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Chapter Four Chapter Four Presentation Transcript

  • The Colonies Develop
    Section One
    New England: Commerce and Religion
  • Distinct Colonial Regions Develop
    Between 1700-1750, colonial population doubles, then doubles again
    3 regions: New England Colonies, Middle Colonies, Southern Colonies
    Backcountry – region along Appalachian Mountains
    Several factors make each colonial region distinct
  • Distinct Colonial Regions Develop
    New England – cold weather, rocky soil; mostly English settlers
    Middle Colonies – short winters, fertile soil; settlers from all over Europe
    Southern Colonies – warm climate; good soil; use enslaved African labor
    Backcountry – climate, resources vary; many Scots-Irish
  • The Farms and Towns of New England
    Subsistence farming – produce enough for themselves, little extra to trade
    Short growing season causes New Englanders to do subsistence farming
    Farmers live near town because plots of land sold to Puritan congregation
    Congregation settles the town, divides land to members of church
    In towns, farmhouses center around green – central square
  • Harvesting the Sea
    Fishing provides great economic opportunity in New England
    New England’s forest provides wood for ships
    New England’s fish, timber become valuable trading articles
    Coastal cities like Boston, Salem, New Haven, Newport grow rich
  • Atlantic Trade
    New England has three types of trade:
    with other colonies
    direct exchange of goods with Europe
    triangular trade
    Triangular trade has three stops:
    in Africa, trade goods for slaves
    in West Indies, trade slaves for sugar, molasses
    take sugar, molasses back to New England
  • Atlantic Trade
    England passes Navigation Acts to get money from colonial trade (1651):
    use English ships or ships made in English colonies
    sell products only to England and its colonies
    European imports to colonies must pass through English ports
    English officials tax colonial goods not shipped to England
    Many colonial merchants ignore Navigational Acts
    Importing or exporting goods illegally – smuggling – is common
  • African Americans in New England
    Few slaves in New England; slavery not economical in region
    Some people in town have slaves: house servants, cooks, gardeners
    Some slaves hired out to work; they can keep portion of wages
    Some enslaved persons save enough to buy freedom
  • Changes in Puritan Society
    In early 1700s, gradual decline of Puritan religion:
    drive for economic success competes with Puritan ideas
    increasing competition from other religious groups
    legislation weakens Puritan community
  • The Colonies Develop
    Section Two
    The Middle Colonies: Farms and Cities
  • A Wealth of Resources
    Immigrants from all over Europe come to Middle Colonies
    Dutch and German farmers bring advanced agricultural methods
    Long growing season, rich soil; grow cash crops (crops sold for money)
  • The Importance of Mills
    Take corn, wheat, rye to gristmill – crush grain to make flour, meal
    Use product to bake bread; gives colonists a lot of grain in their diet
  • The Cities Prosper
    Excellent harbors along coast ideal for cities
    Merchants in cities export cash crops, import manufactured goods
    In Philadelphia trade thrives; wealth brings public improvement
    Trade also causes rapid growth in New York City
  • A Diverse Region
    Middle Colonies have remarkable diversity of people
    Diversity causes tolerance among people
    Many Germans arrive (1710-1740); good farmers, craftspeople
    German artisans, or craftspeople, are ironworkers; make glass, furniture
  • A Diverse Region
    Built Conestoga wagons – good for rough terrain; used to settle the West
  • A Climate of Tolerance
    Dutch and Quakers practice religious tolerance
    Quakers believe men and women are equal, have women preachers
    Quakers protest slavery
  • African Americans in the Middle Colonies
    7 % of Middle Colonies’ population are enslaved
    In New York City, enslaved Africans do manual labor, assist artisans
    City’s free African-Americans work as laborers, servants, sailors
    Tensions lead to violence; in 1712, 24 slaves rebel; punished horribly
  • The Colonies Develop
    Section Three
    The Southern Colonies:
    Plantations and Slavery
  • The Plantation Economy
    Soil, climate ideal for plantation crops; need a lot of workers to grow
    Plantations self-sufficient; large cities rare in Southern Colonies
    Growing plantation economy causes planters to use enslaved African labor
  • The Turn to Slavery
    In mid-1600s, Africans and European indentured servants work fields
    Indentured servants leave plantations and buy their own farms
    Try to force Native Americans to work; they die of disease or run away
  • The Turn to Slavery
    Planters use more enslaved African laborers
    By 1750, 235,000 enslaved Africans in America; 85 percent live in South
  • Plantations Expand
    Slavery grows, allows plantation farming to expand
    Enslaved workers do back-breaking labor; make rice plantations possible
    Eliza Lucas introduces indigo as a plantation crop
    On high ground, planters grow indigo- plant that yields a blue dye
  • The Planter Class
    Enslaved labor makes planters richer; planters form elite class
    Small farmers cannot compete, move west
    Planter class controls much land; gains economic, political power
  • The Planter Class
    Some planters are concerned about their enslaved workers’ welfare
    Many planters are tyrants, abuse their enslaved workers
  • Life Under Slavery
    Planters hire overseers to watch over and direct work of slaves
    Enslaved workers do exhausting work 15 hours a day in peak harvest
    Enslaved people live in small cabins, given meager food
    Africans preserve customs and believes from their homeland
  • Resistance to Slavery
    Africans fight against enslavement; purposely work slowly, damage goods
    Stono Rebellion (1739):
    20 slaves kill several planter families
    join other slaves, seek freedom in Spanish-held Florida
    white militia captures rebellious slaves, executes them
  • Resistance to Slavery
    Stono and other rebellions lead planters to make slave codes stricter
    Slaves now forbidden from leaving plantations without permission
    Illegal for slaves to meet with free blacks
  • The Colonies Develop
    Section Four
    The Backcountry
  • Geography of the Backcountry
    Appalachian Mountains – eastern Canada south to Alabama
    Backcountry in or near Appalachian Mountains
    Begins at fall line – where waterfalls block movement father upriver
  • Geography of the Backcountry
    Beyond fall line is piedmont – plateau leads to Appalachian range
    Backcountry’s resources make farming possible
  • Backcountry Settlers
    First Europeans trade with Native Americans
    Then farmers follow, often clash with Native Americans
    Farmers live in log cabins made of logs with mud, moss filling
    Many farmers go to Backcountry to escape plantation system
  • The Scots-Irish
    Scots-Irish come from the border area between Scotland and England
    To escape hardships, Scots-Irish head to Backcountry
    Form clans – large groups of families with a common ancestor
    Clan members suspicious of outsiders, band together against danger
  • Other Peoples in North America
    Native Americans live in Americas for thousands of years
    France and Spain claim a lot of territory in North America
    Spanish colonists bring horses to Americas; Native Americans start riding
  • Other Peoples in North America
    Backcountry settlers often fight with Native Americans
    French traders afraid English settlers will move west, take away trade
    In 1718, Spaniards build fort to guard mission (later renamed the Alamo)