Lecture 4 - Technologies for Communication


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Lecture 4 - Technologies for Communication

  1. 1. Technologies for Communication Lim Hua Beng & Patrick Ker Occupational Therapy School of Health Sciences
  2. 2. Recommended Reading <ul><li>Beaver, K.A. & Mann, W.C. (1995). Overview of technology for low vision. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 49 (9), 913-921. </li></ul><ul><li>Kangas, K.A. & Llyod, L.L. (1988). Early cognitive skills as prerequisites to augmentative and alternative communication use: What are we waiting for? AAC Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 4 , 211-221. </li></ul><ul><li>Light, J. (1997). Communication is the essence of human life: Reflections on communicative competence. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 13 , 61-70. </li></ul><ul><li>Rosenthal, S.B. (1995). Living with low vision: A personal and professional perspective. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 49 (9), 861-864. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Objectives <ul><li>At the end of this lecture, students will be able to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe the options and characteristics of augmentative and alternative communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe technologies for people with sensory impairment </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Communication Impairment <ul><li>Severe communication impairment – inability to meet their communication needs due to their disability </li></ul><ul><li>Augmentative communication – devices used to complement existing comunication abilities </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative communication – devices used by a person with no vocal ability </li></ul><ul><li>AAC – augmentative and alternative communication </li></ul>
  5. 5. AAC <ul><li>Low tech options </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication boards/ displays </li></ul></ul><ul><li>High tech options </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic communicaton devices, voice output communication devices </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Multimodal communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Using various modes to communicate eg. Low tech options and high tech options </li></ul></ul>A high tech voice output device
  6. 6. AAC Device Features <ul><li>Input method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spelling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coverage vocabulary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Combination of both </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Output method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Print </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual display </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Synthesised speech </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digitised speech (recorded human speech) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Combination </li></ul></ul>Casio Palmtop Impact System With synthesised speech Spelling input Coverage Vocabulary
  7. 7. AAC Device Features <ul><li>Keyboard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanical, membrane, touch screen, sensitivity adjustable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Display </li></ul><ul><ul><li>QWERTY/ ABC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coverage vocabulary </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Screen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LCD, Number of lines, vacuum fluorescent, backlit </li></ul></ul>The Dialect - Touch screen, coverage vocabulary, LCD voice output communication device
  8. 8. AAC Device Features <ul><li>Access method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct (e.g. pointing, optical head pointer) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indirect (e.g. single or two switches, mouse/ mouse alternative, joystick) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Scanning method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Step, linear, row/ column, auditory feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Size/ Weight </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Portability & mounting capability </li></ul></ul>The DynaMyte
  9. 9. AAC Device Features <ul><li>Number of cells/ keys </li></ul><ul><li>Key/ cell size </li></ul><ul><li>Memory capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Type of vocabulary extension for coverage vocabulary system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Icon sequences </li></ul></ul>LightWriter system using QWERTY mechanical keyboard With visual and voice output
  10. 10. AAC Device Features <ul><li>Acceleration methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Word prediction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abbreviations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Others </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interface with a computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes ECU </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attach to regular printer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Word processing </li></ul></ul>The DynaVox
  11. 11. Role of the OT in AAC <ul><li>To work with the speech therapist to determine: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Best means of accessing the device </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positioning of user and device </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customising the display, cell size and position </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maximising motor performance for efficiency in operating the device </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maximising visual perceptual performance </li></ul></ul>