Silicon Carbide (SiC) LED Chip to Reach        High Performance and Low Cost                        mark_mcclear@cree.com ...
An LED Lamp is a Complex SystemLED Chip:   – Determines raw       brightness and efficacyPhosphor system:   – Determines c...
Why We Grow GaN on SiC                                          Simple* 2D ** CartoonGaN                                 G...
Lattice Mismatch Drives Chip Defects• Minor imperfections  are merely dark  spots    – Fewer defects = brighter      chips...
Reliability Impact of an Epi Defect LED Chip                                        LED Chip Side View                    ...
Testing For Defects – Before They Are a Problem                                SiC        I                               ...
US DOE Roadmap                               DOE LED Roadmap      US DOE MYPP, April 2012, p.68 Copyright © 2012 Cree, Inc...
How the Roadmap Really Works                                 LED Chip/Product Architecture                                ...
XB and EZ LED Chip Architectures  XB Power Chip Architecture    EZ Power Chip Architecture ~2002                          ...
Better Epi, not More Epi                                      Direct Attach (DA) SiC Chip 2011                            ...
DA: Robust, Low Cost Flip Chip Architecture                                                   >25x                        ...
What About GaN on Silicon?GaN                                 GaN                          GaNSiC                         ...
But Silicon Substrates are Really Cheap!                                • True. $200-300 cheaper                          ...
Higher Performance LEDs Saving Money –At The System Level• SiC LEDs can be driven  harder, run hotter• You are paying for ...
Higher Performance LEDs Means Fewer LEDs    Reducing LED count is a much stronger lever on    reducing system cost than cu...
Hypothetical Example of the Cost Impact of IncreasingLED Performance, Fully Utilizing LED Capacity                        ...
Real Example of the Cost Impact of Increasing LEDPerformance, Fully Utilizing LED Capacity  2007                          ...
Get all the Lumens You are Paying For                                      Drive hard, run hot, save money                ...
SiC: Reliably Driving Harder, Saving Money   TM-21  LumenMaintenance Projection  Copyright © 2012 Cree, Inc.   pg. 20
Same Performance, 60% Lower LED Cost• Identical downlights:  Same flux, CCT, CRI, light  distribution• Both exceed Energy ...
Next 2x Lumen/$ Product Platform Coming Soon         350                                                                  ...
SiC  Highest Performance, Low Cost                                                         SC3                           ...
Taiwan Led Forum 2012 Mc Clear Cree (R2 2)
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Taiwan Led Forum 2012 Mc Clear Cree (R2 2)

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Cree is the only LED supplier to build LEDs on Silicon Carbide. Ever wonder why? Is GaN on Silicon the next big thing? How will LED costs come down?

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  • Best thing I like in LEDs products is their long life. LED products have an outstanding operational life time expectation of up to 100.000 hours.Its Amazing..!!
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Taiwan Led Forum 2012 Mc Clear Cree (R2 2)

  1. 1. Silicon Carbide (SiC) LED Chip to Reach High Performance and Low Cost mark_mcclear@cree.com November 1, 2012
  2. 2. An LED Lamp is a Complex SystemLED Chip: – Determines raw brightness and efficacyPhosphor system: – Determines color point, color quality and color point stability SC3Package: – Protects the chip and phosphor – Helps with light and heat extraction – Primary in determining LED lifetime Copyright © 2012 Cree, Inc. pg. 3
  3. 3. Why We Grow GaN on SiC Simple* 2D ** CartoonGaN GaN SiC Al2O3 GaN on SiC GaN on Sapphire 1: 0.967 1: 1.148(3.3% mismatch) (14.8% mismatch) • Lattice Mismatch 370W/m°K 23W/m°K • >15x Thermal conductivity* Drawn to scale.** SiC, GaN, and Al2O3 are actually 3D Hexagonal crystalline structures Copyright © 2012 Cree, Inc. pg. 4
  4. 4. Lattice Mismatch Drives Chip Defects• Minor imperfections are merely dark spots – Fewer defects = brighter chips – Brighter chips = lower system cost• Major defects affect production yield and reliability in the field – Yield is strongest driver of LED cost Copyright © 2012 Cree, Inc. pg. 5
  5. 5. Reliability Impact of an Epi Defect LED Chip LED Chip Side View Top View • Normal operation, no defects, current spreads evenly across the chip surface, uniform light • Undetected epi defect, point loss of light begins • Over time, current begins to flow into the defect, causing it to grow • Ultimately, the defect causes a cascading failure of the chip Copyright © 2012 Cree, Inc. pg. 6
  6. 6. Testing For Defects – Before They Are a Problem SiC I Sapphire Latent epi defects can be tested for; screened out by V Reverse Voltage test SiC Sapphire Copyright © 2012 Cree, Inc. pg. 7
  7. 7. US DOE Roadmap DOE LED Roadmap US DOE MYPP, April 2012, p.68 Copyright © 2012 Cree, Inc. pg. 8
  8. 8. How the Roadmap Really Works LED Chip/Product Architecture Development History Chip Gen 3 200 SC3 Lumens Per Watt 150 Chip Gen 2 100 50 Chip Gen 1 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 Time Copyright © 2012 Cree, Inc. pg. 9
  9. 9. XB and EZ LED Chip Architectures XB Power Chip Architecture EZ Power Chip Architecture ~2002 ~2006 • SiC substrate • SiC substrate • InGaN epi MQW growth • InGaN epi MQW growth • Mirror • Mirror • Contact • Bonding Metal • Flip • Flip • Top-side Contact • Add Si substrate • Bevel saw cut • Remove SiC substrate • Bottom-side Contact • Surface roughening • Top-side Contact Copyright © 2012 Cree, Inc. pg. 10
  10. 10. Better Epi, not More Epi Direct Attach (DA) SiC Chip 2011 SC3 • SiC Substrate • InGaN epi MQW growth • Mirror • Isolation layer • Contacts and vias Best combination of • Flip – Light extraction • Under-fill – Robust, reliable design • Bevel cut – High Yielding, Manufacturable • Surface cut – Low cost Copyright © 2012 Cree, Inc. pg. 11
  11. 11. DA: Robust, Low Cost Flip Chip Architecture >25x Flip Chip X EZ DA units Chip Thickness 12 125 335 µm Under-fill area 0.81 0 0.08 mm2 Die Attach/ 0.19 1.0 0.92 mm2 Thermal Path Wire Bonds 0 3 0 -- 5x 0.1x• Direct Attach SiC Chip: SC3 – 25x thicker chip  robust, manufacturable (= low cost) – 1/10th the amount of under-fill  less CTE mis-match, more robust, higher assembly yield (= low cost) – 5x more die attach area – better thermals, lower RTH, higher reliably (= lower system cost) Copyright © 2012 Cree, Inc. pg. 12
  12. 12. What About GaN on Silicon?GaN GaN GaNSiC Al2O3 Si GaN on SiC GaN on Sapphire GaN on Silicon 1: 0.967 1: 1.148 1: ??Most analysis assumes GaN on Si will achieve: – Same yield as SiC/Sapphire – Same performance as SiC/Sapphire – Same reliability as SiC/Sapphire Are – Wafer bowing and other technical challenges are cheaply/easily solved these good – 8” Si fabs are fully depreciated and can assumptions? deal with Compound Semi complexities – LED fabs are somehow not depreciated at all – Giant LED companies are asleep, have not fully analyzed this technology also Copyright © 2012 Cree, Inc. pg. 13
  13. 13. But Silicon Substrates are Really Cheap! • True. $200-300 cheaper (currently; 6”, 150mm) • But… – There are >17,000 1*1mm chips on a 150mm wafer – 5% better yield on SiC – or even sapphire – could completely offset this difference in substrate cost • And, GaN on Si may also – …require additional materials and process steps to fabricate – …have poorer chip reliability – …have lower lumen output, LPW performance due to higher defect rates… (dimmer chips = higher system cost) Copyright © 2012 Cree, Inc. pg. 14
  14. 14. Higher Performance LEDs Saving Money –At The System Level• SiC LEDs can be driven harder, run hotter• You are paying for the lumens anyway, SiC allows you to use them (= low cost) http://ledsmagazine.com/features/9/2/3 Copyright © 2012 Cree, Inc. pg. 15
  15. 15. Higher Performance LEDs Means Fewer LEDs Reducing LED count is a much stronger lever on reducing system cost than cutting LED ASP... Copyright © 2012 Cree, Inc. pg. 16
  16. 16. Hypothetical Example of the Cost Impact of IncreasingLED Performance, Fully Utilizing LED Capacity • 4000 lm LED Area Light • Includes optics, LED cost, reduction of LED count, driver, housing • Driving harder reduces system level cost LED Optic Driver Housing Copyright © 2012 Cree, Inc. pg. 17
  17. 17. Real Example of the Cost Impact of Increasing LEDPerformance, Fully Utilizing LED Capacity 2007 2011• 42 LEDs • 8 LEDs• 650 lm • 575 lm• 12W • 10.5W >$100 Commercial $<25 Retail Wholesale Copyright © 2012 Cree, Inc. pg. 18
  18. 18. Get all the Lumens You are Paying For Drive hard, run hot, save money • > 1100 lumens (hot) • < 20 Watts • > 55 lumens/Watt • ≥ 80 CRI • > .90 Power Factor • Energy Star light distribution Omni-directional, same cost as LP/MP snow cone!!! http://www.cree.com/ref Copyright © 2012 Cree, Inc. pg. 19
  19. 19. SiC: Reliably Driving Harder, Saving Money TM-21 LumenMaintenance Projection Copyright © 2012 Cree, Inc. pg. 20
  20. 20. Same Performance, 60% Lower LED Cost• Identical downlights: Same flux, CCT, CRI, light distribution• Both exceed Energy Star LPW and lifetime requirements √ √ √ √ √ http://www.cree.com/products/pdf/XLamp_XPG_Operating_Capacity.pdf Copyright © 2012 Cree, Inc. pg. 21
  21. 21. Next 2x Lumen/$ Product Platform Coming Soon 350 2011 Platforms 300 SC3 2013 NextGen 2012 SC³ 250 Platforms Platforms XM-L 200 200 LPW XT-ELumens in 2012 150 XB-D XP-G 100 50 XP-E 0 Cost (log) Copyright © 2012 Cree, Inc. pg. 22
  22. 22. SiC  Highest Performance, Low Cost SC3 XLamp Discrete • Low LED cost XB-D – Lowest defects, highest yields XT-E – Shipping billions. TODAY. • Highest reliability XP-G2 – Fewer defects NEW – Robust screen for field defects – 2-15x better thermal conductivity XLamp HVW than silicon, sapphire – Higher reliable operating temperatures XM-L HVW • Lowest overall system cost XT-E HVW – Higher drive currents, higher lumens XLamp Arrays – Fewer LEDs per system MT-G2 Copyright © 2012 Cree, Inc. pg. 23
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