @)$$ df ;+zf]wg u/L ;do;fk]If agfOof] . To;kl5sf jif{x¿df klg cfjZostfcg';f/ lgb]{lzsfdf kl/dfh{g x'Fb} cfPsf] 5 . If]qLo cg';Gwfg s]Gb|af6 cfly{s ultljlw ;DaGwL cWoog x'g] u/]sf]df lj=;+= @)$(
    • 2 b]lv ;f]sf] ;§f o; a}+ssf pkTosf aflx/sf sfof{nox¿df a}+lsË ljsf; tyf cg';Gwfg PsfOsf] Joj:yf u/L lhNnf:t/df ;f]xL PsfOn] lgoldt¿kdf tyf cg';Gwfg ljefu, cfly{s ljsf; zfvfn] pkTosfleqsf cfly{s ultljlwx¿sf] tYofÍ ;Íng, k|zf]wg, k|ltj]bg n]vg nufot ;do–;dodf ljz]if cWoogsf] sfo{;d]t ub}{ cfPsf 5g . !=# dfu{bz{gsf] p2]Zo -s_ a}+ssf pkTosf aflx/sf sfof{nox¿af6 ;Íng ul/g] tYofÍsf] k|s[lt, tYofÍ ;Íng k|lqmof Pj+ tYofÍ k|zf]wg, ljZn]if0f tyf k|If]k0f ug]{ ljlwsf] af/]df dfu{lgb]{zg ug]{ . -v_ a}+ssf pkTosf aflx/sf sfof{nox¿af6 tof/ ul/g] cfly{s ultljlw cWoog tyf ljz]if cWoog nufotsf cWoog–cg';Gwfg sfo{x?sf] u'0f:t/ clej[l4 ug]{ . -u_ cWoog–cg';Gwfg k|ltj]bgnfO{ u'0f:t/Lo, oyfy{k/s Pj+ ljZj;gLo t'Nofpg] .
    • 3 @= cWoog–cg';Gwfg sfo{ljlw @=! cWoog ul/g] ef}uf]lns lhNnfx¿ a}+ssf pkTosf aflx/sf sfof{nox¿af6 cfly{s ultljlw cWoog ug]{ k|of]hgsf nflu lgDgcg';f/ lhNnfx¿ 5gf}6 ul/Psf 5g M sfof{no cWoog ug'{kg]{ lhNnfx¿ lhNnf ;+Vof lj/f6gu/ Onfd, emfkf, ;'g;/L, df]/Ë, wgs'6f, ;Kt/L / pbok'/ & hgsk'/ l;/fxf, wg'iff, dxf]Q/L, ;nf{xL / l;Gw'nL % jL/u~h af/f, k;f{, dsjfgk'/, /f}tx6 / lrtjg % kf]v/f sf:sL, :ofªhf, uf]vf{, tgx"F, ndh'Ë, afUn'Ë / kj{t & l;4fy{gu/ ¿kGb]xL, gjnk/f;L, slknj:t' / kfNkf $ g]kfnu~h afFs], alb{of, bfË / ;'v]{t $ wgu9L s}nfnL, s~rgk'/ / 88]nw'/f # hDdf #% gf]6M sf7df08f}+, nlntk'/, etmk'/, sfe|], wflbË / g'jfsf]6 lhNnfsf] cWoog–cg';Gwfg sfo{ cg';Gwfg ljefu, cfly{s ljsf; zfvfåf/f ;Dkfbg ul/g]5 . @=@ cWoog–cg';Gwfgsf] k|sf/ tyf k|ltj]bg k7fpg] ;do ;Ldf cg';Gwfg ljefudf k7fpg'kg]{ k|ltj]bgx?sf] k|sf/ / k|fKt x'g'kg]{ ;do ;Ldf lgDgfg';f/ lgwf{/0f ul/Psf]] 5 . qm=;+ cWoog–cg';Gwfgsf] k|sf/ k|ltj]bg k|fKt x'g'kg]{ ;do ;Ldf ! cfly{s ultljlw cWoog k|ltj]bg -s_ cw{jflif{s cfly{s k|ltj]bg -v_ jflif{s cfly{s k|ltj]bg kmfu'g d;fGt ebf} d;fGt @ jflif{s sfo{of]hgf cGtu{t ul/g] cg';Gwfg k|ltj]bg sfo{of]hgfdf pNn]lvt ;do ;dfKt ePsf] kGw| lbg # ljz]if÷cfsl:ds cWoog k|ltj]bg cWoog ;dfKt ePsf] Ps xKtf jf tf]lsPsf] Dofb leq
    • 4 @=# tYofÍ tyf hfgsf/Lsf] ;|f]t cfly{s ultljw cWoog k|ltj]bg tof/ ug{sf nflu cfjZos kg]{ tYofÍ tyf hfgsf/L k|fylds tyf låtLo ;|f]taf6 k|fKt ug{ ;lsg] ePtfklg k|fylds ;|f]tnfO{ k|fyldstf lbg' kg]{5 . k|fylds >f]taf6 ;+sngsf nflu d"ntM :ynut e|d0f, ;e]{If0f tyf cGt/lqmof ljlw ckgfpg' kg]{5 . a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfsf] xsdf E-mail, Fax tyf 6]lnkmf]gaf6 ljj/0f ;+sng ug'{ kg]{5 . @=$ cWoog–cg';Gwfg sfo{ ubf{ Wofg lbg'kg]{ s'/fx? -s_ ;DalGwt ljifo j:t'sf] cWoog u/L k"j{ hfgsf/L lng'kg]{ . -v_ :ynut cWoogdf hfFbf tf]lsPsf] Information Source -Joltm÷;+3÷;+:yf_ ;+u cGt/lqmof (Interaction) u/L tYofÍ÷;"rgf lng] . -u_ k|fKt tYofÍ÷;"rgfsf] Verification tyf Cross Checking ug]{ sfo{ :ynut cWoog s} ;dodf ug]{ . -3_ tYofÍ÷;"rgfsf] Verification tyf Cross Checking ug{ j}slNks >f]tx? ;d]t k|of]u ug]{ . @=% cfly{s ultljlw cWoog k|ltj]bg tof/ ubf{ Wofg lbg'kg]{ s'/fx¿ -s_ k|ltj]bgdf ;dLIff cjlwsf] tYofÍnfO{ cl3Nnf] jif{sf] ;f]xL cjlwsf tYofÍ;Fu t'ngf u/L ljZn]if0f ug'{ kg]{5 . To:t}, tYofÍ ;Íng ubf{ cl3Nnf] cjlwsf] ;+zf]wg (Revision) eP ;f] ;d]t hgfO{ k|ltj]]bg tof/ ug'{kg]{5 . ljleGg r/x?sf] cfjlws t'ngf ubf{ cg';Gwfg ljefuåf/f Follow u/]sf] Format df x'g' kg]{5 . -v_ cfly{s k|ltj]bgsf] ;f/+fz a'‘bfut ?kdf k|:t't ug'{ kg]{5 . -u_ cWoogsf qmddf b]lvPsf d'Vo d'Vo ;d:ofx? / cfly{s 36gfx?nfO{ a'Fbfut ?kdf ;f/+fzdf g} ;d]6g' kg]{5 . -3_ s'g} tYof+ssf] k|j[lQ (Trend) df pNn]Vo kl/jt{g -!) k|ltzt jf ;f] eGbf a9L_ cfPsf] b]lvPdf To;sf] sf/0f klg ;f/+fzdf g} pNn]v ug{' kg]{5 . -8_ lhNnfut ¿kdf 5'§f5'§} tYofÍ ;Íng ul/Pklg k|ltj]bgsf cg';"rLx¿df k|To]s lhNnfsf] 5'l§g] u/L ;dli6ut tYofÍ pNn]v ePsf] x'g'kg]{5 . cWoog If]qleq kg]{ lhNnfx?sf] PsLs[t ?kdf ljZn]if0f ;lxt k|ltj]bg tof/ ug''{ kg]{5 . r_ ;dLIff cjlwdf pTkfbg, e"–If]q cflbdf ePsf] kl/jt{gnfO{ k|ltztdf pNn]v u/L ;f]sf] sf/0f :ki6¿kdf pNn]v ul/Psf] x'g' kg]{5 .1 1 pbfx/0fsf] nflu s[lif pTkfbg 36a9 x'g'df g]kfn ;/sf/sf] s[lif;Fu ;DalGwt gLlt tyf sfo{qmd, s[lif ;fdfu|Lsf] k|of]u Pj+ cfk"lt{ l:ylt, s[lif ahf/, s[lif ;8s h:tf s[lif k"jf{wf/x¿sf] cj:yf, cfGtl/s tyf afXo dfusf] l:ylt, cfGtl/s a;fO{+;/fO{, pkef]Qmfx¿sf] ¿lr Pj+ Jojxf/df cfPsf] kl/jt{g, df};dL cj:yf, ef/t ;/sf/sf] gLlt, k|fs[lts k|sf]k, /f]uJofwL cflb h:tf kIfx¿ lhDd]jf/ /x]sf x'g ;S5g . To:t}, cf}Bf]lus pTkfbg 36a9 x'g'df dfu jf cfk"lt{;Fu ;DalGwt sf/0fx¿ x'g ;Sb5g . pkef]Qmfsf] cfo, ¿lr,
    • 5 -5_ cw{jflif{s k|ltj]bgdf rfn" cfly{s jif{sf] afFsL cjlwsf] kl/b[Zo (Outlook) s:tf] x'g] xf] ;f]sf] ljj/0f pNn]v ug'{ kg]{5 eg] jflif{s k|ltj]bgdf cfufdL cfly{s jif{sf] klxnf] ^ dlxgfsf] kl/b[Zo pNn]v ug'{ kg]{5 . pbfx/0fsf nflu jflif{s cfly{s k|ltj]bg tof/ kfg{ ul/g] cWoogsf] ;dodf dg;"gL jiff{ / wfg /f]kfO{sf] l:ylt :ki6 e};Sg] x'‘bf To;sf cfwf/df sflt{s–d+;L/df wfgsf] pTkfbgsf] l:ylt s] x'g] eGg] kl/b[Zo pNn]v ug'{ kg]{5 . tYofÍut¿kdf ljZn]if0f ug{ g;lsg] eP efiffut¿kdf kl/b[Zo pNn]v ug'{ kg]{5 . -h_ k|ltj]bgdf cfjZostf cg';f/ rf6{, u|fkm, 6]a'n cflbsf] k|of]u ug'{ kg]{5 . d"n ljZn]if0fdf pNn]v ug{ cfjZos gb]lvPsf tYofÍ tyf ljj/0fx¿ k|ltj]bgsf] cg';"rLdf /fVg'kg]{5 . k|:t'tLs/0fdf ;DalGwt cg';"rL tyf rf6{, u|fkm, 6]a'n ;+Vof pNn]v ug'{ kg]{5 . k|ltj]bgdf tYofÍ tyf ;"rgfsf] ;|f]t :ki6¿kdf pNn]v ul/Psf] x'g' kg]{5 . -em_ cfjZos ljj/0fx¿ dfq pNn]v u/L k|ltj]bgnfO{ ;fgf] / 5l/tf] agfpg' kg]{5 . k|ltj]bg ljZn]if0ffTds tyf ;"rgfd"ns x'g' kg]{5 . -`_ tflnsfsf] tYofÍ Times New Roman Font / !) Font Size df x'g'kg]{ . t/, g]kfnL Text / Text leqsf tflnsf eg] Preeti Font / !$ Font Size df x'g'kg]{ . km]zg, d"No j[l4 tyf o;sf sf/0f, csf]{ j:t' jf cfofltt j:t'af6 k|lt:yflkt j:t'sf] u'0f:t/ cflb dfu;Fu ;DjlGwt sf/0fx¿ x'g eg] sRrf kbfy{, Hofnfb/, s/, ljlgdob/, OGwg, cfk"lt{df cj/f]w, pBf]usf] Ifdtf, lj1fkgsf] k|efj, >lds ;d:of, pBf]u ;~rfngdf x:tIf]k, j:t'sf] u'0f:t/ cflb cfk"lt{;Fu ;DalGwt 5g .
    • 6 #= cw{jflif{s÷jflif{s cfly{s k|ltj]bgsf] ljifoj:t' / 9f‘rf #=! k|ltj]bgdf ;dfj]z ug'{kg]{ ljifoj:t' efu -!_ #=!=! s[lif If]q -s_ s[lif If]q cGtu{t tf]lsPsf lhNnfx¿sf] s[lif pkhn] 9fs]sf] e"–If]q, s[lif pTkfbg, l;+rfO tyf df};dL l:ylt, kz'÷k+IfL÷df5f pTkfbg, If]qut nufgL l:ylt, kl/b[Zo (Outlook) h:tf kIfx¿ ;d]6g' kg]{5 .2 -v_ pk/f]Qm tYofÍ tyf ljj/0fx¿ tf]lsPsf lhNnfx¿sf] :ynut e|d0f u/L tflnsf ! b]lv # ;Ddsf] 9fFrfdf k|ltj]bgdf ;dfj]z ug'{kg]{5 . #=!=!=! s[lif pkhn] 9fs]sf] e"–If]q vfB tyf cGo jfnL, t/sf/L tyf afuafgL, kmnkm"n tyf d;nf cflb jfnLx¿n] 9fs]sf] e"–If]q pNn]v ug'{ kg]{5 . tYofÍ tflnsf ! df pNn]v ePsf] 9f‘rfdf k|:t't ug'{ kg]{5 . #=!=!=@ s[lif pTkfbg s[lif pTkfbg cGtu{t vfB tyf cGo jfnL, t/sf/L tyf afuafgL, kmnkm"n tyf d;nf cflb jfnLx?sf] pTkfbg pNn]v ug'{ kg]{5 . ;fy}, kz'hGo pTkfbg, df5f tyf jghGo pTkfbg ;d]t pNn]v ug'{ kg]{5 . tYofÍ tflnsf @ / # df pNn]v ePsf] 9f‘rfdf tYofË k|:t't ug'{ kg]{5 . -s_ vfB tyf cGo jfnL cGtu{t wfg, ds}, ux'F, sf]bf]÷hf}+, cfn', pv', h'6, ;'tL{, e6df;, kmfk/, bnxg tyf u]8fu'8L -/x/, d';'/f], df;, d:ofË, rgf, s]/fp cflb_ tyf t]nxg kb{5g . -v_ t/sf/L tyf afuafgL cGtu{t xl/of] ;fukft, sfpnL, uf]ne]+8f, d'nf, eG6f, nf}sf, l3/f}+nf, :s";, sfFqmf], km;L{, s]/fp cflb kb{5g . -u_ kmnk"mn tyf d;nf cGtu{t cfFk, ;'Gtnf, s]/f, :ofp, cb'jf, n;'g, Kofh, a];f/, v';f{gL, cn}+rL, lrof, skmL tyf cGo kmnkm"n h:tf s[lif jfnLx¿ kb{5g . -3_ s'g} gofF s[lif jfnL nufOPsf] jf nufOg] ;Defjgf eP jf s'g} s[lif jfnLn] csf]{ s'g} s[lif jfnLnfO{ k|lt:yfkg (Substitution) ul//x]sf] eP ;f] ;DaGwL ljj/0f k|ltj]bgdf pNn]v ug'{ kg]{5 . 2 pk/f]Qm tYofÍ d"ntM lhNnf s[lif ljsf; sfof{no, lhNnf kz' sfof{no, dT:o ljsf; s]Gb|, jg ljefu cflbaf6 k|fKt ug{ ;lsg]5 . t/, cfjZos tYof+s k|fKt ug{ g;lsPsf] tyf afnL leqfO g;s]sf] cj:yfdf s[ifsx¿ tyf ;DalGwt s[lif lj1x¿af6 cfjZos hfgsf/L k|fKt u/L cg'dflgt pTkfbg;DjGwL ;+lIfKt ljj/0f k7fpg' kg]{5 . h:t} M— cw{jflif{s tYofÍ ;Íng ug]{ ;dodf ux'Fsf] pTkfbg;DaGwL ljj/0f k|fKt eO;s]sf] x'Fb}g . o:tf] cj:yfdf dflysf] ljlw cjnDag ug{ ;lsG5 .
    • 7 -ª_ kz'kfng cGtu{t kz'k+IfLaf6 ePsf] pTkfbg h:t} b"w, df;', c08f, pmg, 5fnf tyf xf8 / df5fsf] pTkfbg pNn]v ug'{' kg]{5 . #=!=!=# l;FrfO tyf df};dL l:ylt s[lif pTkfbg / pTkfbgb/ d'Vo?kdf l;FrfO ;'ljwfdf ePsf] lj:tf/ / df};dL cj:yfdf lge{/ x'g] x'Fbf ef}uf]lns If]qsf] l;+rfOsf] ;du| cj:yf, jiff{sf] l:ylt, jf9L, klx/f], zLtnx/ Pj+ v8]/Lsf] cj:yf tyf To;n] s[lif pkhdf kf/]sf] jf kfg{;Sg] k|efj cflbsf] af/] ljZn]if0f ug'{ kg]{5 .3 l;FrfO ;'ljwfdf ePsf] lj:tf/ ;DjGwL tYofÍ tflnsf $ sf] 9f‘rfdf k]z ug'{ kg]{5 . #=!=!=$ If]qut s[lif nufgL l:ylt nufgLn] klg s[lif If]qsf] pTkfbgnfO{ c;/ kfb{5 . To;sf/0f, jfnL÷jfnL ;]jf, lrof, lrgL, kz'kfng÷kz'kfng ;]jf cflb If]qdf ePsf] nufgL l:ylt k|ltj]bgdf pNn]v ug'{ kg]{5 . tYofÍ tflnsf % cg';f/sf] 9f‘rfdf k]z ug'{ kg]{5 . #=!=!=% s[lif pTkfbgsf] kl/b[Zo (Outlook) k|fKt pTkfbg tYofË, df};dL l:ylt tyf v]tL l:yltsf] cfwf/df cfufdL lbgdf b]vf kg{ ;Sg] vfB tyf cGo jfnL, t/sf/L tyf afuafgL, kmnkm"n tyf d;nf cflb jfnLx?sf] pTkfbgsf] kl/b[Zo pNn]v ug'{ kg]{5 . ;fy}, kz'hGo pTkfbg, df5f tyf jghGo pTkfbgsf] ;d]t kl/b[Zo pNn]v ug'{ kg]{5 . #=!=@ pBf]u If]q pBf]u If]q cGtu{t pBf]usf] k|sf/ tyf ;+Vof -yk36_, k|d'v pBf]ux¿sf] Ifdtf pkof]u, cf}Bf]lus pTkfbgsf] ahf/ cj:yf, If]qut cf}Bf]lus nufgL l:ylt, cf}Bf]lus pTkfbg kl/b[Zo h:tf kIfx? ;d]6g' kg]{5 . #=!=@=! pBf]usf] k|sf/ tyf ;+Vof k|ltj]bgdf pBf]usf] k|sf/ tyf ;+Vofsf] ljj/0f pNn]v ug'{ kg]{5 . gofF k|s[ltsf pBf]ux¿ yk ePdf jf eO/x]sf pBf]ux¿sf] Ifdtf lj:tf/ ePdf jf ePsf pBf]ux¿ qmdzM aGb x'Fb} uPdf ;f] ;DaGwL hfgsf/L ;d]t k|ltj]bgdf pNn]v ug'{ kg]{5 . #=!=@=@ k|d'v pBf]ux¿sf] Ifdtf pkof]u / pTkfbg l:ylt -s_ cy{tGqdf dxTjk"0f{ of]ubfg ul//x]sf cg';"rL @ df pNn]lvt cf}Bf]lus j:t'x? pTkfbg ug]{ cg';"rL ! cg';f/sf k|d'v pBf]ux¿sf] Ifdtf pkof]u ;DaGwL ljj/0f cg';"rL # cg';f/ ;+sng u/L tflnsf ^ / & sf] 9f‘rfdf k|ltj]bgdf ;dfj]z ug'{ kg]{5 . 3 l;FrfO{ ;DaGwL tYofÍ lhNnf l;FrfO{ sfof{no, lhNnf ljsf; ;ldlt, l;+rfO{ kl/of]hgf tyf cGo ;DalGwt JolQm tyf ;+:yfx¿af6 k|fKt ug{ ;lsg]5 . df};d;DaGwL tYofÍ tyf ljj/0f ;DalGwt ef}uf]lns If]qsf] df};d tyf hnjfo' lj1fg sfof{no -df};d cjnf]sg s]Gb| tyf If]qLo df};d sfof{no_ af6 k|fKt ug{ ;lsg]5 .
    • 8 -v_ k|To]s pBf]u ;d"xsf] Ifdtf pkof]u lgsfNbf pQm pBf]u ;d"xdf /x]sf pBf]ux?sf] rfn' cfly{s jif{sf] 5 dlxgfsf] s'n oyfy{ (Total Actual Output) nfO{ ;f]xL cjlwsf] s'n pTkfbg Ifdtf (Total Production Capacity) n] efu u/L ;on] u'0fg ug'{kg]{5 . -u_ Pp6} pBf]u ;d"xdf /x]sf pBf]ux?sf] oyfy{ pTkfbg tyf pTkfbg Ifdtf ;DjGwL tYof+s pxL OsfOdf x'g'k5{ . pbfx/0fsf] nflu, s]a'n tyf tf/ pTkfbg ug]{ pBf]ux?sf] oyfy{ pTkfbg tyf pTkfbg Ifdtf ;DjGwL tYof+s SjfOn jf d]l6«s 6gdf xg' kb{5 . #=!=@=# cf}Bf]lus pTkfbgsf] ahf/ ljut / jt{dfgsf] cf}Bf]lus pTkfbgsf] ahf/ cj:yf af/]df hfgsf/L lb+b} cfufdL lbgdf ahf/sf] cj:yf s] x'g] eGg] af/]df kl/b[Zo ;d]t pNn]v ug{' kg]{5 . #=!=@=$ If]qut cf}Bf]lus nufgL l:ylt nufgLsf] :t/n] cf}Bf]lus If]qsf] pTkfbgnfO{ c;/ kfb{5 . To;sf/0f, vfgL, pTkfbg, lgdf{0f h:tf pBf]udf ePsf] nufgL l:ylt k|ltj]bgdf pNn]v ug'{ kg]{5 . o;sf] nflu tflnsf * cg';f/sf] tYofË k]z ug'{ kg]{5 . #=!=@=% cf}Bf]lus pTkfbg kl/b[Zo (Outlook) cy{tGqdf dxTjk"0f{ of]ubfg ul//x]sf cg';"rL ! df pNn]lvt cf}Bf]lus j:t'x?sf] pTkfbg kl/b[Zo pNn]v ug'{ kg]{5 . #=!=# ;]jf If]q ;]jf If]q cGtu{t ko{6g pBf]u / 3/hUuf tyf l/on:6]6;‘u ;DalGwt s'/fx? ;d]6g' kg]{5 . #=!=#=! ko{6g pBf]u ko{6g cfudg -ef/t, t];|f] d'n's / s'n_ ;+Vof, xf]6]n tyf z}of ;+Vof, ko{6sLo :yn tyf cGo k"jf{wf/ ljsf; / ko{6g If]qdf nufgL l:ylt pNn]v ug'{ kg]{5 . o; k|sf/sf hfgsf/L d"ntM ;DalGwt xf]6n tyf nh, cWofudg sfof{no, ko{6g ;"rgf s]Gb|
    • 9 tyf :yfgLo Joj;foLx¿af6 k|fKt ug{ ;lsg] 5 . tYofÍ tflnsf ( cg';f/sf] 9f‘rfdf k]z ug'{ kg]{5 . #=!=#=@ ;fj{hlgs lgdf{0f, 3/hUuf tyf l/on:6]6 3/hUuf /lhi6«]zg ;+Vof, /fh:j, 3/÷ejg gS;f kf; l:ylt / d"No l:ylt pVn]v ug'{ kg]{5 . o; k|sf/sf hfgsf/L lhNnf dfnkf]t sfof{no, pk–dxfgu/kflnsf, gu/kflnsf / 3/hUufsf] sf/f]af/ ug]{ JolQmaf6 k|fKt ug{ ;lsg] 5 . tYofÍ tflnsf !) cg';f/sf] 9f‘rfdf k]z ug'{ kg]{5 . #=!=#=# ljQLo ;]jf a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] k|bfg ug]{ ljQLo ;]jfsf] l:ylt pNn]v ug'{ kg]{5 . o; k|sf/sf] hfgsf/L ;DalGwt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?af6 k|fKt ug{ ;lsg]5 . #=!=#=$ oftfoft tyf ;+rf/ btf{ ePsf oftfoftsf] ;fwgsf] ;+Vof, sRrL÷kSsL ;8ssf] nDafO{, a9L k|of]u x'g] ;fj{hlgs oftfoftsf ;fwg, ljt/0f ePsf 6]lnkmf]g ;+Vof tyf u'0f:t/ cflbsf] af/]df pNn]v ug'{ kg]{5 . o; k|sf/sf] hfgsf/L lhNnf oftfoft sfof{no, ;8s ljefu÷sfof{no oftfoft Joj;foL ;+3, ;DalGwt b"/;+rf/ sfof{no, pkef]Qmf cflbaf6 k|fKt ug{ ;lsg] 5 . #=!=#=% lzIff tyf :jf:Yo ;fj{hlgs tyf lghL If]qn] k|bfg ug]{ lzIff tyf :jf:Yo ;]jfsf] l:ylt pNn]v ug'{ kg]{5 . o; k|sf/sf] hfgsf/L lhNnf lzIff sfof{no, lghL ljBfno cu{gfO{h]zg, ljleGg SofDk;, lhNnf tyf If]qLo :jf:Yo sfof{no, k|fOe]6 xl:k6n÷lSnlgs cflbaf6 k|fKt ug{ ;lsg]5 . efu -@_ o; efudf ;d;fdlos ljifosf] ;+lIfKt cWoog ;dfj]z ug'{ kg]{5 . cfkmgf] If]qsf] 3/hUuf sf/f]af/ l:ylt, ko{6s cfudg l:ylt, ljk|]if0f cfk|jfx l:ylt, Cross Border af6 wfg–rfdn cfoft tyf lgof{tsf] l:ylt, Joj;flos l:ylt, kz'kfng l:ylt cflb h:tf ljifo dWo]sf d'Vo–d'Vo ljifosf] cWoog jf s'g} gof+ pBf]usf] Profile tyf of]ubfg cflb ;dfj]z ug{ ;lsg] 5 . o;sf nflu pko'Qmtfcg';f/ ljz]if cWoogsf] Format sf] ;fGble{s Joj:yf cg'z/0f ug'{ kg]{5 . efu -#_ cfˆgf] sfo{If]qsf lhNnfx¿sf] cfly{s tyf ljQLo kl/;"rsx? h:t} a}+}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfsf] ;+Vof, lgIf]k /sd, lgIf]kstf{sf] ;+Vof, shf{ /sd, shf{ lng]sf] ;+Vof / ATM ;+Vof cflb / cGo cfly{s–;fdflhs kl/;"rsx?sf] cBfjlws ljj/0f ;dfj]z ug'{ kg]{5 . To;}u/L ;DalGwt sfof{noåf/f ;Dkflbt k|d'v sfo{sf] hfgsf/L klg o;df k|:t't ug'{ kg]{5 .
    • 10 #=@ k|ltj]bgsf] 9fFrf cw{jflif{s÷jflif{s k|ltj]bg lgDg cg';f/sf] 9fFrfdf tof/ ug'{ kg]{5 M cu| k[i7 ljifo;"rL ;f/f+z -a'Fbfut ?kdf_ efu -!_ kl/R5]b ! s[lif If]q !=! s[lif pkhn] 9fs]sf] e"–If]q !=@ s[lif pTkfbg !=# l;FrfO tyf df};dL l:ylt !=$ If]qut s[lif nufgL l:ylt !=% s[lif pTkfbgsf] kl/b[Zo kl/R5]b @ cf}Bf]lus If]q @=! pBf]usf] k|sf/ tyf ;+Vof @=@ k|d'v pBf]ux¿sf] Ifdtf pkof]u @=# cf}Bf]lus pTkfbgsf] ahf/ @=$ If]qut cf}Bf]lus nufgL l:ylt @=% cf}Bf]lus pTkfbg kl/b[Zo kl/R5]b # ;]jf If]q #=! ko{6g pBf]u #=@ ;fj{hlgs lgdf{0f, 3/hUuf tyf l/on:6]6 #=# ljQLo ;]jf #=$ oftfoft tyf ;+rf/ #=% lzIff tyf :jf:Yo kl/R5]b $ ;d:of tyf ;'emfjx¿ $=! s[lif If]q $=@ pBf]u If]q $=# ;]jf If]q $=$ k"jf{wf/ If]q $=% a}+lsË, ;/sf/L /fh:j tyf vr{ / j}b]lzs Jofkf/ efu -@_ ;d;fdlos ljifosf] ;+lIfKt cWoog -ljz]if cWoogsf] Format cg';f/_ efu -#_ cfly{s tyf ljQLo kl/;"rsx? tyf ;DalGwt sfof{nosf] sfdsf] hfgsf/L cg';"rL tyf tflnsfx¿
    • 11 #=# tYofÍ k|:t'lt tyf ljZn]if0f -s_ tYofÍ k|:t't ubf{ ut cjlwsf] tYofÍ / ;dLIff cjlwsf] tYofÍ k|:t't u/L j[l4b/ jf kl/jt{g (Growth rate or Change) pNn]v ug'{kg]{5 / 36a9 ePsf] jf oyfl:yltdf /xg'sf] sf/0f v'nfpg' kg]{5 . -v_ cfjlws tYofÍx?sf] t'ngf ubf{ cg';Gwfg ljefuåf/f k|sflzt ul/g] æb]zsf] jt{dfg cfly{s l:yltÆ / cGo k|sfzg tyf g]kfn ;/sf/, cy{dqfnoåf/f k|sflzt ul/g] cfly{s ;j]{If0fsf] 9f‘rfnfO{ cg'z/0f ug'{kg]{5 . #=$ k|If]k0f / k|If]k0fsf cfwf/x¿ ljleGg If]qsf tYofÍaf6 xfnsf] cj:yf / ljutsf] cj:yfsf] t'ngfdf ;dLIff cjlwdf x'g uPsf] k|ultsf] l:ylt hfgsf/L x'G5 . df}lb|s gLltsf] ;fy} cGo cfly{s gLltsf] th'{df / sfof{Gjogsf nflu cfufdL lbgdf b]vf kg{ ;Sg] kl/b[Zo yfxf kfpg' cfjZos x'g] ePsf]n] ljut / jt{dfgsf] tYofÍ tyf cfufdL kl/b[ZonfO{ k'i6L ug]{ pknAw ePsf hfgsf/Lsf cfwf/x?df ;DjlGwt r/x?sf] k|If]k0f ug'{kg]{5 / k|If]k0f ubf{ lnPsf cfwf/x? :ki6?kdf pNn]v ug'{kg]{5 . #=% ;d:of tyf ;'emfjx¿ o; cGtu{t s[lif, pBf]u, ;]jf, ef}lts tyf ;fdflhs k"jf{wf/ nufot df}lb|s, d"No, ;LdfjtL{ Jofkf/ cflb h:tf If]qx¿sf ljBdfg ;d:of, ;d:of ;dfwfgsf pkfo, ;Defjgf tyf r'gf}tLx¿ aF'bfut¿kdf pNn]v ug'{ kg]{5 . s[lif s[lif cGt{utsf ljleGg If]qx¿ h:t} l;+rfO, dn, jLp–ljhg, s[lif pkhsf] d"No, kz'bfgf, s[lif shf{, zLt e08f/, s[lif ahf/, s[lif ;8s nufot cGo s[lif k"jf{wf/ cflbsf ;d:of, ;dfwfgsf pkfo, ;Defjgf tyf r'gf}tLx¿ pNn]v x'g' kg]{5 .4 pBf]u -s_ pBf]u If]qsf ;d:of, ;dfwfgsf pkfox¿, ;Defjgf tyf r'gf}tLx¿ ;DalGwt pBf]uL Pj+ Joj;foL, pBf]u jfl0fHo ;+3÷;Ë7g, pBf]u Joj;fosf af/]df hfgsf/L /fVg] k|fWofks, j'l4lhjL tyf cGo Joj;flos (Professional) JolQmx¿;Fusf] 5nkmn tyf cGt/lqmofaf6 k|fKt ug{ ;lsg]5 . -v_ ;Defljt pBf]ux¿, cf}Bf]lus pTkfbgsf] :yfgLo ahf/, lgof{tsf] l:ylt Pj+ ;Defjgf, cf}Bf]lus sRrf kbfy{, k"FhL, >d Pj+ OGwgsf] cfk"lt{ cj:yf, cf}Bf]lus k|lti7fgx¿sf] Ifdtf Pj+ Ifdtf pkof]u, >lds Joj:yfkgsf] cj:yf, pTkflbt j:t'sf] u'0f:t/, k|lt:kwf{sf] l:ylt, cf}wf]lus shf{sf] cj:yf cflbaf/] a'Fbfut¿kdf hfgsf/L lnO{ k|ltj]bgdf pNn]v ug'{ kg]{5 . 4 o; ;DaGwL ;"rgf tyf hfgsf/L ;DalGwt lhNnf s[lif ljsf; sfof{no, lhNnf l;+rfO sfof{no, lhNnf kz' sfof{no, s[lif ;fdu|L sDkgL lnld6]8, /fli6«o jLpmljhg sDkgL lnld6]8, s[ifs, s[lif Joj;foL, s[lif ljz]if1 jf s[lif If]qdf sfo{/t JolQmx¿;Fu 5nkmn tyf cGt/lqmof u/L k|fKt ug{ ;lsg]5 .
    • 12 -u_ vf;–vf; pBf]u Pj+ ;du| cf}Bf]lus If]qsf] ;d:of klxrfg tyf lg/fs/0fsf pkfo klxNofpgsf nflu cWoogstf{ :jo+n] /fli6«o tyf cGt/f{li6«o cfly{s 36gfqmd, gLlt lgodsfaf/]df oy]i6 hfgsf/L /fvL ;f] ;DaGwdf k|Zgx¿ l6kf]6 u/L ;DalGwt pBf]uL, Joj;foL Pj+ hfgsf/ JolQmx¿af6 pQ/ k|fKt ug'{ kg]{5 . ;]jf o; If]qcGtu{t kg]{ ko{6g, Jofkf/, oftfoft ;~rf/, ljQ tyf 3/hUuf sf/f]jf/, ;fd'bflos tyf ;fdflhs ;]jf, lzIff, :jf:Yo, xf]6n tyf /]i6'/fF cflb If]qsf ;d:of, ;dfwfgsf pkfo, ;Defjgf tyf r'gf}tLx¿ pNn]v x'g'kg]{5 .5 k"jf{wf/ k"jf{wf/ -cfly{s tyf ;fdflhs cfwf/zLnf_ ;DaGwL ;d:of, ;dfwfgsf pkfox¿, r'gf}tL tyf ;Defjgf ;DaGwL hfgsf/L ;DalGwt JolQm jf ;+:yfx¿ h:t}M ;/sf/L sfof{no, :yfgLo lgsfo, bftf lgsfo tyf :yfgLo hgtfaf6 k|fKt ug{ ;lsg]5 . a}+lsË ;/sf/L /fh:j tyf vr{ / j}b]lzs Jofkf/ o; cGt{ut df}lb|s If]q, ;/sf/L /fh:j tyf vr{, cGt/f{li6«o Jofkf/ cflb If]q;Fu ;DalGwt ljBdfg ;d:of, ;dfwfgsf pkfo, ;Defjgf / efjL r'gf}tLx¿ ;DaGwdf hfgsf/L xfl;n ug'{ kg]{5 .6 5 o;sf] nflu ;DalGwt If]qsf JolQm tyf ;+:yfx¿ h:t} M— ko{6g tyf xf]6n Joj;foL, Jofkf/L, oftfoft Joj;foL, a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf, 3/hUuf bnfn, lhNnf lzIff tyf :jf:Yo sfof{no, lhNnf k|zf;g sfof{no, lhNnf ljsf; ;ldlt, gu/kflnsf cflb;Fusf] 5nkmn tyf cGt/lqmofaf6 hfgsf/L] k|fKt ug{ ;lsg]5 . To:tf] hfgsf/L ;DalGwt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf, eG;f/ sfof{no, s/ sfof{no, sf]if tyf n]vf lgoGq0f sfof{no, pBf]uL tyf Jofkf/L, pBf]u tyf jfl0fHo ;+3/;Ë7g tyf cGo ;/f]sf/jfnfx¿jf6 k|fKt ug{ ;lsg]5 .
    • 13 $= ljz]if cWoog $=! kl/ro pkTosf aflx/sf sfof{nox¿n] cfˆgf] sfo{If]qleq kg]{ lhNnfx¿sf] s[lif, pBf]u, ;]jf nufot b]zsf] cy{tGqdf k|efj kfg{ ;Sg] cGo cfly{s tyf ljQLo If]q;Fu ;DalGwt ljifox¿dWo] ;d;fdlos s'g} Ps ljifodf cg';GwfgfTds cWoog u/L cg';Gwfg ljefudf k|ltj]bg k]z ug'{kg]{5 . pkTosf aflx/sf sfof{nox¿af6 ul/g] o:tf cWoogx¿sf] ;dGjo cg';Gwfg ljefusf] cfly{s ljsf; zfvfn] ug]{5 . $=@ cWoog k|:tfj ljz]if cWoog k|of]hgsf nflu a}+ssf pkTosf aflx/sf sfof{nox¿n] cfk"mn] cWoog ug{ rfx]sf] cWoog k|:tfjx¿ cg';Gwfg ljefusf] cfly{s ljsf; zfvfdf k7fpg' kg{]5 . k|fKt cWoog k|:tfjx¿ cfly{s ljsf; zfvfn] cWoog u/L cfjZos ;'emfj;lxt !% lbg leq ;DalGwt sfof{nodf k7fpg]5 . sfof{nosf] o:tf] ;'emfj k|fKt ePkl5 k|:tfjnfO{ kl/dfh{g u/L cg';Gwfg ljefudf k7fpg' kg]{5 . cg';Gwfg ljefun] k|fKt kl/dflh{t k|:tfj cWoog u/L pko'Qm b]lvPdf sfof{Gjog ug{ l;kmfl/; ug{]5 . cWoog k|:tfjdf cWoogsf] p2]Zo, dxTj Pj+ cf}lrTo, cWoog ljlw, cWoogsf ;Ldfx¿, cWoogsf nflu cfjZos hgzlQm, ah]6 / sfo{lbg ;dfj]z x'g'kg]{5 . cWoogsf nflu cfjZos ah]6 cg'dfg ubf{ hgzlQm Joj:yfkg ljefuåf/f hf/L ePsf e|d0f tyf b}lgs eQf;DaGwL kl/kq / a}+ssf] vr{ lgb]{lzsfnfO{ cfwf/ dfGg' kg]{5 . cWoog ug]{ ljifoj:t' 5gf}6 ubf{ lgDg s'/fx¿ Vofn ug'{ kg]{5 M -s_ cWoog ug]{ nfluPsf] ljifoj:t' ;d;fdlos x'g'kg]{, -v_ pknAw hgzlQm / ;|f]t–;fwgaf6 ;doleq ;DkGg ug{ ;lsg] x'g'kg]{, -u_ cGo sfof{nox¿n] ug{ nfu]sf] jf ;DkGg u/]sf] cWoog;Fu bf]xf]/f] kg{ gx'g] . $=# cWoog sfo{ljlw cWoog–cg';Gwfg k|:tfj :jLs[t ePkl5 lgDg cfwf/df cWoog ug'{ kg]{5 M— -s_ pkTosf aflx/sf sfof{nox¿n] cWoog;Fu ;DjlGwt k|ZgfjnL tof/ u/L cg';Gwfg ljefudf k7fpg' kg]{5 . k|ZgfjnL cWoog u/L /fo ;'emfj lbg' kg]{ b]lvP k|ZgfjnL k|fKt ePsf] ldltn] !% sfo{ lbgleq ljefun] To:tf] /fo ;'emfj k|bfg ug]{5 . -v_ k|ZgfjnL cg'df]bg ePkl5 jf:tljs tYofÍ ;Íng ug'{cl3 k/LIf0f (Pilot Test) ug'{ kg]{5 . -u_ cWoog–cg';Gwfgdf tf]lsP jdf]lhdsf] ;do ;Ldfleq cfjZos tYofÍ tyf ljj/0f ;Íng ug{' kg]{5 .
    • 14 -3_ ;Ílnt tYofÍ tyf ljj/0fnfO{ ;Dkfbg tyf tflnsLs/0f u/L ul0ftLo tyf tYofÍLo ljlw k|of]u u/L k|ltj]bgsf] k|f/lDes vfsf tof/ ug'{ kg]{5 . -ª_ sfof{nosf d'Vo Joj:yfks / cg';Gwfg PsfOsf clws[t tyf sd{rf/LaLr 5nkmn u/L k|ltj]bgsf] clGtd d:of}bf tof/ u/L cg';Gwfg ljefudf k]z ug'{ kg]{5 . cg';Gwfg ljefuaf6 s'g} Joxf]/f yk36 jf kl/dfh{g ug{ ;'emfj k|fKt ePdf ;f] cg'?k u/L clGtd k|ltj]bg tof/ ug'{ kg]{5 . $=$ cWoog k|ltj]bgsf] 9fFrf ljz]if cWoog k|ltj]bg lgDgfg';f/sf] 9f‘rfdf tof/ ug'{ kg]{5 . zLif{ k[i7 ljifo;"rL tflnsf ;"rL sfo{sf/L ;f/f+z kl/R5]b M ! kl/ro (Introduction) cWoogsf] k[i7e"ld cWoogsf] p2]Zo cWoogsf] cfjZostf÷dxTj cWoogsf ;Ldfx¿ kl/R5]b M @ s[lt ;dLIff (Literature Review) kl/R5]b M # cg';Gwfg ljlw (Research Methodology) kl/R5]b M $ tYofÍ k|:t'tLs/0f tyf ljZn]if0f (Data Presentation & Analysis) kl/R5]b M % lgisif{ tyf ;'emfa (Conclusions and Recommendations) cg';"rL ;Gbe{ ;fdfu|L kl/R5]b — ! kl/ro (Introduction) -s_ cWoogsf] k[i7e"ld k|ltj]bgdf ;j{k|yd cWoog ul/g] ef}uf]lns If]qsf] cfly{s tyf ;fdflhs cj:yfsf af/]df ;+lIfKt kl/ro n]Vg' kg]{5 . cWoog If]qsf] ef}uf]lns cjl:ylt, s'n hg;+Vof nufot ;fdflhs cfl{y{s k"jf{wf/af/] ;+lIfKt pNn]v ug'{ kg]{5 . o; cGt{ut 5gf}6 ul/Psf] ljifoj:t'sf] cj:yfsf] af/]df klg ;+lIfKt¿kdf pNn]v ug'{ kg]{5 .
    • 15 -v_ cWoogsf] p2]Zo k|ltj]bgdf cWoogsf] p2]Zo :ki6 tyf a'Fbfut ¿kdf pNn]v ug'{ kg]{5 . p2]Zox¿ Pscfk;df aflemg], j[xt Pj+ c:ki6 x'g'x'Fb}g . cWoogsf] p2]Zo lglZrt, dfkgof]Uo, k|fKt ug{ ;lsg] / e/kbf]{ x'g'kg]{5 . -u_ cWoogsf] cfjZostf÷dxTj o; v08df cWoogsf] nflu 5gf}6 ul/Psf] ljifoj:t' lsg k|:tfj ul/Psf] xf], k|:tfljt cWoogjf6 ;'Id tyf a[xt¿kdf s]–s:tf kmfObfx¿ k|fKt ug{ ;lsG5 eGg] ;DaGwdf rrf{ ug'{kg]{5 . -3_ cWoogsf ;Ldfx¿ o; v08df cWoogn] ;d]6g g;s]sf kIfx¿ h:t}— ;do ;Ldf, hgzlQm, sfo{If]q cflb pNn]v ug'{ kg]{5 . To:t} cWoogjf6 k|fKt lgisif{ /fli6«o :t/sf] gLlt lgdf{0fsf] nflu ;fdfGoLs/0f ug{ ;lsG5 ls ;ls+b}g ;f] ;DaGwdf klg pNn]v x'g' kg]{5 . kl/R5]b — @ s[lt ;dLIff (Literature Review) k|ltj]bgdf k|:tfljt cWoogsf] ljifoj:t'sf ;DaGwdf ;}4flGts¿kn] k|sfz kfl/Psf k':ts tyf o;cl3 :yfgLo, /fli6«o tyf cGt/f{li6«o :t/df ePsf cWoogx¿df pNn]v ePdf s'/fx? k|:t't ug'{ kg]{5 . cl3sf cWoogx¿n] /fv]sf d"ne"t p2]Zox¿, dfGotfx¿ k|of]u ePsf] cWoog ljlw, cWoog÷cg';Gwfgsf] lgisif{ tyf ;'emfjx¿sf] d"n c+z pNn]v u/L k|:tfljt cWoog s], s;/L km/s 5 egL :ki6¿kdf o; efudf pNn]v ug'{ kg]{5 . kl/R5]b — # cg';Gwfg ljlw (Research Methodology) -s_ s'g} klg cg';GwfgfTds cWoog k|f/De ubf{ ;j{k|yd cWoogsf] ljifoj:t';Fu ;DalGwt ;"rgf tyf cfFs8f (Data) ;Íng ug'{ kg]{5 . o;/L ;Íng ul/g] ;"rgf Pj+ cfFs8f To;If]q jf ;d"xsf] ;Dk"0f{ hg;+Vof (Population) jf6 lng] xf] jf gd"gf - Sampling_ sf cfwf/df lng] xf] o;af/] :ki6 pNn]v ug'{ kg]{5 . gd"gf (Sampling) 5gf}6 ug{ Random/Stratified/Cluster/Purposive/Mixed cflbdWo] s'g ljlw k|of]u ul/g] xf] / ;f] ljlw ckgfpg'sf] sf/0f s] xf] ;f]sf] cf}lrTo ;d]t pNn]v ug'{ kg]{5 . gd"gf (Sample) 5gf}6 ubf{ a9LeGbf a9L hg;+Vof -Population_ sf] k|ltlglwTj x'g] u/L ug'{ kg]{5 . gd"gf -Sample_ df k/]sf JolQm, ;d"x jf If]qaf6 k|fKt x'g] ;"rgf Pj+ tYofÍaf6 cWoogsf] p2]Zo xfl;n x'g]÷gx'g]af/] ljz]if Wofg k'¥ofpg' kg]{5 . ;"rgf Pj+ cfFs8f ;Íng ubf{ k|fylds (Primary) jf låtLo (Secondary) jf b'j}dWo] s'g–s'g ;|f]t k|of]u ul/g] xf] ;f]sf] cf}lrTo ;lxt pNn]v ug'{ kg]{5 . -v_ cfjZos ;"rgf Pj+ cfFs8f ;Íng ubf{ a9L eGbf a9L k|fylds ;|f]tsf] kl/rfng ug'{kg]{ / cfjZostfcg';f/ låtLo ;|f]taf6 ;d]t tYofÍ lng' kg]{5 . k|fylds ;|f]t cGtu{t k|ZGffjnL (Questionnaire), cjnf]sg (Observation), ;fd"lxs 5nkmn (Focus group discussion), cflb h:tf Ps jf cfjZostf cg';f/ PseGbf a9L ljlw k|of]u ug{ ;lsg] 5 . k|fylds ;|f]taf6 ;"rgf Pj+ cfFs8f ;Íngsf nflu 5gf}6 ul/Psf ljlw lsg
    • 16 5gf}6 ul/Psf] xf] / o;af6 cWoogsf] p2]Zo k|fKt ug{ s;/L ;xof]u k'Ug]5 eGg]af/] ;d]t pNn]v ug'{ kg]{5 . -u_ k|ZgfjnL lgdf{0f ubf{ k|ZgfjnLdf ;dfj]z ul/Psf k|Zgx¿af6 cWoogn] vf]h]sf pQ/ k|fKt x'G5÷x'Fb}g eGg] lgSof]{n ug{ Questionnaire Test (Pilot Survey) ;d]t ug'{ kg]{5 . k|ZgfjnLdf pQ/bftfnfO{ s'g} ;Ldfdf g/fvL k|Zgsf] af/] :jtGqtfk"j{s pQ/ lbg] -Open-end) jf pQ/bftfnfO{ s]xL ;DefJo pQ/dWo] s'g} Ps jf cfjZostfcg';f/ PseGbf a9L pQ/ 5fGg lbg] -Close-end) Joj:yf ug{ ;lsg]5 . -3_ k|:t't ul/Psf]÷ul/g] tYofÍ s'g ldltb]lv s'g ldlt;Ddsf] (Time series) xf] jf s'g} vf; ;dosf] (Cross-sectional) xf] eGg]af/] k|ltj]bgdf pNn]v ug'{kg]{5 / ;f]sf] cf}lrTo;d]t cWoogdf k'li6 ug{' kg]{5 . kl/R5]b — $ tYofÍ k|:t'tLs/0f tyf ljZn]if0f (Data Presentation & Analysis) k|fylds tyf låtLo ;|f]taf6 k|fKt tYofÍx¿nfO{ juL{s/0f, ;Dkfbg tyf sf]l8Ë ul/;s]kl5 tflnsLs/0f ug'[{ kg]{5 . tflnsLs/0f ubf{ tYofÍsf] k|s[ltsf] cfwf/df pko'Qm tflnsf, rf6{, u|fkm cflbdf k|:t't ug'{ kg]{5 . k|:t't ul/Psf tYofÍx¿sf] ljZn]if0fljgf lgisif{ lgsfNg g;lsg] cyf{t p2]Zo;d]t k"lt{ gx'g] x'Fbf ltgLx¿sf] plrt ljZn]if0f ug'{ kb{5 . ;fªlVos ljlwåf/f tYofÍ(Data)sf] k|:t't÷ljj]rgf ubf{ cfjZostfcg';f/ k|ltztdf, k|ltzt kl/jt{g -j[l4b/_, cf};t, Standard deviation, Correlation, Regression, Hypothesis testing h:tf tYofÍLo ljlwx¿sf] k|of]u ug ;lsg]5 . kl/R5]b —% lgisif{ tyf ;'emfa (Conclusions and Recommendations) cWoogn] b]vfPsf k|d'v s'/fx?nfO{ pNn]v ub}{ a'Fbfut¿kdf lgisif{ k|:t't ug'{ kg]{5 . cWoogsf] Findings / lgisif{x¿sf] cfwf/df pko'Qm k|sf/sf ;'emfax¿nfO{ a'Fbfut¿kdf pNn]v ug'{ kg]{5 .
    • 17 %= sd{rf/L Joj:yfkg tyf cg'udg %=! cWoog–cg';Gwfg sfo{sf] lhDd]jf/L pkTosf aflx/sf sfof{noaf6 ul/g] cfly{s ultljlw cWoognufot cGo ljifox¿sf] cWoog ;DaGwdf lgDgcg';f/sf clwsf/ tyf lhDd]jf/L /xg]5 M -s_ tf]lsPsf] cw{jflif{s÷jflif{s cfly{s ultljlw cWoog tyf ljz]if cWoognufot cGo ;j]{If0f tyf cWoog ug]{ u/fpg] lhDd]jf/L d'Vo Joj:yfks tyf cg';Gwfg PsfO k|d'vsf] x'g]5 . -v_ pkTosf aflx/sf sfof{nox¿n] ug]{ cfly{s ultljlw ;DaGwL lgoldt cWoog, ljz]if cWoog nufot cGo cWoog sfo{sf] nflu cfjZoos kg]{ ;'emfj cg';Gwfg ljefuaf6 pknAw u/fpg ;dGjo ug{]] lhDd]jf/L cfly{s ljsf; zfvfsf] x'g]5 . -u_ tf]lsPsf] cWoog–cg';Gwfg sfo{sf] nflu d'Vo Joj:yfksn] clws[t tyf sd{rf/Lx¿nfO{ sfddf v6fpFbf :yfgsf] b"/L, sfdsf] k|s[lt, sfo{ ;Dkfbg ug{ nfUg] ;do, oftfoft Joj:yf tyf jflif{s sfo{of]hgf ;d]tnfO{ ljrf/ u/L cfjZos cjlwsf] nflu sfhdf v6fpg' kg{]5 . o;/L sfhdf v6fpFbf hgzlQm Joj:yfkg ljefun] hf/L u/]sf] e|d0f tyf b}lgs eQf;DaGwL kl/kq / a}+ssf] vr{ lgb]{lzsfnfO{ cfwf/ dfGg' kg]{5 . -3_ cWoog–cg';Gwfg k|ltj]bgx¿sf] u'0f:t/ sfod ug]{ tyf lgwf{l/t ;dodf k|ltj]bg k7fpg] hjfkmb]xLtf ;d]t d'Vo Joj:yfks / cg';Gwfg PsfO k|d'vx¿df /xg] 5 . -ª_ cg';Gwfg PsfOn] a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?af6 lgoldt?kdf zfvf lj:tf/, lgIf]k tyf shf{ l:ylt ;DaGwL laj/0f ;+sng u/L To;sf cfwf/df dfl;s tyf q}dfl;s l:ylt emNsg] ljj/0f cBfjlws u/L /fVg' kg]{5 . -r_ cfˆgf] If]qleqsf ljleGg cfly{s lqmofsnfk ;DaGwL tYofÍsf] cBfjlws clen]v tof/ u/L cWoog cg';Gwfgsf] sfo{df k|of]u ug{] jf ug{ nufpg] lhDdf cg';Gwfg PsfO k|d'vdf /xg]5 . o:tf] sfo{ eP gePsf] af/]df d'Vo Joj:yfksn] hfgsf/L lng' kg]{5 . -5_ g]kfn /fi6« a}+ssf ueg{/, 8]k'6L ueg{/, ;+rfns ;ldltsf cGo ;b:o, cg';Gwfg ljefusf sfo{sf/L lgb]{zs / lgb]{zs ;DalGwt If]qsf] e|d0fdf hf+bf cg';Gwfg PsfO k|d'vn] cfˆgf] If]qsf] cfly{s j:t'l:yltaf/] hfgsf/L] u/fpg' kg]{5 . -h_ g]kfn /fi6« a}+saf6 k|sflzt tYofÍx?sf] lgoldt cWoog u/L Update x'g]÷x'g nufpg], ;do–;dodf cg';Gwfg PsfOsf sd{rf/Lx¿aLr ;d–;fdlos cfly{s 36gfqmdaf/] 5nkmn tyf cGt/lqmof ug]{÷u/fpg] / cg';Gwfg PsfOn] ug]{ sfo{sf] l:ylt, k|ult tyf ;d:ofx¿ ;DaGwdf klg 5nkmn u/L cg';Gwfg PsfOsf] bIftf tyf u'0f:t/ clej[l4 ug]{ sfo{df d'Vo Joj:yfks tyf cg';Gwfg PsfOdf sfo{/t sd{rf/Lx¿n] kxn ug'{kg]{5 .
    • 18 %=@ cg'udg ug]{ cWoog–cg';Gwfg sfo{sf] l;nl;nfdf sfhdf v6fPsf] sd{rf/L lgwf{l/t ;dodf lkmN8df uP/ tf]lsPsf] ;do;Dd a;]]÷ga;]sf] ;DaGwdf pkTosf aflx/sf ;DalGwt sfof{nosf d'Vo Joj:yfks tyf cg';Gwfg PsfO k|d'vn] cg'udg ug'{ kg]{5 . To;}u/L, s]Gb|Lo sfof{no, cg';Gwfg ljefuaf6 ;d]t ;do–;dodf lkmN8 :t/df g} uO{ pkTosf aflx/sf sfof{noåf/f ul/g] cWoog–cg';Gwfg sfo{sf] cg'udg tyf lg/LIf0f ul/g]5 . cg';Gwfg ljefuaf6 k|ToIf jf ck|ToIf?kdf lg/LIf0f ubf{ cWoog–cg';Gwfg sfo{df lkmN8df vl6Psf sd{rf/Lx¿ lgwf{l/t 7fpFdf tf]lsPsf] cjlw;Dd a;]sf] gkfOPdf jf tf]lsPsf] 9fFrfdf tf]lsPsf ljj/0fx¿ ;Íng gu/]sf] kfOPdf lghnfO{ sf/afxLsf nflu hgzlQm Joj:yfkg ljefu tyf ;DalGwt d'Vo Joj:yfksnfO{ l;kmfl/; ug{ ;lsg]5 . %=# sd{rf/L Joj:yfkg cg';Gwfg PsfOdf sd{rf/Lx¿sf] Joj:yfkg ubf{ lgDgcg';f/ ug'{ kg]{5 M– -s_ cg';Gwfg PsfOdf sd{rf/L kb:yfkg ubf{ lgDg cg';f/sf sd{rf/LnfO{ k|fyldstf lbg' kg{]5 .  cy{zf:q jf jfl0fHo ljifodf :gfts÷:gftsf]Q/ pQL0f{ u/]sf] .  cg';Gwfg ;DaGwL ljz]if tflnd lnPsf] jf ljz]if ;Lk tyf bIftf ePsf] .  cg';Gwfg ;DaGwL sfo{df cg'ej k|fKt u/]]sf] .  cWoog–cg';Gwfg sfo{df ?rL ePsf] .  sDKo'6/ ;DaGwL Jofjxfl/s 1fg ePsf] . -v_ cg';Gwfg PsfOdf sfo{/t sd{rf/Lx¿nfO{ ;se/ sDtLdf b'O{ jif{;Dd cGo kmfF6df ;¿jf ug'{ x'Fb}g . -u_ tf]lsPsf] lgoldt tyf cGo ljz]if cWoog sfo{sf nflu sd{rf/Lx¿ v6fpFbf cg';Gwfg PsfOs} sd{rf/Lx¿ v6fpg' kg{]5 . o:tf] Joj:yfaf6 cg';Gwfg PsfOsf sd{rf/Lx¿sf] bIftf clej[l4 x'gsf ;fy} sfdsf] u'0f:t/ sfod ug{ ;d]t ;3fp k'Ug]5 . %=$ hfgsf/L /fVg'kg]{ cg';Gwfg PsfOdf sfo{/t sd{rf/Lx?n] lgDg ljifodf hfgsf/L /fVg'kg]{5 M -s_ of]hgf cfof]u, s]Gb|Lo tYofÍ ljefu cflbaf6 k|sflzt k|d'v kl/;"rs tyf k|If]k0f . -v_ g]kfn ;/sf/nufot ljleGg cfly{s lgsfox¿n] nfu" u/]sf sfo{qmd tyf gLltk|lt :yfgLo cfly{s PsfOx¿ -s[ifs, Jofkf/L, pBf]uklt, >lds cflb_ sf] k|ltlqmof .
    • 19 -u_ c;fdfGo k|fs[lts 36gf h:t} cgfj[li6, v8]/L, cltj[li6, af9L, cl;gf, klx/f], e'O+{rfnf], cfuhgL cflbsf] k|efj . -3_ >lds / Joj:yfkgaLr pTkGg ljjfbn] cf}Bf]lus If]qdf kfg]{ k|efj . -ª_ dxTjk"0f{ gofF pBf]u jf cGo cfof]hgf ;~rfng ePdf jf s[lif If]qdf klg gofF–gofF k|of]u ;'¿ ePdf To;n] kfg]{ k|efj . -r_ s'g} ;Dj]bgzLn -Sensitive_ j:t'sf] cb[Zo Jofkf/n] cy{tGqdf kf/]sf] k|efj cflb . %=% k':tsfno Joj:yfkg pkTosf aflx/sf sfof{nox¿df /x]sf] k':tsfnosf] Joj:yfkg ug{] lhDd]jf/L cg';Gwfg PsfOsf] x'g]5 . k':tsfnodf cfly{s, df}lb|s, ljQLo tyf cGo ;d;fdlos ljifo;Fu ;DalGwt k':ts tyf klqsfx¿ /xg'kg]{5 . k':tsfnosf nflu cfjZos k':tsx¿sf] 5gf}6 u/L k':tsfnosf] :t/ j[l4 ug]{ lhDd]jf/L cg';Gwfg PsfO k|d'vsf] /xg]5 . cg';Gwfg PsfO k|d'vn] cGo ;DalGwt clws[tx¿sf] ;/;Nnfx ;d]tn] cfjZos k':ts vl/b ug]{ Joj:yf ldnfpg' kg]{5 . ;fy}, cg';Gwfg PsfO k|d'vn] cWoog– cg';Gwfgsf nflu pkof]uL x'g] ;d;fdlos ljifosf s'g} dxTjk"0f{ n]vx¿ ePdf ;f]sf] kmf]6f]skL ;d]t u/L k':tsfnodf /fVg] Joj:yf ldnfpg' kg]{5 .
    • 20 ^= cWoog–cg';Gwfg k|ltj]bg k|sfzg tyf lat/0f ^=! pkTosf aflx/sf sfof{non] tf]lsPsf] Dofbleq k7fPsf cWoog–cg';Gwfg k|ltj]bgx?nfO{ yk kl/dfh{g ug'{ kg]{ cfjZos b]lvPdf cg';Gwfg ljefusf] cfly{s ljsf; zfvfn] kl/dfh{g ug{ cfjZos a'‘bfx? pNn]v u/L k|ltj]bg lkmtf{ k7fpg ;Sg]5 . kl/dfh{gsf] nflu lgb]{zg k|fKt ePdf ;DalGwt sfof{non] k|ltj]bgsf] kl/dfh{g sfo{ ;DkGg u/L kl/dflh{t k|ltj]bg oyfzL3| k7fpg' kg]{5 . ^=@ cg';Gwfg ljefusf] cfly{s ljsf; zfvfn] pkTosf aflx/sf sfof{nox?af6 k|fKt x'g] cw{jflif{s÷jflif{s k|ltj]bgaf6 If]qLo l:ylt / kl/b[io pNn]v ePsf] Ps kl/R5]b tof/ kfg]{5 . ^=# If]qLo l:ylt / kl/b[Zo pNn]v ePsf] cg'R5]b cu|efudf /fVg'sf ;fy} pkTosf aflx/sf sfof{non] tof/ kf/]sf] k"0f{ k|ltj]bg jf k|ltj]bgsf d'Vo c+z ;dfj]z u/L cfly{s ljsf; zfvfn] ;du| k|ltj]bg tof/ u/L k|ltj]bgsf] xf8{slk tf]lsPsf] lgsfodf ljt/0f ug]{ tyf Website df k|sfzg ug]{ Joj:yf ug]{5 . ^=$ pkTosf aflx/sf sfof{non] ;DkGg u/]sf] ljz]if cWoogsf] d:of}bf k|ltj]bgdf cg';Gwfg ljefusf] /fo–;'emfjnfO{ ;dfj]z u/L clGtd k|ltj]bg tof/ ePkl5 ;DalGwt sfof{noaf6 g} k|sfzg / ljt/0fsf] Joj:yf ug'{ kg]{5 . of] dfu{bz{g @)^&.!@.!% sf] Joj:yfkg ;ldltsf] a}7saf6 kfl/t ul/Psf] .