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The Colonies Develop<br />Section One<br />New England: Commerce and Religion<br />
Distinct Colonial Regions Develop<br />Between 1700-1750, colonial population doubles, then doubles again<br />3 regions: ...
Distinct Colonial Regions Develop<br />New England – cold weather, rocky soil; mostly English settlers<br />Middle Colonie...
The Farms and Towns of New England<br />Subsistence farming – produce enough for themselves, little extra to trade<br />Sh...
Harvesting the Sea<br />Fishing provides great economic opportunity in New England<br />New England’s forest provides wood...
Atlantic Trade<br />New England has three types of trade:<br />with other colonies<br />direct exchange of goods with Euro...
Atlantic Trade<br />England passes Navigation Acts to get money from colonial trade (1651):<br />use English ships or ship...
African Americans in New England<br />Few slaves in New England; slavery not economical in region<br />Some people in town...
Changes in Puritan Society<br />In early 1700s, gradual decline of Puritan religion:<br />drive for economic success compe...
The Colonies Develop<br />Section Two<br />The Middle Colonies: Farms and Cities<br />
A Wealth of Resources<br />Immigrants from all over Europe come to Middle Colonies<br />Dutch and German farmers bring adv...
The Importance of Mills<br />Take corn, wheat, rye to gristmill – crush grain to make flour, meal<br />Use product to bake...
The Cities Prosper<br />Excellent harbors along coast ideal for cities<br />Merchants in cities export cash crops, import ...
A Diverse Region<br />Middle Colonies have remarkable diversity of people<br />Diversity causes tolerance among people<br ...
A Diverse Region<br />Built Conestoga wagons – good for rough terrain; used to settle the West<br />
A Climate of Tolerance<br />Dutch and Quakers practice religious tolerance<br />Quakers believe men and women are equal, h...
African Americans in the Middle Colonies<br />7 % of Middle Colonies’ population are enslaved<br />In New York City, ensla...
The Colonies Develop<br />Section Three<br />The Southern Colonies: <br />Plantations and Slavery<br />
The Plantation Economy<br />Soil, climate ideal for plantation crops; need a lot of workers to grow<br />Plantations self-...
The Turn to Slavery<br />In mid-1600s, Africans and European indentured servants work fields<br />Indentured servants leav...
The Turn to Slavery<br />Planters use more enslaved African laborers<br />By 1750, 235,000 enslaved Africans in America; 8...
Plantations Expand<br />Slavery grows, allows plantation farming to expand<br />Enslaved workers do back-breaking labor; m...
The Planter Class<br />Enslaved labor makes planters richer; planters form elite class<br />Small farmers cannot compete, ...
The Planter Class<br />Some planters are concerned about their enslaved workers’ welfare<br />Many planters are tyrants, a...
Life Under Slavery<br />Planters hire overseers to watch over and direct work of slaves<br />Enslaved workers do exhaustin...
Resistance to Slavery<br />Africans fight against enslavement; purposely work slowly, damage goods<br />Stono Rebellion (1...
Resistance to Slavery<br />Stono and other rebellions lead planters to make slave codes stricter<br />Slaves now forbidden...
The Colonies Develop<br />Section Four<br />The Backcountry<br />
Geography of the Backcountry<br />Appalachian Mountains – eastern Canada south to Alabama<br />Backcountry in or near Appa...
Geography of the Backcountry<br />Beyond fall line is piedmont – plateau leads to Appalachian range<br />Backcountry’s res...
Backcountry Settlers<br />First Europeans trade with Native Americans<br />Then farmers follow, often clash with Native Am...
The Scots-Irish<br />Scots-Irish come from the border area between Scotland and England<br />To escape hardships, Scots-Ir...
Other Peoples in North America<br />Native Americans live in Americas for thousands of years<br />France and Spain claim a...
Other Peoples in North America<br />Backcountry settlers often fight with Native Americans<br />French traders afraid Engl...
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Chapter Four

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  1. 1. The Colonies Develop<br />Section One<br />New England: Commerce and Religion<br />
  2. 2. Distinct Colonial Regions Develop<br />Between 1700-1750, colonial population doubles, then doubles again<br />3 regions: New England Colonies, Middle Colonies, Southern Colonies<br />Backcountry – region along Appalachian Mountains<br />Several factors make each colonial region distinct<br />
  3. 3. Distinct Colonial Regions Develop<br />New England – cold weather, rocky soil; mostly English settlers<br />Middle Colonies – short winters, fertile soil; settlers from all over Europe<br />Southern Colonies – warm climate; good soil; use enslaved African labor<br />Backcountry – climate, resources vary; many Scots-Irish<br />
  4. 4. The Farms and Towns of New England<br />Subsistence farming – produce enough for themselves, little extra to trade<br />Short growing season causes New Englanders to do subsistence farming<br />Farmers live near town because plots of land sold to Puritan congregation<br />Congregation settles the town, divides land to members of church<br />In towns, farmhouses center around green – central square<br />
  5. 5. Harvesting the Sea<br />Fishing provides great economic opportunity in New England<br />New England’s forest provides wood for ships<br />New England’s fish, timber become valuable trading articles<br />Coastal cities like Boston, Salem, New Haven, Newport grow rich<br />
  6. 6. Atlantic Trade<br />New England has three types of trade:<br />with other colonies<br />direct exchange of goods with Europe<br />triangular trade<br />Triangular trade has three stops:<br />in Africa, trade goods for slaves<br />in West Indies, trade slaves for sugar, molasses<br />take sugar, molasses back to New England<br />
  7. 7. Atlantic Trade<br />England passes Navigation Acts to get money from colonial trade (1651):<br />use English ships or ships made in English colonies<br />sell products only to England and its colonies<br />European imports to colonies must pass through English ports<br />English officials tax colonial goods not shipped to England<br />Many colonial merchants ignore Navigational Acts<br />Importing or exporting goods illegally – smuggling – is common<br />
  8. 8. African Americans in New England<br />Few slaves in New England; slavery not economical in region<br />Some people in town have slaves: house servants, cooks, gardeners<br />Some slaves hired out to work; they can keep portion of wages<br />Some enslaved persons save enough to buy freedom<br />
  9. 9. Changes in Puritan Society<br />In early 1700s, gradual decline of Puritan religion:<br />drive for economic success competes with Puritan ideas<br />increasing competition from other religious groups<br />legislation weakens Puritan community<br />
  10. 10. The Colonies Develop<br />Section Two<br />The Middle Colonies: Farms and Cities<br />
  11. 11. A Wealth of Resources<br />Immigrants from all over Europe come to Middle Colonies<br />Dutch and German farmers bring advanced agricultural methods<br />Long growing season, rich soil; grow cash crops (crops sold for money)<br />
  12. 12. The Importance of Mills<br />Take corn, wheat, rye to gristmill – crush grain to make flour, meal<br />Use product to bake bread; gives colonists a lot of grain in their diet<br />
  13. 13. The Cities Prosper<br />Excellent harbors along coast ideal for cities<br />Merchants in cities export cash crops, import manufactured goods<br />In Philadelphia trade thrives; wealth brings public improvement<br />Trade also causes rapid growth in New York City<br />
  14. 14. A Diverse Region<br />Middle Colonies have remarkable diversity of people<br />Diversity causes tolerance among people<br />Many Germans arrive (1710-1740); good farmers, craftspeople<br />German artisans, or craftspeople, are ironworkers; make glass, furniture<br />
  15. 15. A Diverse Region<br />Built Conestoga wagons – good for rough terrain; used to settle the West<br />
  16. 16. A Climate of Tolerance<br />Dutch and Quakers practice religious tolerance<br />Quakers believe men and women are equal, have women preachers<br />Quakers protest slavery<br />
  17. 17. African Americans in the Middle Colonies<br />7 % of Middle Colonies’ population are enslaved<br />In New York City, enslaved Africans do manual labor, assist artisans<br />City’s free African-Americans work as laborers, servants, sailors<br />Tensions lead to violence; in 1712, 24 slaves rebel; punished horribly<br />
  18. 18. The Colonies Develop<br />Section Three<br />The Southern Colonies: <br />Plantations and Slavery<br />
  19. 19. The Plantation Economy<br />Soil, climate ideal for plantation crops; need a lot of workers to grow<br />Plantations self-sufficient; large cities rare in Southern Colonies<br />Growing plantation economy causes planters to use enslaved African labor<br />
  20. 20. The Turn to Slavery<br />In mid-1600s, Africans and European indentured servants work fields<br />Indentured servants leave plantations and buy their own farms<br />Try to force Native Americans to work; they die of disease or run away<br />
  21. 21. The Turn to Slavery<br />Planters use more enslaved African laborers<br />By 1750, 235,000 enslaved Africans in America; 85 percent live in South<br />
  22. 22. Plantations Expand<br />Slavery grows, allows plantation farming to expand<br />Enslaved workers do back-breaking labor; make rice plantations possible<br />Eliza Lucas introduces indigo as a plantation crop<br />On high ground, planters grow indigo- plant that yields a blue dye<br />
  23. 23. The Planter Class<br />Enslaved labor makes planters richer; planters form elite class<br />Small farmers cannot compete, move west<br />Planter class controls much land; gains economic, political power<br />
  24. 24. The Planter Class<br />Some planters are concerned about their enslaved workers’ welfare<br />Many planters are tyrants, abuse their enslaved workers<br />
  25. 25. Life Under Slavery<br />Planters hire overseers to watch over and direct work of slaves<br />Enslaved workers do exhausting work 15 hours a day in peak harvest<br />Enslaved people live in small cabins, given meager food<br />Africans preserve customs and believes from their homeland<br />
  26. 26. Resistance to Slavery<br />Africans fight against enslavement; purposely work slowly, damage goods<br />Stono Rebellion (1739):<br />20 slaves kill several planter families<br />join other slaves, seek freedom in Spanish-held Florida<br />white militia captures rebellious slaves, executes them<br />
  27. 27. Resistance to Slavery<br />Stono and other rebellions lead planters to make slave codes stricter<br />Slaves now forbidden from leaving plantations without permission<br />Illegal for slaves to meet with free blacks<br />
  28. 28. The Colonies Develop<br />Section Four<br />The Backcountry<br />
  29. 29. Geography of the Backcountry<br />Appalachian Mountains – eastern Canada south to Alabama<br />Backcountry in or near Appalachian Mountains<br />Begins at fall line – where waterfalls block movement father upriver<br />
  30. 30. Geography of the Backcountry<br />Beyond fall line is piedmont – plateau leads to Appalachian range<br />Backcountry’s resources make farming possible<br />
  31. 31. Backcountry Settlers<br />First Europeans trade with Native Americans<br />Then farmers follow, often clash with Native Americans<br />Farmers live in log cabins made of logs with mud, moss filling<br />Many farmers go to Backcountry to escape plantation system<br />
  32. 32. The Scots-Irish<br />Scots-Irish come from the border area between Scotland and England<br />To escape hardships, Scots-Irish head to Backcountry<br />Form clans – large groups of families with a common ancestor<br />Clan members suspicious of outsiders, band together against danger<br />
  33. 33. Other Peoples in North America<br />Native Americans live in Americas for thousands of years<br />France and Spain claim a lot of territory in North America<br />Spanish colonists bring horses to Americas; Native Americans start riding<br />
  34. 34. Other Peoples in North America<br />Backcountry settlers often fight with Native Americans<br />French traders afraid English settlers will move west, take away trade<br />In 1718, Spaniards build fort to guard mission (later renamed the Alamo)<br />
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